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The Union of Mladorossi (Russian: Союз Младороссов, Soyuz Mladorossov) was a political group of Russian émigré monarchists (mostly living in Europe) who advocated a hybrid of Russian monarchy and the Soviet system, best evidenced by their motto "Tsar and the Soviets".
The organization started in 1923, as the "Union of Young Russia" (in Russian: Союз Молодой России, Soyuz Molodoi Rossii) in Munich, changing its name to the Union of Mladorossi in 1925.
The Mladorossi, as they were popularly known, at first declared themselves as anti-communists. In contrast to other émigré political organizations, they argued against the idea of creating a "free Russia" on non-Russian soil, believing strongly that what they called "Soviet occupied Russia" was the only Russia that could be in existence. The Mladorossi believed that the Soviet government, for all its negative ideology, was preserving the Russian state and defending its national interests. They also believed that the October Revolution was merely the beginning of an evolutionary process that would create a new, young Russia (hence their use of the prefix mlado which means "young").
Several émigré movements with a similar ideology evolved at around the same time, notably the Evraziitsi, and the Smenovekhovtsi. Other émigré movements and organizations, such as National Alliance of Russian Solidarists (NTS), the Russian Imperial Union Order, and the ROVS, were hostile to these movements, feeling they were trying to justify the October Revolution and reconcile with the Bolsheviks.
The Mladorossi organization had a fascist influence as demonstrated by its doctrine and as visible through its use of the Roman salute popularized by Benito Mussolini to salute its leader (renounced when Hitler launched Operation Barbarossa). The organization, however, kept away from any open associations with fascist movements.
The Mladorossi were also monarchist oriented. They recognized Grand Duke Cyril Vladimirovich Romanov as the legitimate heir of the Russian throne and the latter became supportive of the organization.
Fall of the Mladorossi
In the 1930s, the Mladorossi adopted an increasingly open pro-Soviet position, claiming that they were to become the "second Soviet party". While still declaring Stalin as their enemy, the Mladorossi believed that a Tsar could fully function in the Soviet system that was in place at the time in the USSR. This earned the Mladorossi the label of being "Soviet patriots" amidst the White émigrés, and speculation began that the organization was being influenced if not controlled by the Soviet secret police.
The founder of the Mladorossi, Alexander Kazembek, was implicated of having ties with the Soviet consulate and OGPU. In 1937, after being spotted in a cafe in France speaking to several Soviet diplomats, Kazembek resigned his post. After World War II he emigrated to the United States and lived in California, then Connecticut, and thereon after moved to the USSR where he lived out the rest of his years.
At the start of World War II many Mladorossi volunteered to join the French Resistance. After the war's end, the organization dissolved and was no longer heard of.