Mitsubishi X-2 Shinshin
|X-2 during its maiden flight|
|Role||Stealth experimental technology demonstrator|
|Manufacturer||Mitsubishi Heavy Industries|
|First flight||22 April 2016|
|Primary user||Japan Air Self-Defense Force|
|Number built||1 prototype|
The Mitsubishi X-2 Shinshin (formerly the ATD-X) is a Japanese experimental aircraft for testing advanced stealth fighter aircraft technologies. It is being developed by the Japanese Ministry of Defense Technical Research and Development Institute (TRDI) for research purposes. The main contractor of the project is Mitsubishi Heavy Industries. Many consider this aircraft to be Japan's first domestically made stealth fighter. ATD-X is an acronym for "Advanced Technology Demonstrator – X". The aircraft is widely known in Japan as Shinshin (心神, meaning "one’s mind" or "Mount Fuji") although the name itself is an early code name within the Japan Self-Defense Forces and is not officially in use. The aircraft's first flight was on 22 April 2016.
At the beginning of the twenty-first century, Japan, seeking to replace its aging fleet of fighter aircraft, began making overtures to the United States on the topic of purchasing several Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor fighters. However the U.S. Congress had banned the exporting of the aircraft in order to safeguard secrets of the aircraft's technology such as its extensive use of stealth; this rejection necessitated Japan to develop its own modern fighter, to be equipped with stealth features and other advanced systems.
Following these preliminary steps, the decision was taken in 2007 to push ahead with the multi billion-yen project. At the time of this decision, production was forecast to start roughly 10 years later, around 2017. In 2007, the ATD-X was expected to conduct its maiden flight in 2014. In 2011, the maiden flight was projected to take place in 2014 or 2015.
The 40 billion yen construction project in the Mitsubishi's Komaki South Plant began in 2009 and is under supervision of the Acquisition, Technology & Logistics Agency of the Defense Ministry. In July 2014, the TRDI (Technical Research & Development Institute) released the first official photos of the ATD-X prototype, and stated that the aircraft was undergoing ground testing. The fighter prototype was expected to be fully developed by 2018. The ATD-X program will then lead to the Mitsubishi F-3, which should carry sixth-generation technology, and is expected to be produced in 2027.
The ATD-X prototype was officially unveiled on 29 January 2016. The aircraft's first flight was expected the following month; it carried the X-2 official military designation at the unveiling.
The X-2 made its maiden flight on 22 April 2016 taking off from Nagoya Airfield and landing at the JASDF's Gifu Air Field after a 26-minute flight. The unusually prolonged period between structural completion and first flight has not been fully explained. The Jiji News Agency reported that the X-2 has a take-off weight of 13,000 kg (28,700 lb); Japanese media reported its weight as nine tonnes (9,000 kg; 20,000 lb), heavy for a demonstrator of these dimensions 9.1 metres (30 ft) span and 14.2 metres (47 ft) long.
By July 2018, Japan had gleaned sufficient information from flight tests for a determination, and decided that it would need to bring on-board international partners to complete this project. Several companies have responded. Lockheed Martin is reportedly offering an updated version of the F-22 Raptor. British based BAE Systems also entered talks about which little is yet reported. Third to enter the competition is Northrop Grumman and there is speculation that it will offer a modernized version of the YF-23 to Japan.
The ATD-X will be used as a technology demonstrator and research prototype to determine whether domestic advanced technologies for a fifth generation fighter aircraft are viable. The aircraft features 3-D thrust vectoring capability. Thrust is controlled in the ATD-X by three paddles on each engine nozzle similar to the system used on the Rockwell X-31, while an axis-symmetric thrust vectoring engine is also being developed for the full-scale production model.
Among the planned features of the ATD-X is a fly-by-optics flight control system, which by replacing traditional wires with optical fibers, allows data to be transferred faster and with immunity to electromagnetic disturbance.
Its radar will be an active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar called the 'Multifunction RF Sensor', which is intended to have broad spectrum agility, capabilities for electronic countermeasures (ECM), electronic support measures (ESM), communications functions, and possibly even microwave weapon functions.
A further feature will be a so-called 'Self Repairing Flight Control Capability' (自己修復飛行制御機能), which will allow the aircraft to automatically detect failures or damage in its flight control surfaces, and using the remaining control surfaces, calibrate accordingly to retain controlled flight.
The JASDF is reported to have issued a request for information for engines in the 40-to-90 kN (10,000-to-20,000 lbf)[clarification needed] thrust range to power the prototypes while Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries is to provide the engines for the completed fighter.
- Crew: 1
- Length: 14.174 m (46 ft 6 in)
- Wingspan: 9.099 m (29 ft 10 in)
- Height: 4.514 m (14 ft 10 in)
- Empty weight: 9,700 kg (21,385 lb)
- Powerplant: 2 × IHI XF5-1 low-bypass turbofans, 49.03 kN (11,023 lbf) with afterburner
- Maximum speed: Mach 2.25, (Mach 1.82 supercruise)
- Range: 2,900 km (1,802 mi; 1,566 nmi)
- Combat range: 761 km (473 mi; 411 nmi)
- Ferry range: 3,200 km (1,988 mi; 1,728 nmi)
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mitsubishi X-2.|
- ATD-X Full size model Technical Research and Development Institute Ministry of Defense
- Research of Flight Control System for High Maneuver Aircraft Mitsubishi
- Full size model on display in Japan International Aerospace Exhibition 2008 ASCII.jp
- Video of prototype takeoff on 22 April 2016