Mixite

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Mixite
Mixite-215142.jpg
Turquoise-blue mixite, Laurium, Greece. Size: 6.8 x 5.0 x 3.6 cm.
General
Category Arsenate mineral
Formula
(repeating unit)
BiCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6·3(H2O)
Strunz classification 08.DL.15
Crystal symmetry Hexagonal dipyramidal
H-M symbol: (6/m)
Space group: P 63/m
Unit cell a = 13.646(2) Å, c = 5.920(1) Å; Z=2
Identification
Color Blue to emerald-green, pale green, white
Crystal habit Acicular crystals often in radial clusters
Crystal system Hexagonal
Fracture Uneven
Mohs scale hardness 3-4
Luster Vitreous
Streak Pale green
Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent
Specific gravity 3.79-3.83
Optical properties Uniaxial (+)
Refractive index nω = 1.743 - 1.749 nε = 1.810 - 1.830
Birefringence δ = 0.067
Pleochroism O = colorless, E = bright green
References [1][2][3]

Mixite is a rare copper bismuth arsenate mineral with formula: BiCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6·3(H2O). It crystallizes in the hexagonal crystal system typically occurring as radiating acicular prisms and massive encrustations. The color varies from white to various shades of green and blue. It has a Mohs hardness of 3.5 to 4 and a specific gravity of 3.8. It has an uneven fracture and a brilliant to adamantine luster.

It occurs as a secondary mineral in the oxidized zones of copper deposits. Associated minerals include: bismutite, smaltite, native bismuth, atelestite, erythrite, malachite and barite.[1]

It was discovered in 1879 near J´achymov, Czech Republic by mine engineer Anton Mixa.[4] Mixite has also been found in Argentina,[5] Australia,[6] Austria,[7] France,[8] Germany,[9] Greece,[10] Hungary,[11] Italy,[12] Japan,[13] Mexico,[14] Namibia,[15] Poland,[16] Spain,[17] Switzerland,[18] the United Kingdom,[19] and the United States.[20]

Mixite is the namesake member of the mixite mineral group, which has the general chemical formula Cu2+6A(TO4)3(OH)6·3H2O, where A is a REE, Al, Ca, Pb, or Bi, and T is P or As. In addition to mixite, this mineral group contains the isostructural minerals agardite-(Y),[21][22] agardite-(Ce),[23] agardite-(Nd),[24] agardite-(La),[25] calciopetersite,[26] goudeyite,[27] petersite-(Ce),[28] petersite-(Y),[29][30] plumboagardite,[31] and zálesíite.[32]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Mineral data publishing PDF
  2. ^ Mindat data with locations
  3. ^ Webmineral data
  4. ^ Schrauf A (1880) Ueber Arsenate von Joachimsthal. 1. Mixit, ein neues Kupferwismuthhydroarsenat, Zeitschrift für Krystallographie und Mineralogie 4, 277-285
  5. ^ Lapis 8(4), 25 (1983).
  6. ^ Kolitsch, U. and Elliott, P. (1999): Mineralogy of the Mount Malvern Mine near Clarendon, South Australia. Australian J. Mineral. 5, 3-17.
  7. ^ G. Blass, A. Pichler: Carinthia II 191./111.: 43-55 (2001); Kolitsch,
  8. ^ Wittern, Journée: "Mineralien finden in den Vogesen", von Loga (Cologne), 1997.
  9. ^ Aufschluss 1986(11), 370ff.
  10. ^ Voudouris, P. & Economou-Eliopoulus, M. (2003): Mineralogy and chemistry of Cu-rich ores from the Kamariza carbonate-hosted deposit (Lavrion), Greece. In: Eliopoulos et al. (Eds.): Mineral Exploration and Sustainable Development. Millpress, Rotterdam, 1039-1042.
  11. ^ Geoda 2012/I.
  12. ^ Piccoli, G.C. (2002): Minerali delle Alpi Marittime e Cozie. Provincia di Cuneo. Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio", Ed., Alba, 366 pp.; Piccoli, G. C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., & Lombardo, B. (2007). Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo F. Eusebio - Alba, 607 pag.
  13. ^ Matsubara et al (1992) Ganseki-Koubutsu-Koshogaku Zasshi, 87, 147-148.
  14. ^ Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 944.
  15. ^ Gebhard, G. (1999): Tsumeb II. A Unique Mineral Locality. GG Publishing, Grossenseifen, Germany
  16. ^ Domańska, J.: Rędziny. Otoczak, nr. 29, p. 38-52.
  17. ^ VIÑALS, J., CALVO, M., and MARTÍ, J. (2004): Parnauita, paratacamita y otros minerales secundarios de Cerro Minado, Almería. Revista de Minerales, 2, 5, 47-49.(in Spanish). Versions simultaneously published in Catalan (Mineralogistes de Catalunya) and in English version (Mineral Up)
  18. ^ Ansermet, S. (2012): Mines et minéraux du Valais - II. Anniviers et Tourtemagne. With contributions by N. Meisser, Ed. Porte-plumes (Ayer).
  19. ^ Golley, P., and Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
  20. ^ Grant, Raymond W., Bideaux, R.A., and Williams, S.A. (2006) Minerals Added to the Arizona List 1995-2005: 6.
  21. ^ Dietrich J E, Orliac M, Permingeat F (1969) L’agardite, une nouvelle espèce minérale, et le problème du chlorotile, Bulletin de la Société Française de Minéralogie et de Cristallographie 92, 420-434
  22. ^ Nickel E H, Mandarino J A (1987) Procedures involving the IMA Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names and guidelines on mineral nomenclature, American Mineralogist 72, 1031-1042
  23. ^ Walenta K, Theye T (2004) Agardite-(Ce) of the Clara mine in the central Black Forest, Aufschluss 55, 17–23
  24. ^ Pekov I V, Chukanov N V, Zadov A E, Voudouris P, Magganas A, Katerinopoulos A (2011) Agardite-(Nd), NdCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6·3H2O, from the Hilarion Mine, Lavrion, Greece: mineral description and chemical relations with other members of the agardite-zálesíite solid-solution system, Journal of Geosciences 57, 249-255
  25. ^ Fehr T, Hochleitner R (1984) Agardite-La. Ein neues mineral von Lavrion, Griechenland, Lapis 9, 22-37
  26. ^ Sejkora J, Novotný P, Novák M, Šrein V, Berlepsch P (2005) Calciopetersite from Domašov nad Bystricí, Northern Moravia, Czech Republic, a new mineral species of the mixite group, The Canadian Mineralogist 43, 1393-1400
  27. ^ Wise W S (1978) Parnauite and goudeyite, two new copper arsenate minerals from the Majuba Hill Mine, Pershing County, Nevada, American Mineralogist 63, 704-708
  28. ^ Williams P A, Hatert F, Pasero M, Mills S J (2014) IMA Commission on new minerals, nomenclature and classification (CNMNC) Newsletter 20. New minerals and nomenclature modifications approved in 2014. Mineralogical Magazine 78, 549-558
  29. ^ Peacor D R, Dunn P J (1982) Petersite, a REE and phosphate analog of mixite, American Mineralogist 67, 1039-1042
  30. ^ Nickel E H, Mandarino J A (1987) Procedures involving the IMA Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names and guidelines on mineral nomenclature, American Mineralogist 72, 1031-1042
  31. ^ Walenta K, Theye T (2005) Plumboagardite, a new mineral of the mixite group from an occurrence in the Southern Black Forest, Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Abhandlungen 181, 219-224
  32. ^ Sejkora J, Rídkošil T, Šrein V (1999) Zálesíite, a new mineral of the mixite group, from Zálesí, Rychlebské hory Mts., Czech Republic, Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Abhandlungen 175, 105-124.

Further Reading[edit]

  • Downes, P. J., Hope, M., Bevan, A. W. R. and Henry, D. A. (2006): Chalcocite and associated secondary minerals from the Telfer gold mine, Western Australia. Austral. J. Mineral. 12, 25-42.
  • U., Blaß, G. & Auer, C. (2010): 1618) Bleihaltiger Agardit-(La) und Brookit von der Äußeren Wimitz, St. Veit an der Glan, Gurktaler
  • Alpen. P. 203 in Niedermayr et al. (2010): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LIX. Carinthia II, 200./120., 199-260.
  • Petr Pauliš (2000): Nejzajímavější mineralogická naleziště Čech.
  • Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 944; Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte (1991), 487.
  • Lapis 2002(7/8), 54.
  • Sejkora, J., Gabasova, A., Novotna, M. (1997): Mixite from Smrkovec near Marianské Lazné. Bull.Mineral.-Petrol.Odd.Nar.Muz.(Praha), 4-5, 185-187.
  • Sejkora, J.: Minerály ložiska Moldava v Krušných horách. Bulletin Mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 1994, roč. 2, s. 110-116.
  • Lapis 23(4), 18-34 (1998).
  • Jiří Sejkora, Petr Pauliš, Radana Malíková, Miroslav Zeman & Václav Krtek (2013): Supergenní minerály As ze štoly č. 2 Preisselberg, rudní revír Krupka (Česká republika) [Supergene As minerals from the Gallery No. 2, Preisselberg, the Krupka ore district (Czech Republic)]. Bull. mineral.-petrolog. Odd. Nár. Muz. (Praha) 21, 201-209.
  • Kuttna, Kutná Hora; Sejkora, J., Ondruš, P., Fikar, M., Veselovský, F., Mach, Z., Gabašová, A., Skoda, R. & Beran, P. (2006): Supergene minerals at the Huber stock and Schnöd stock deposits, Krásno ore District, the Slavkovský les area, Czech Republic. Journal of the Czech Geological Society 51, 57-101.
  • J.-L. Hohl: "Minéraux et Mines du Massif Vosgien", Editions du Rhin (Mulhouse), 1994.
  • R.PIERROT, L. CHAURIS, C. LAFORET (1973) : "Inventaire minéralogique de la France : 29- Finistère.", B.R.G.M. Paris.
  • Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, Bulletin de l'Association Française de Microminéralogie, 1985, N° 3, pp. 3-6.
  • Le Règne Minéral 1997, 13, p.5-18.
  • Dubru. M, (1986) Pétrologie et géochimie du marbre à brucite et des borates associés au gisement de tungstène de Costabonne, (Pyrénées orientales, France) 930p.
  • J.C. Escande, Z. Johan, J. Lougnon, P. Picot, F. Pillard : "Note sur la présence de minéraux de bismuth dans un filon de barytine et fluorine à Faymont, près Le Val-d'Ajol (Vosges)", Bull. Soc. Fr. Minéral. Cristallogr. , 1973, 96, 398-399.
  • Georges Favreau - Favreau G., Eytier J-R., Eytier C. (2010), Les minéraux de la mine de Falgayrolles (Aveyron), Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, n°109
  • Inventaire Minéralogique de la France N°7, p127-128.
  • [UKJMM 2:11-15 "Cap Garonne Secondary Copper and Lead - W.R. van den Berg"]
  • K. Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992.
  • Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 944.
  • Wittern,A. (1995) Mineralien finden im Schwarzwald.
  • Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001.
  • Schrenk, D. (2000): Die Minerale des Steinbruchs 'Blessing' bei Hornberg. Erzgräber, 14 (1), 10-17.
  • Lapis, 18 (2), 13-24.
  • S. Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990.
  • Belendorff, K & Petitjean, K. (1987): Reichenbach im Odenwald. Die Mineralien von Fundpunkt 16.1. bei Reichenbach. LAPIS 12 (10), 23-32 + 58.
  • J. Gröbner und U. Kolitsch (2006): Neufunde aus dem Erzgebirge (II). Mineralien-Welt 17 (3), 22-27.
  • Frenzel, A. (1874): Mineralogisches Lexicon für das Königreich Sachsen.
  • Gröbner, J. and Kolitsch, U. (2007): The minerals of the uranium prospect at Tirpersdorf, Vogtland. Lapis 32, 37-42; 58.
  • Matthies, A. (2009): Mechelgrün im Sächsischen Vogtland: Uranmineralien als Haldenfunde. Lapis 34 (3), 41-43.
  • T. Witzke et al.: Lapis 2001(12), 13-27.
  • Jansa, J., Novák, F., Pauliš, P., Scharmová, M.: Supergenní minerály Sn-W ložiska Cínovec v Krušných horách (Česká republika). Bulletin mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 1998, roč. 6, s. 83-101.
  • Sejkora, J., Škoda, R., Škácha, P., Bureš, B. & Dvořák, Z. (2009): Nové mineralogické nálezy na Sn-W ložisku Cínovec v Krušných horách (Česká republika). Bulletin mineralogicko-petrologického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze 17 (2), 23-30.
  • Solomos, C., Voudouris, P. & Katerinopoulos, A. (2004): Mineralogical studies of bismuth-gold-antimony mineralization at the area of Kamariza, Lavrion. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Greece 34, Proceedings of the 10th International Congress, Thessaloniki, Greece, 387-396.
  • Heymann, J. (1982): Al-Adamin. LAPIS 7 (3), 26-28.
  • Lapis, 24, 7/8 (1999).
  • Boscardin M.,Gaetani E.,Mattioli V. (1994)-Olivenite ed altre novità di Punta Corna,Valle di Viù,Piemonte-Rivista Mineralogica Italiana,Milano-Fasc. 2,pp 113-121.
  • Ciriotti, M.E., Blaß, G. (2010): Pot-pourri 2009: Identificazioni UKiS AMI, Minerali italiani di interesse. Micro, 1/2010, 124-127.
  • Vecchi, F., Rocchetti, I. & Gentile, P. (2013): Die Mineralien des Granits von Predazzo, Provinz Trient, Italien. Mineralien-Welt, 24(6), 98-117.
  • Orlandi, P. & Criscuolo, A. (2009). Minerali del marmo delle Alpi Apuane. Pacini editore, Pisa, 180 pp.
  • Panczner(1987).