Mixed state (psychiatry)
- This article is an expansion of a section titled Mixed state from the main article: Bipolar disorder
|Mixed state (psychiatry)|
|Classification and external resources|
In the context of mental disorder, a mixed (affective) state, also known as a "mixed episode" or, depending on the prominent "polarity," dysphoric mania or agitated depression, is a condition during which features of mania and depression—such as agitation, anxiety, fatigue, guilt, impulsiveness, irritability, morbid or suicidal ideation, panic, paranoia, pressured speech and rage—occur simultaneously or in very short succession.
In current psychiatric nomenclature, they are a defining feature of Bipolar I Disorder, a type of bipolar disorder wherein mania or, less commonly, mixed-mania usually alternate with periods of major depression.
As affirmed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), a mixed state must meet the criteria for both a major depressive episode and a manic episode nearly every day for at least one week. However, mixed episodes rarely conform to these qualifications; they may be described more practically as any combination of depressive and manic symptoms.
The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy (MMDT) splits the DSM-IV diagnosis into two distinct states: dysphoric mania, which consists of a manic episode with depressive symptoms; and agitated depression, which is a "major depressive [episode] with superimposed hypomanic symptoms".
According to the MMDT, increased energy and some form of anger, from irritability to full blown rage, are the most common symptoms of dysphoric mania. Symptoms may also include auditory hallucinations, confusion, insomnia, persecutory delusions, racing thoughts, restlessness, and suicidal ideation. Alcohol, drug abuse, and some antidepressant drugs may trigger dysphoric mania in susceptible individuals. A study by Goodwin and Ghaemi (2003) reported manic symptoms in two-thirds of patients with agitated depression, which they suggest calling "mixed-state agitated depression".
Treatment of mixed states is typically based upon administration of mood stabilizing medication, which may include anticonvulsants such as valproic acid; atypical antipsychotics such as olanzapine, aripiprazole, and ziprasidone; or first-generation antipsychotics such as haloperidol. There is question of lithium's efficacy for treatment of mixed states due to conflicting conclusions drawn from various trials and research. Mood stabilizers work to reduce the manic symptoms associated with the mixed state, but they are not considered particularly effective for improving concurrent depressive symptoms. Divalproex is considered superior to lithium in the acute and continuation treatment of mixed affective states.
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- Pharmacotherapy of manic-depressive mixed States
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