Mobile app

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For Wikipedia's mobile apps, see Help:Mobile access § Applications.
Icons for mobile apps on a Nexus 4 smartphone

A mobile app is a computer program designed to run on mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers. Most such devices are sold with several apps included as pre-installed software, such as a web browser, email client, calendar, mapping program, and an app for buying music or other media or more apps. Some pre-installed apps can be removed by an ordinary uninstall process, thus leaving more storage space for desired ones. Where the software does not allow this, some devices can be rooted to eliminate the undesired apps.


Apps that are not preinstalled are usually available through distribution platforms called app stores. They began appearing in 2008 and are typically operated by the owner of the mobile operating system, such as the Apple App Store, Google Play, Windows Phone Store, and BlackBerry App World. Some apps are free, while others must be bought. Usually, they are downloaded from the platform to a target device, but sometimes they can be downloaded to laptops or desktop computers. For apps with a price, generally a percentage, 20-30%, goes to the distribution provider (such as iTunes), and the rest goes to the producer of the app.[1] The same app can therefore cost a different price depending on the mobile platform.

The term "app" is a shortening of the term "application software". It has become very popular, and in 2010 was listed as "Word of the Year" by the American Dialect Society.[2] In 2009, technology columnist David Pogue said that newer smartphones could be nicknamed "app phones" to distinguish them from earlier less-sophisticated smartphones.[3]

Mobile apps were originally offered for general productivity and information retrieval, including email, calendar, contacts, stock market and weather information. However, public demand and the availability of developer tools drove rapid expansion into other categories, such as those handled by desktop application software packages. As with other software, the explosion in number and variety of apps made discovery a challenge, which in turn led to the creation of a wide range of review, recommendation, and curation sources, including blogs, magazines, and dedicated online app-discovery services. In 2014 government regulatory agencies began trying to regulate and curate apps, particularly medical apps.[4] Some companies offer apps as an alternative method to deliver content (media) with certain advantages over an official website.[5]

Usage of mobile apps has become increasingly prevalent across mobile phone users.[6] A May 2012 comScore study reported that during the previous quarter, more mobile subscribers used apps than browsed the web on their devices: 51.1% vs. 49.8% respectively.[7] Researchers found that usage of mobile apps strongly correlates with user context and depends on user's location and time of the day.[8]

Market research firm Gartner predicted that 102 billion apps would be downloaded in 2013 (91% of them free), which would generate $26 billion in the US, up 44.4% on 2012's US$18 billion.[9] By Q2 2015, the Google Play and Apple stores alone generated $5 billion[10]. An analyst report estimates that the app economy creates revenues of more than 10 billion per year within the European Union, while over 529,000 jobs have been created in 28 EU states due to the growth of the app market.[11]


Developers at work

Developing apps for mobile devices requires considering the constraints and features of these devices. Mobile devices run on battery and have less powerful processors than personal computers and also have more features such as location detection and cameras. Developers also have to consider a wide array of screen sizes, hardware specifications and configurations because of intense competition in mobile software and changes within each of the platforms.

Mobile application development requires use of specialized integrated development environments. Mobile apps are first tested within the development environment using emulators and later subjected to field testing. Emulators provide an inexpensive way to test applications on mobile phones to which developers may not have physical access.[12]

Mobile user interface (UI) Design is also essential. Mobile UI considers constraints and contexts, screen, input and mobility as outlines for design. The user is often the focus of interaction with their device, and the interface entails components of both hardware and software. User input allows for the users to manipulate a system, and device's output allows the system to indicate the effects of the users' manipulation. Mobile UI design constraints include limited attention and form factors, such as a mobile device's screen size for a user's hand. Mobile UI contexts signal cues from user activity, such as location and scheduling that can be shown from user interactions within a mobile application. Overall, mobile UI design's goal is primarily for an understandable, user-friendly interface.

Mobile UIs, or front-ends, rely on mobile back-ends to support access to enterprise systems. The mobile back-end facilitates data routing, security, authentication, authorization, working off-line, and service orchestration. This functionality is supported by a mix of middleware components including mobile app servers, Mobile Backend as a service (MBaaS), and SOA infrastructure.


The two biggest app stores are Google Play for Android and App Store for iOS.

Google Play[edit]

Main article: Google Play
Apps in Google Android OS

Google Play (formerly known as the Android Market) is an international online software store developed by Google for Android devices. It opened in October 2008.[13] In August 2014, there were approximately 1.3+ million apps available for Android[14] and the estimated number of applications downloaded from Google Play was 40 billion.

In July 2013, the number of apps downloaded utilizing the Google Play Store surpassed 50 billion. Also in July 2013, the number of available apps in the Google Play Store had over 1 million apps available to download.[15] As of February 2015, According to the number of apps available exceeded 1.4 million.

App Store[edit]

Main article: App Store (iOS)

Apple's App Store for iOS was not the first app distribution service, but it ignited the mobile revolution and was opened on July 10, 2008, and as of January 2011, reported over 10 billion downloads. The original AppStore was first demonstrated to Steve Jobs in 1993 by Jesse Tayler at NeXTWorld Expo[16] As of June 6, 2011, there were 425,000 apps available, which had been downloaded by 200 million iOS users.[17][18] During Apple's 2012 Worldwide Developers Conference, Apple CEO Tim Cook announced that the App Store has 650,000 available apps to download as well as 30 billion apps downloaded from the app store until that date.[19] From an alternative perspective, figures seen in July 2013 by the BBC from tracking service Adeven indicate over two-thirds of apps in the store are "zombies", barely ever installed by consumers.[20]


  • Amazon Appstore is an alternative application store for the Android operating system. It was opened in March 2011, with 3800 applications.[21] The Amazon Appstore's Android Apps can also run on BlackBerry 10 devices.
  • BlackBerry World is the application store for BlackBerry 10 and BlackBerry OS devices. It opened in April 2009 as BlackBerry App World. BlackBerry 10 users can also run Android apps.
  • Ovi (Nokia) for Nokia phones was launched internationally in May 2009. In May 2011, Nokia announced plans to rebrand its Ovi product line under the Nokia brand[22] and Ovi Store was renamed Nokia Store in October 2011.[23] Nokia Store will no longer allow developers to publish new apps or app updates for its legacy Symbian and MeeGo operating systems from January 2014.[24]
  • Windows Phone Store was introduced by Microsoft for its Windows Phone platform, which was launched in October 2010. As of October 2012, it has over 120,000 apps available.[25]
  • Windows Store was introduced by Microsoft for its Windows 8 and Windows RT platforms. While it can also carry listings for traditional desktop programs certified for compatibility with Windows 8, it is primarily used to distribute "Windows Store apps"—which are primarily built for use on tablets and other touch-based devices (but can still be used with a keyboard and mouse, and on desktop computers and laptops).[26][27]
  • Samsung Apps was founded in September 2009.[28] As of October 2011, Samsung Apps reached 10 million downloads. The store is available in 125 countries and it offers apps for Windows Mobile, Android and Bada platforms.
  • The Electronic AppWrapper was the first electronic distribution service to collectively provide encryption and purchasing electronically[29]
  • There are many other independent app stores for Android devices.


No matter what store, app discoverability became more difficult in the 2010s. Organic downloads from the app stores were mainly attributed to App Store Optimization. However, given the increasing competition, app publishers must invest in mobile marketing campaigns to build and retain their user base. Many mobile apps include a special Software development kit that will assist them in tracking installs from various ad networks.

Enterprise management[edit]

Mobile application management (MAM) describes software and services responsible for provisioning and controlling access to internally developed and commercially available mobile apps used in business settings. The strategy is meant to off-set the security risk of a Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) work strategy. When an employee brings a personal device into an enterprise setting, mobile application management enables the corporate IT staff to transfer required applications, control access to business data, and remove locally cached business data from the device if it is lost, or when its owner no longer works with the company. Containerization is an alternate BYOD security solution. Rather than controlling an employees entire device, containerization apps create isolated and secure pockets separate from all personal data. Company control of the device only extends to that separate container.[30]

Use of Mobile Apps: App Wrapping vs. Native App Management[edit]

Especially mobile apps in the BYOD context are a significant security risk for businesses, because they transfer unprotected sensitive data to the Internet without knowledge and consent of the users. Reports of stolen corporate data show how quickly corporate and personal data can fall into the wrong hands. Data theft is not just the loss of confidential information, but makes companies vulnerable to attack and blackmail.[31]

Professional Mobile Application Management helps companies protect their data. One option for securing corporate data is app wrapping. But there also are some disadvantages like copyright infringement or the loss of warranty rights. Functionality, productivity and user experience are particularly limited under app wrapping. The policies of a wrapped app can't be changed. So if required, it must be created from scratch again, adding additional cost.[32][33]

Alternatively, it is possible to offer native apps securely through Enterprise mobility management without limiting the native user experience. This enables more flexible IT management as apps can be easily implemented and policies adjusted at any time.[34]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Siegler, MG (June 11, 2008). "Analyst: There’s a great future in iPhone apps". Venture Beat. 
  2. ^ ""App" voted 2010 word of the year by the American Dialect Society (UPDATED) American Dialect Society". 2011-01-08. Retrieved 2012-01-28. 
  3. ^ Pogue, David (November 4, 2009). "A Place to Put Your Apps". New York Times. Retrieved January 22, 2013. 
  4. ^ Yetisen, A. K., Martinez-Hurtado, J. L., et al (2014). The regulation of mobile medical applications. Lab on a Chip, 14(5), 833-840.
  5. ^ "Mobile Website vs. Mobile App (Application) – Which is Best for Your Organization?". Retrieved 2015-08-26. 
  6. ^ Ludwig, Sean. December 5, 2012., study: "Mobile app usage grows 35%, TV & web not so much"
  7. ^ Perez, Sarah. July 2, 2012. "comScore: In U.S. Mobile Market, Samsung, Android Top The Charts; Apps Overtake Web Browsing."
  8. ^ Matthias Böhmer, Brent Hecht, Johannes Schöning, Antonio Krüger, and Gernot Bauer. 2011. Falling asleep with Angry Birds, Facebook and Kindle: a large scale study on mobile app usage. In: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Human Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services (MobileHCI '11). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 47-56.
  9. ^ "Mobile apps revenues tipped to reach $26bn in 2013". The Guardian. 11 October 2013. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  10. ^ "The Millionaires Index". Pollen VC Insights. Retrieved 2015-11-23. 
  11. ^ VisionMobile, Plum Consulting, "European App Economy" analyst report, September 2013
  12. ^ "Mobile Application Development Guidelines". by hitech. 2013-11-14. Retrieved 2011-04-05. 
  13. ^ Chu, Eric (13 February 2009). "Android Market Update Support". 
  14. ^ Patel, Jay. "1.5 Million Apps are Live on The Google Play Store - WhaTech". Retrieved 2015-08-18. 
  15. ^ "The Future of Mobile Application". UAB. Retrieved 11 November 2015. 
  16. ^ Carey, Richard. "Electronic Recollections, By Ricard Carey". AppStorey. 
  17. ^ "10 Billion App Countdown". Apple. 2011-01-14. 
  18. ^ Rao, Leena (July 7, 2011). "Apple's App Store Crosses 15B App Downloads, Adds 1B Downloads In Past Month". TechCrunch. AOL Inc. 
  19. ^ Indvik, Lauren (June 11, 2012). "App Store Stats: 400 Million Accounts, 650,000 Apps". Mashable. 
  20. ^
  21. ^ "Amazon Appstore: Android". 2011-03-22. Retrieved 2011-04-05. 
  22. ^ "The evolution of Nokia and Ovi | Nokia Conversations — The official Nokia Blog". Retrieved 2011-08-25. 
  23. ^ Fraser, Adam (10 October 2011). "Ovi Store renamed as Nokia Store, now built using Qt". Conversations by Nokia, official Nokia blog. Nokia. Retrieved 25 May 2012. 
  24. ^ "Changes to supported content types in the Nokia Store". The Nokia Developer Team. October 4, 2013. Retrieved November 12, 2013. 
  25. ^ Arghire, Ionut (30 October 2012). "Windows Phone Store Has 120,000 Apps Now, More to Come". Softpedia. SoftNews NET SRL. Retrieved 29 November 2012. 
  26. ^ Miller, Michael (September 14, 2011). "Build: More Details On Building Windows 8 Metro Apps". PC Magazine. Retrieved February 10, 2012. 
  27. ^ Rosoff, Matt. "Here's Everything You Wanted To Know About Microsoft's Upcoming iPad Killers". Business Insider. Retrieved February 10, 2012. 
  28. ^ "Basic Information about Samsung Apps Store". Retrieved 2013-03-06. 
  29. ^ Wyatt, Robert A. "Software Shop". Wired. Wired Magazine. 
  30. ^ Taware, Varun. "Containerization is a winning strategy for smarter BYOD management". Betanews. Retrieved 11 November 2015. 
  31. ^ Alan Hartwell, Trust, company culture and BYOD security. SC Magazine UK, 2015-1-20. Retrieved February 13, 2015.
  32. ^ AVERAGE COST TO DEVELOP A MOBILE APP - Retrieved April 3, 2015 by Muhammad Usman
  33. ^ Subbu Lyer, 5 things you no longer need to do for mobile security. Network World, 2014-7-7. Retrieved February 13, 2015.
  34. ^ Simon Yates, Chri Hazelton, Enterprise IT Spotlight: enterprise mobility management. 451 research, 2014-9-12. Retrieved February 13, 2015.

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