Mizoram-Manipur-Kachin rainforest

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Mizoram-Manipur-Kachin rain forests
Pangsau Pass.jpg
View across the Mizoram-Manipur-Kachin rain forests. This picture is from the Pangsau Pass in the northwest of the ecoregion, on the border between India and Myanmar.
Ecology
Biome subtropical moist broadleaf forest
Borders
Geography
Area 135,600 km2 (52,400 sq mi)
Countries India, Myanmar and Bangladesh
Coordinates 24°14′N 94°0′E / 24.233°N 94.000°E / 24.233; 94.000Coordinates: 24°14′N 94°0′E / 24.233°N 94.000°E / 24.233; 94.000

The Mizoram-Manipur-Kachin rain forests is a subtropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion which occupies the lower hillsides of the mountainous border region joining India, Bangladesh, and Burma (Myanmar). The ecoregion covers an area of 135,600 square kilometres (52,400 sq mi). Located where the biotas of the Indian Subcontinent and Indochina meet, and in the transition between subtropical and tropical regions of Asia, the Mizoram-Manipur-Kachin rain forests are home to great biodiversity. The WWF rates the ecoregion as "Globally Outstanding" in biological distinctiveness.[1]

Setting[edit]

The ecoregion is characterised by semi-evergreen rain forest, covering the lower elevations of the Chin Hills-Arakan Yoma in Burma's Arakan State and India's Manipur state and the adjacent Chittagong Hills of Bangladesh, then extending northwards along the Naga Hills and Mizo Hills to cover most of India's Nagaland and Mizoram states, and eastwards across Burma's Sagaing Division and Kachin State to the Burma-China border.

The Burmesian coastal rain forests occupy the coastal lowlands of Burma to the south and southwest. To the west, the ecoregion borders the Meghalaya subtropical forests in southeastern Assam, and the Brahmaputra Valley semi-evergreen forests in the Assamese lowlands. The Mizoram-Manipur-Kachin rain forests extend up to the 1,000 metres (3,300 feet) elevation of the Chin Hills-Arakan Yoma range, and the Chin Hills-Arakan Yoma montane forests occupy the portion of the range above 1,000 metres (3,300 feet). As the Mizoram-Manipur-Kachin forests extend east across Burma, they are bounded by the Irrawaddy moist deciduous forests of the Irrawaddy River basin to the south, and by the higher-elevation Northern Triangle subtropical forests to the north and the Northern Indochina subtropical forests to the east. The Northeast India-Burma pine forests occupy the higher elevations of the Naga Hills along the Nagaland-Burma border, and are surrounded by the Mizoram-Manipur-Kachin rain forests on the west, south and east.

Climate[edit]

The climate of the region is tropical and humid, although somewhat cooler than the adjacent lowlands. Rainfall comes mostly from the monsoon winds from the Bay of Bengal, and parts of the ecoregion can receive up to 2,000 millimetres (79 in) of rain per year.

Flora[edit]

The predominant plant community is semi-evergreen rain forest, which covers the vast majority of the ecoregion's intact area, a total of 36% of the ecoregion. Other plant communities include tropical wet evergreen forest (5% of the ecoregion's total area), tropical moist deciduous forest (2%), montane wet temperate forest (2%), and subtropical montane forest (1%). 19% of the ecoregion's area has been cleared, primarily for agriculture and grazing, and 34% of the ecoregion consists of degraded areas.[2]

The semi-evergreen rain forest is dominated by trees of the dipterocarp family, including Dipterocarpus alatus, D. turbinatus, D. griffithii, Parashorea stellata, Hopea odorata, Shorea burmanica, and Anisoptera scaphula. Trees of other families include Swintonia floribunda, Eugenia grandis, Xylia xylocarpa, Gmelina arborea, Bombax insignis, Bombax ceiba, Albizia procera, and Castanopsis spp.[3]

Fauna[edit]

The ecoregion is home to 149 known species of mammals. This includes two near-endemic species, a bat Pipistrellus joffrei, and a murid rodent Hadromys humei. The ecoregion is home to several endangered and threatened mammal species, including the tiger (Panthera tigris), clouded leopard (Pardofelis nebulosa), Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), Eld's deer (Cervus eldii), gaur (Bos gaurus), Himalayan goral (Nemorhaedus goral), red panda (Ailurus fulgens), smooth-coated otter (Lutrogale perspicillata), Indian civet (Viverra zibetha), back-striped weasel (Mustela strigidorsa), Assamese macaque (Macaca assamensis), bear macaque (Macaca arctoides), southern pig-tailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina), capped leaf monkey (Semnopithecus pileatus), and hoolock gibbon (Hylobates hoolock).[1]

The ecoregion harbours 580 bird species,[1] of which 6 are near-endemics: Manipur bush quail (Perdicula manipurensis), striped laughingthrush (Garrulax virgatus), brown-capped laughingthrush (Garrulax austeni), marsh babbler (Pellorneum palustre), tawny-breasted wren-babbler (Spelaeornis longicaudatus), and wedge-billed wren-babbler (Sphenocichla humei).[4]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Wikramanayake, Eric; Eric Dinerstein; Colby J. Loucks; et al. (2002). Terrestrial Ecoregions of the Indo-Pacific: a Conservation Assessment. Island Press; Washington, DC. pp. 377–379
  2. ^ Wikramanayake, Eric; Eric Dinerstein; Colby J. Loucks; et al. (2002). Terrestrial Ecoregions of the Indo-Pacific: a Conservation Assessment. Island Press; Washington, DC. p 234
  3. ^ Wikramanayake, Eric; Eric Dinerstein; Colby J. Loucks; et al. (2002). Terrestrial Ecoregions of the Indo-Pacific: a Conservation Assessment. Island Press; Washington, DC. p 377
  4. ^ Wikramanayake, Eric; Eric Dinerstein; Colby J. Loucks; et al. (2002). Terrestrial Ecoregions of the Indo-Pacific: a Conservation Assessment. Island Press; Washington, DC. pp. 257–258

External links[edit]

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Borneo lowland rain forests Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia
Borneo montane rain forests Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia
Borneo peat swamp forests Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia
Brahmaputra Valley semi-evergreen forests India
Cardamom Mountains rain forests Cambodia, Thailand, Vietnam
Chao Phraya freshwater swamp forests Thailand
Chao Phraya lowland moist deciduous forests Thailand
Chin Hills-Arakan Yoma montane forests Myanmar, India
Christmas and Cocos Islands tropical forests Australia
Eastern highlands moist deciduous forests India
Eastern Java-Bali montane rain forests Indonesia
Eastern Java-Bali rain forests Indonesia
Greater Negros-Panay rain forests Philippines
Hainan Island monsoon rain forests China
Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests Bhutan, India, Nepal
Irrawaddy freshwater swamp forests Myanmar
Irrawaddy moist deciduous forests Myanmar
Jiang Nan subtropical evergreen forests China
Kayah-Karen montane rain forests Myanmar, Thailand
Lower Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests Bangladesh, India
Luang Prabang montane rain forests Laos
Luzon montane rain forests Philippines
Luzon rain forests Philippines
Malabar Coast moist forests India
Maldives-Lakshadweep-Chagos Archipelago tropical moist forests British Indian Ocean Territory, India, Maldives
Meghalaya subtropical forests India
Mentawai Islands rain forests Indonesia
Mindanao montane rain forests Philippines
Mindanao-Eastern Visayas rain forests Philippines
Mindoro rain forests Philippines
Mizoram-Manipur-Kachin rain forests Bangladesh, India, Myanmar
Myanmar coastal rain forests Myanmar
Nansei Islands subtropical evergreen forests Japan
Nicobar Islands rain forests India
North Western Ghats moist deciduous forests India
North Western Ghats montane rain forests India
Northern Annamites rain forests Laos, Vietnam
Northern Indochina subtropical forests China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam
Northern Khorat Plateau moist deciduous forests Laos, Thailand
Northern Thailand-Laos moist deciduous forests Laos, Thailand
Northern Triangle subtropical forests Myanmar
Northern Vietnam lowland rain forests Vietnam
Orissa semi-evergreen forests India
Palawan rain forests Philippines
Peninsular Malaysian montane rain forests Malaysia, Thailand
Peninsular Malaysian peat swamp forests Malaysia, Thailand
Peninsular Malaysian rain forests Indonesia, Malaysia
Red River freshwater swamp forests Vietnam
South China Sea Islands disputed between China, Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam
South China-Vietnam subtropical evergreen forests China, Vietnam
South Taiwan monsoon rain forests Taiwan
South Western Ghats moist deciduous forests India
South Western Ghats montane rain forests India
Southern Annamites montane rain forests Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam
Southwest Borneo freshwater swamp forests Indonesia
Sri Lanka lowland rain forests Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka montane rain forests Sri Lanka
Sulu Archipelago rain forests Philippines
Sumatran freshwater swamp forests Indonesia
Sumatran lowland rain forests Indonesia
Sumatran montane rain forests Indonesia
Sumatran peat swamp forests Indonesia
Sundaland heath forests Indonesia
Sundarbans freshwater swamp forests Bangladesh, India
Taiwan subtropical evergreen forests Taiwan
Tenasserim-South Thailand semi-evergreen rain forests Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand
Tonle Sap freshwater swamp forests Cambodia, Vietnam
Tonle Sap-Mekong peat swamp forests Cambodia, Vietnam
Upper Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests India
Western Java montane rain forests Indonesia
Western Java rain forests Indonesia