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- A mixture defining a new probability distribution from some existing ones, as in a mixture distribution or a compound distribution. Here a major problem often is to derive the properties of the resulting distribution.
- A mixture used as a statistical model such as is often used for statistical classification. The model may represent the population from which observations arise as a mixture of several components, and the problem is that of a mixture model, in which the task is to infer from which of a discrete set of sub-populations each observation originated.
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