Mizo people

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Mizo
Indian school children at Hnahthial.jpg
Ethnic Mizo school children in Hnahthial, 2015
Total population
c. 1,000,000[1] - 1,500,000[2]
Regions with significant populations
 India1, 200,000[3]
 Myanmar200,000[4]
Languages
Mizo languages
Religion
Protestantism (Presbyterian majority, large Baptist minority; other minor sects)  • Theravada Buddhism
Related ethnic groups
Chin  · Kuki  • Shan  · Karen  · Kachin  · Mara  • Yaw

The Mizo people (Mizo: Mizo hnam) are an ethnic group native to north-eastern India, western Burma (Myanmar) and eastern Bangladesh; this term covers several ethnic peoples who speak various Kuki-Chin languages. The Mizos are a tribal hill peoples in the Indian state of Mizoram and its neighboring areas. All Mizo tribes and clans, in their folk legends, claim that Chhinlung/Sinlung/Khul, which means cave in the Mizo language was the cradle of the Mizos. Thus, it's sometimes concluded that the Mizo people lived as cave dwellers at some point.

The present Indian state of Mizoram (literally "Mizoland") was called the Lushai Hills or Lushai District and was defined as an excluded area[5] during the British Raj and a district of Assam in independent India. The people of the Lushai Hills demanded a distinct political territory when India achieved independence. Due to continued efforts by its people to gain autonomy, the national government approved Mizoram in 1972 as a Union Territory and in 1987 as a full-fledged state of the Republic of India.

As the people organized, they chose to identify as Mizo rather than by individual clan/tribe names. Thus, there is no Mizo Tribe as such, rather an umbrella name for all the different tribes. However, there still are some groups who refuse to be termed Mizo and caused minor conflicts between the two. These groups are mostly from outside the State Of Mizoram, living in the neighboring territories.

Of their languages, the most widely-spoken is the "Mizo", which is the common language of all Mizos, which belong to the Tibeto-Burman language family. The state has one of the highest literacy rates in India, at more than 90%. The official language is Mizo.

Etymology[edit]

The term Mizo is derived from two Mizo words: mi and zo. Mi in Mizo means 'person'. The term zo means to be the servant but accounts differ. According to one view, zo means 'highland' and Mizo means highlander or person living in high hills. The Term zo has a broad ethnic classification of sub groups inhabiting the regions then knowns as Lushai Hills in India, Chin hills in Myanmar and Chittagong hills in Bangladesh. Mizo generally refers to those residing in Mizoram and various subroups of the Zo Family have joined and adopted Mizo while others have not.[6]

Though the term Mizo is often used to name an overall ethnicity, it is an umbrella term to denote the various clans, such as the Hmar, Ralte, Lai, Lusei etc. A number of dialects are still spoken under the umbrella of Paite ;[7] some of them are Mizo ṭawng (which is an official language of Mizoram), the Hmar languages,the Paite languages, the Lai languages, and the Pang languages.

Demography[edit]

Sandwiched between Burma to the east and south and Bangladesh to the west, the Indian State of Mizoram and its surrounding areas are inhabited by the Mizo people. They are found in the Indian states of Mizoram, Manipur, Tripura and the neighboring Bangladesh and Myanmar (Burma). According to Rev Liangkhaia, the clergyman and Mizo historian, in his book "Mizo Chanchin" - the first ever published historical account of the Mizo - the Mizo people migrated from China in around 750 AD and stayed in western Myanmar. They then slowly began migrating towards the present day Mizoram during the fourth decade of the 16th Century. Most of the Mizos and their clans had completely migrated to their present location by the third decade of the 18th century.

Mizo people were influenced by British missionaries in the 19th century, as the British Raj subjugated the chieftainship under its dominance, which they later abolished by an Act called the Assam-Lushai District (Acquisition of Chief's Rights) Act in 1954. The spread of education by Christian missionaries led to a high literacy rate of 91.58% by 2011. Almost all the Mizos also adopted Christianity, and continues to be so till the present day.[8]

Religion[edit]

Khuma and Khara were the first to be converted into Christian among the Mizos. A great majority of ethnic Mizo people are Christians. The major Christian denominations are Presbyterian (majority, influenced by the affiliations of the early missionaries), Baptist, Wesleyan Methodist Church, United Pentecostal Church International, The Salvation Army, Seventh-day Adventist, and Roman Catholic.[9][better source needed] The Chin Baptist Church is in Champhai area in the eastern part of the state.

In the late 20th century, a rather small number of Mizo and related ethnic peoples in Assam and Mizoram began practicing Judaism, stating that they are descendants of Manasseh, a lost tribe of Israel.[citation needed] They number, at most, several thousands in a population of more than 3.7 million in these states. Most Mizos do not agree with this identification. Several hundreds have already emigrated to Israel, where they undergo complete conversion to be accepted as Jews. In 2005, the Chief Rabbi of Israel ruled that they were part of a lost tribe of Israel, but anyone wishing to emigrate to Israel must first complete formal conversion to Judaism in Nepal.[citation needed]

Pre-colonialist Mizos were animists, but once the British colonized the area, the British Missionaries converted most of the population to Christianity from their practice of Animism, i.e. worshipping Nature (e.g., the Sun, the Moon, Rivers, Mountains and Spirits). As of today, more than 98% of Mizos claim themselves as Christians. Presently, there are arguably no ethnic Mizos who still practice Animism.

Historical perspective[edit]

During the later part of British rule, the people in Lushai Hills as well as in Manipur hills held that the British administration was trying to exert control through the chiefs of the communities. There were several rebellions against the British rule as a result, and an anti-chief movement gained ground. In 1946, the Mizo Common Peoples' Union (MCPU) was formed. In the event of India being independent, the Mizo Union, as it was soon called, demanded that Mizoram should be with Assam rather than adjoined to Burma, as the pro-chief party advocated.[10][page needed]

With the independence of India, a secessionist group in the Union favored joining with Burma, to which they were linked historically, ethnically and linguistically, with common roots to their languages. The separation of India from Burma in the year 1937, the partition of India in 1947, and the government's administrative extension over the Indian part of the area reduced the free mobility of the inhabitants. The rules to allow free passage across the India-Burma and India-East Pakistan (now India-Bangladesh) international borders were not regularly honored. Chafing at the restrictions, many of the Mizo never accepted the new territorial boundaries; they rebelled in the March 1966 Mizo National Front uprising.

Sociolinguistic variance[edit]

The multi-ethnic and pluralistic state of Mizoram has numerous communities, such as the Mizo (majority) {which includes the Lusei, Ralte, Lawitlang, Renthlei, Pawi-Lusei (Fanai), Khiangte, Renthlei, Faihriam, Hauhulh, Pang, Bawm (Sunthla and Panghawi), Tlanglau, etc.)

Pawi-Lusei[edit]

The Pawi-Lusei people are the descendants of Thatinkuala and his fellowmen, who came from Daidin village near Gangaw.They have a hairstyle like the Muan tribes(People living in Mindat township, Chin state) in the frontside,including the Lusei hairstyle at the backside. However, they lost their language and assimilated with other peoples of their surrounding. Their clan names are Bawitlung, Hlawndo, Hniarthul, Hniarcheng,Chenhrang, Fanai, Nihliap, Airawn, Ruahngai, Zakham, Suakling, Tluangzachhawn. Fanai have eight sub-clan: Chhuanchhir, Rilian, Khintin, Pakhup, Torel, Zarep, Thaai, Hrangtling. Pakhup have three branches: Thathrang, Ralzatlung and Khawtinnawl. Khawtinnawl have three cadet branch:Aithangvung, Khualsawi, Khawtindal. Aithangvung have four family branches: Zadun, Lianchem, Zakap, Pazik.Khualsawi have three family branches: Nochhum, Pahnun, Lalthawm. Khawtindal have seven family branches: Lalchhum, Hleibawr, Dophung, Aiburh, Aitlawh, Sawithang, Rothang.

Tlau[edit]

This tribe came to be known after establishing thei first village at Tlauhmun, Chin State, but due to quarrel between their Chief and the Zahau Laizo chiefs, they migrated to a place called bual/bualhmun, Chin State. At this site the various subtribes or clans came out, they are Bualchhuak, Bawlchhim, Vantawl, Thlengngam, Chawntung, Khukhau/Khukhan and Vanling. The first four migrated to Mizoram, while the last three stayed back.

Hualhnam[edit]

This tribe is also known as Vualnam/Gualnam.Main clan include Muansuan, Lamtun, Mitsum, Zuisang, Hangman, Melheu, Helbik, Matsuan.

Khiangte[edit]

The Khiangtes are the descendants of Pu Thuantak.They had two brothers Sizang/Siyin and Thaute.It is believed that they came to the present Mizo hills along with the successive migration of the Luseis between 1600 A.D. to 1700 A.D. Khiangte is composed of Khupthlang, Khupchhung, Tumchhung, Mualvum, Khello, Chhinghel and Chawngte (Tuichhung, Pamte, Lungte and Muchhipchhuak)clans.They spread throughout Mizoram, Assam, Manipur and Tripura in India, Chittagong hills tracts in Bangladesh, as well as Chin State and Sagaing Division.[11]

Paite[edit]

One of the numerous Zomi nation. The Paites are indigenous tribes of Mizoram under the Greater Assam state since 1750 AD. The Tribal Research Institute of Mizoram in their published book,"Paite in Mizoram" stated that the Paite people with their Guite chiefs entered the present Mizoram along with Palian Chief of Lushai around the first half of the 18th century. The Union Government has recognised Paite as one of the tribes in Mizoram vide The Gazette of India Notice No. 10 of 2003 date 8 January 2003 of the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes Orders (Amendment) Act, 2002.

The Paites are socially and culturally distinct from other tribes of Mizoram. Major Shakespeare, the then first Superintendent of Lushai Hills said that Paite dialect is unintelligible to Lushai. He also recorded that Paite have distinct culture and custom. They now have a separate semi-autonomous body called the Sialkal Range Development Council in the northern part of Champhai with headquarters at Mimbung.Most of the Paites in Mizoram belong to Dapzar Paite and Lamjang tribe.

Lai[edit]

In 1953 India adopted a constitution defining itself as the Sovereign Democratic Republic. At that time the Lai people of the southern part of Mizoram, a segment of the much larger population of Lai/Chin, were granted an Autonomous District Council under the Sixth Schedule of the constitution, to support their identity. Lawngtlai was created as the Headquarters of Lai Autonomous District Council.[12]

The people have maintained use of their language in the community and in their education. Maintenance of language as a symbol of identity has been inculcated up to Middle school standard. The Lai Autonomous District Council managed their education from Primary to Middle stage, in which the state government (Mizoram) has no control or interference. Lai people speak both Lai and Mizo languages (the latter is official in the state).

Pang[edit]

The Pang are one of the numerous tribes of Mizoram in India. They are found largely in the Chamdur valley of Bungtlang South Rural Development Block and some villages in Chawngte, Tlabung and West Phaileng Subdivisions. They have no separate regional self-government or autonomous body of their own.

Together with the Bawm and Tlanglau, they have been struggling to be recognized as a separate tribe. Most of them dwell in Chamdur Valley of India and Chittagong Hills Tracts of Bangladesh.

Hmar[edit]

The Hmar are another of the numerous Mizo tribes of India, the Hmar tribe occupying a large area in the northeast of India, Pherzawl District of Manipur, Various places across Tripura and Cachar, Hailakandi, Karimganj, NC Hills District of Assam. In Mizoram the Hmar are also found in Aizawl, Kolasib, Champhai and Lunglei districts but majority of the Hmars who live in Mizoram speak the Duhlian language, and few of them who live in Sinlung Hills District Council (SHDC) still speak the Hmar(Darngawn) dialect. In Mizoram, they reside mainly in Aizawl, Kolasib, Mamit, Khawzawl, Saitual, Champhai, and Lunglei. Literally, Hmar means tying of hair in a knot at the backside of the head. At some point the people of the Lushai hills were recorded as Lushai which includes many tribes like the Ralte, Khiangte and Hmar.[citation needed] Some scholars believe the name Hmar refers to a characteristic style of wearing a knot of hair on top of the head.[citation needed]

In July 1986, after the signing of the Mizo Accord, some Hmar leaders here formed Mizoram Hmar Association, later renamed the Hmar People's Convention (HPC). The HPC spearheaded a political movement for self-governance of the Hmar in Mizoram, demanding an Autonomous District Council (ADC) to cover the Hmar-dominated areas in the north and northwest of Mizoram. They wanted as much autonomy as had been granted to the Mara and Lai (see above).[citation needed]

The HPC activists formed an armed wing, the Hmar Volunteer Cell (HVC). The State Government forced them to take up arms until 1992, when representatives of the HPC and the Government of Mizoram mutually agreed to hold ministerial-level talks. After multiple rounds of talks, they signed a Memorandum of Settlement (MoS) in Aizawl on 27 July 1994. Armed cadres of the HPC surrendered along with their weapons in October 1994. The government established the Sinlung Hills Development Council (SHDC) for the Hmar. Some of the HPC leaders and cadres rejected Memorandum of Settlement, breaking away and forming the Hmar People's Convention – Democratic (HPC-D). It has continued an armed movement for autonomy in the form of Autonomous District Council within Mizoram under the Sixth Schedule to the Constitution of India.[citation needed]

Sub-tribes or clans:[citation needed]

The Hmar tribe comprises numerous sub-tribes or clans (Pahnam in Hmar language) such as Changsan, Chawngthu(Lersia, Khuntil and Vanchiau) Chawhte, Khawbung, Khawzawl, Vankal, Darlong, Darngawn, Faihriem, Hrangchal, Hrangkhawl, Khawbung, Lawitlang, Leiri, Lungtau, Neitham, Ngurte, Hekte, Hrangate, Varte, Sialhnam, Tlawmte, Suamte, Tuahlawr, Chhinghel, Khello, Mualvum, Tumchhung, Khupchhung, Khupthlang, Pakhumate, Selate, Sanate, Pakhuang, Banzang, Tamte, Thiek, Zote etc. In the past, these tribes had their own villages and their own dialects. However, today majority of the Hmar population use Hmar language.

The Sinlung Hills Development Council (SHDC) have now been renamed as Sinlung Hills Council as per 2018.

Renthlei[edit]

Even though the Renthleis may not seem numerous and ancient. In fact they are very ancient tribe as compared to the Luseis(descendants of Thlapaa,son of Ngaite).They are a very brave tribe who also settled at Muchhiptlang and Mulen along with Chawngte, Tochhawng and Vanchhawng clans. Their clans include Lianhlun, Zanchhing, Tinkulh,Chhing thlang, Chho nghek, Renza,Thangthlawl, SoHnel, Thuandum.[13]

Ralte[edit]

The Ralte tribe consisted of 4 main clans, divided into a number of smaller clans.The 4 main clans are Siakeng, Kawlni(Colney), Lelhchhun and Khelte.They are descended from Thahdo,[14] the son of Aisan Pa(Sektak),who was the son of Nuaimangpa(Zahong). 1.Siakeng clans- Engkhai, Siakhang, Haizang(Chawnthang & Chawnchhin), Chawngtual, Thangbur, Khumchiang, Hilki, Chhakawm, Engkhung, Khelhau, Darkim, Kipawm, Manglut, Hnawtkhel, Khumtung, Hilthang(Thangsiam, Damphut & Tukhum), Lehvung, Lehvung, Aite, Hauhniang & Hualkheng. 2.Kawlni clans- Arte, Lawisut, Helhlah, Thasûm, Saphaw, Khawnghawr, Bhal eng, Thangkawp, Chuaungeng, Holat, Hlamvel, Zahuat[Chalbawk(Kawlvawm, Chalsawp, Chalchiang, Chaltum, Kawltung, Chalchung)& Doubul{(Renghang-Rengsi,Rengngo),Bungsut & Thangchhuan}].[15] 3.Lelhchhun clans- Chhunthang, Chhiarkim, Vawngsual, Tunglei, Leihang, Chuanglawk, Thangbung, Hratchhum, Hangdem, Hauphut, Selpeng, Haudim & chungleh. 4.Khelte clans- Vohang, Hausel, Vangtual, Chhinghlu, Hauvawng, Lawnghau, Chiangthir, Tualthang, Chiangkhai, Zaucha, Vohlu, Thatchhing, Chhiarchuang, Zahlei & Keulak.[16]

Chawngthu[edit]

The Chawngthu are said to be the descendants of Lersia Saivate.Two main clans are present in Mizoram, they came to Mizo hills along with the Zahmuak chiefs.The two main clans are 1.Khuntil-Khunsut, Khunthlang, Haukawi, Saithleng. 2.Vanchiau- Maluang, Chingruam, Thangchuang.[16]

Hualngo[edit]

Hualngos are recognised as a separate tribe in Myanmar, but in Mizoram they are mostly clubbed under the term Lushai. Main clans include- 1.Bochung 2.Chalthleng 3.Cherput 4.Khupno

Political, linguistic and economic situation[edit]

After Indian independence, the democratic change in administrative set-up of Mizoram led to an anti-chief movement. The feeling was widespread against the autocratic chiefs and for the Mizo Union. In 1955, at a meeting of representatives of various Mizo villages held in Aizawl, the demand arose for a separate hills state. The local people felt they had been ill-served by the Assam Government during the Mautam famine.

When in 1960 the government introduced Assamese as the official language of the state, there were many protests against the Official Language Act of 1961. This was followed by the March 1966 Mizo National Front uprising,[17] resulting in the attack of the military installations in Aizawl, Lunglei and other towns. The Mizo National Front, formerly known as Mizo National Famine Front, declared independence.

The Indian government designated Mizoram as a Union Territory on 21 January 1972. Pu Laldenga,[18] the President of Mizo National Front, signed a Peace accord in 1986 with the Government of India, stating Mizoram was an integral part of India. Pu Laldenga came to the ministry in the Interim government which was formed in coalition with Congress in 1987. The Statehood of Mizoram was proclaimed on 20 February 1987.

Present demand for inclusion in the Eighth Schedule[edit]

With 91.58%[8] percent literacy, the 2nd highest in Indian states, Mizoram is a leader in the national emphasis on education. Because of this, its people have demanded that Mizo ṭawng be recognized as an official language in the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution.[19] The demand is important and expressed in various aspects of social and political life.

The English language is widely used in the state, especially in the fields of education, official matters and other formal domains, as it is in other parts of India. English had already penetrated the life and blood of the Mizo people for a long time along with the spread of education.

Christian missionaries in the 19th century developed the current alphabetic system adopted for a written form of the Mizo language. Adoption of the Roman script has facilitated people's learning English as a second language. The admiration and demand for the use of English in Mizoram is no different from the same attitude in other parts of India.

The Mizo have conducted a long, drawn-out socio-political struggle for identity and recognition, and succeeded in gaining political power from the central government in New Delhi. They fear being assimilated with other communities, and continue to insist on their separate identity and use of traditional languages to help maintain that.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Mizo | Joshua Project". joshuaproject.net. Retrieved 29 May 2019.
  2. ^ Zorema, J. (2007). Indirect Rule In Mizoram 1890-1954. Mittal Publications. ISBN 9788183242295.
  3. ^ Project, Joshua. "Mizo in India". joshuaproject.net. Retrieved 29 May 2019.
  4. ^ Project, Joshua. "Mizo in Myanmar (Burma)". joshuaproject.net. Retrieved 29 May 2019.
  5. ^ Govt. Of India (Excluded & Partially Excluded Areas) Order, 1936
  6. ^ Pachuau, Joy. The Camera as Witness. Cambridge. pp. 8–9. ISBN 9781107073395.
  7. ^ KHAWTINKHUMA,, VANTHUAMA. "MEMORANDUM SUBMITTED TO HIS MAJESTY'S GOVERNMENT BY MIZO UNION". ZOLENTHE.NET. Archived from the original on 7 February 2012. Retrieved 17 August 2012.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
  8. ^ a b Census of India 2011, Provisional Population.
  9. ^ Kima. "Chp 149. Mizoram: The Denominations". Blogger. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
  10. ^ C Nunthara (1996). Mizoram: Society and Polity. Indus Publishing House.
  11. ^ Liangkhaia, Rev. (2011). Mizo chanchin. L.T.L Publication.
  12. ^ Pachuau, Rintluanga (2009). Mizoram: A Study in Comprehensive Geography. Northern Book Center.
  13. ^ Liangkhaia, Rev (2011). Mizo chanchin. L.T.L Publication.
  14. ^ Zawla, K. (2011). Mizo pi pute leh an thlahte chanchin. Lalnipuii,Mission veng.
  15. ^ Zawla, K. (2011). Mizo pi pute leh an thlahte Chanchin. Lalnipuii,Mission veng.
  16. ^ a b Liangkhaia, Rev. (2011). Mizo Chanchin. L.T.L Publication.
  17. ^ Joshi, Hargovindh. Mizoram History Past and Present. Mittal Publications. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
  18. ^ Chaterjee, Suhas. Making of Mizoram: Role of Laldenga, Volume 2. MD Publication.
  19. ^ "Requests to include 38 languages in Constitution pending: Govt". The Hindu. Retrieved 17 August 2012.

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