Manganese(II) sulfate

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Manganese(II) sulfate
Manganese(II) sulfate close-up.jpg
Manganese(II) sulfate monohydrate
Manganese(II)-sulfate-tetrahydrate-sample.jpg
Manganese(II) sulfate tetrahydrate
Names
IUPAC name
Manganese(II) sulfate
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.029.172
EC Number 232-089-9
RTECS number OP1050000 (anhydrous)
OP0893500 (tetrahydrate)
UNII
Properties
MnSO4
Molar mass 151.001 g/mol (anhydrous)
169.02 g/mol (monohydrate)
223.07 g/mol (tetrahydrate)
277.11 g/mol (heptahydrate)
Appearance white crystals (anhydrous)
pale pink solid (hydrates)
Density 3.25 g/cm 3 (anhydrous)
2.95 g/cm3 (monohydrate)
2.107 g/cm3 (tetrahydrate)
Melting point 710 °C (1,310 °F; 983 K) (anhydrous)
27 °C (tetrahydrate)
Boiling point 850 °C (1,560 °F; 1,120 K) (anhydrous)
52 g/100 mL (5 °C)
70 g/100 mL (70 °C)
Solubility Very slightly soluble in methanol
insoluble in ether and ethanol.
+13,660·10−6 cm3/mol
Structure
orthogonal (anhydrous)
monoclinic (monohydrate)
monoclinic (tetrahydrate)
Hazards
Safety data sheet ICSC 0290
Harmful (Xn)
Dangerous for the environment (N)
R-phrases (outdated) R48/20/22, R51/53
S-phrases (outdated) (S2), S22, S61
NFPA 704
Flammability code 0: Will not burn. E.g., water Health code 1: Exposure would cause irritation but only minor residual injury. E.g., turpentine Reactivity code 1: Normally stable, but can become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures. E.g., calcium Special hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Related compounds
Other cations
Chromium(III) sulfate
Iron(II) sulfate
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
N verify (what is YesYN ?)
Infobox references

Manganese(II) sulfate usually refers to the inorganic compound with the formula MnSO4·H2O. This pale pink deliquescent solid is a commercially significant manganese(II) salt. Approximately 260 thousand tonnes of manganese(II) sulfate were produced worldwide in 2005. It is the precursor to manganese metal and many other chemical compounds. Mn-deficient soil is remediated with this salt.[1]

Structure[edit]

Like many metal sulfates, manganese sulfate forms a variety of hydrates: monohydrate, tetrahydrate, pentahydrate, and heptahydrate. The monohydrate is most common. All of these salts dissolve to give faintly pink solutions of the aquo complex [Mn(H2O)6]2+. The pale pink colour of Mn(II) salts is highly characteristic.

Applications and production[edit]

Typically, manganese ores are purified by their conversion to manganese(II) sulfate. Treatment of aqueous solutions of the sulfate with sodium carbonate leads to precipitation of manganese carbonate, which can be calcined to give the oxides MnOx. In the laboratory, manganese sulfate can be made by treating manganese dioxide with sulfur dioxide:[2]

MnO2 + SO2 → MnSO4

It can also be made by mixing potassium permanganate with sodium hydrogen sulfate and hydrogen peroxide.

Manganese sulfate is a by-product of various industrially significant oxidations that use manganese dioxide, including the manufacture of hydroquinone and anisaldehyde.[1]

Electrolysis of manganese sulfate yields manganese dioxide, which is called EMD for electrolytic manganese dioxide. Alternatively oxidation of manganese sulfate with potassium permanganate yields the so-called chemical manganese dioxide (CMD). These materials, especially EMD, are used in dry-cell batteries.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Arno H. Reidies "Manganese Compounds" Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology 2007; Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a16_123
  2. ^ John R. Ruhoff (1943). "n-Heptanoic acid". Org. Synth. ; Coll. Vol., 2, p. 315 
Salts and esters of the sulfate ion
H2SO4 He
Li2SO4 BeSO4 B esters
ROSO3
(RO)2SO2
(NH4)2SO4
N2H6SO4
(NH3OH)2SO4
O F Ne
Na2SO4
NaHSO4
MgSO4 Al2(SO4)3
Al2SO4(OAc)4
Si P SO42− Cl Ar
K2SO4
KHSO4
CaSO4 Sc2(SO4)3 Ti(SO4)2
TiOSO4
VSO4
V2(SO4)3
VOSO4
CrSO4
Cr2(SO4)3
MnSO4
Mn2(SO4)3
FeSO4
Fe2(SO4)3
CoSO4
Co2(SO4)3
NiSO4 CuSO4
Cu2SO4
ZnSO4 Ga2(SO4)3 Ge As Se Br Kr
RbHSO4
Rb2SO4
SrSO4 Y2(SO4)3 Zr(SO4)2 Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh PdSO4 Ag2SO4 CdSO4 In2(SO4)3 SnSO4 Sb2(SO4)3 Te I Xe
Cs2SO4 BaSO4   Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg2SO4
HgSO4
Tl2SO4
Tl2(SO4)3
PbSO4 Bi2(SO4)3 Po At Rn
Fr Ra   Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Nh Fl Mc Lv Ts Og
La Ce2(SO4)3
Ce(SO4)2
Pr2(SO4)3 Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb2(SO4)3 Lu
Ac Th Pa U(SO4)2
UO2SO4
Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr