Mobile application development

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Mobile application development is a term used to denote the act or process by which application software is developed for mobile devices, such as personal digital assistants, enterprise digital assistants or mobile phones. These applications can be pre-installed on phones during manufacturing platforms, or delivered as web applications using server-side or client-side processing (e.g., JavaScript) to provide an "application-like" experience within a Web browser. Application software developers also must consider a long array of screen sizes, hardware specifications, and configurations because of intense competition in mobile software and changes within each of the platforms.[1] Mobile app development has been steadily growing, in revenues and jobs created. A 2013 analyst report estimates there are 529,000 direct app economy jobs within the EU 28 members, 60% of which are mobile app developers.[2]

As part of the development process, mobile user interface (UI) design is also essential in the creation of mobile apps. Mobile UI considers constraints, contexts, screen, input, and mobility as outlines for design. The user is often the focus of interaction with their device, and the interface entails components of both hardware and software. User input allows for the users to manipulate a system, and device's output allows the system to indicate the effects of the users' manipulation. Mobile UI design constraints include limited attention and form factors, such as a mobile device's screen size for a user's hand(s). Mobile UI contexts signal cues from user activity, such as location and scheduling that can be shown from user interactions within a mobile application. Overall, mobile UI design's goal is mainly for an understandable, user-friendly interface. The UI of mobile apps should: consider users' limited attention, minimize keystrokes, and be task-oriented with a minimum set of functions. This functionality is supported by mobile enterprise application platforms or integrated development environments (IDEs).

Mobile UIs, or front-ends, rely on mobile back-ends to support access to enterprise systems. The mobile back-end facilitates data routing, security, authentication, authorization, working off-line, and service orchestration. This functionality is supported by a mix of middleware components including mobile application servers, mobile backend as a service (MBaaS), and service-oriented architecture (SOA) infrastructure.

Platform[edit]

The platform organizations needed to develop, deploy and manage mobile apps are made from many components and tools which allow a developer to write, test and deploy applications into the target platform environment.

Front-end development tools[edit]

Front-end development tools are focused on the user interface and user experience (UI-UX) and provide the following abilities:

  • UI design tools
  • SDKs to access device features
  • Cross-platform accommodations/support

Available tools are listed below.

Platform Programming language Debuggers available Emulator available Integrated development environment available Cross-platform deployment Installer packaging options Development tool cost
Accelerator HTML5, C# Yes Yes Microsoft Visual Studio
(no lock-in)
All platforms, mobile apps are browser-based Mobile Web Commercial licenses available
Altova MobileTogether Visual programming to design the user interface and functional programming using the standardized XQuery/XPath Yes, integrated simulation tool Yes Windows-based MobileTogether Designer Android, iOS, Windows 8, Windows Phone 8, HTML5 browser based client The native distribution format of each platform Free
Android Java but portions of code can be in C, C++,

Kotlin

Debugger integrated in Eclipse, standalone debugging monitor available Yes Eclipse, IntelliJ IDEA, Android Studio, Project Kenai Android plugin for NetBeans Android only, because of Dalvik VM, March 2009 apk Free, IntelliJ IDEA Community Edition - Free
App Inventor for Android Visual blocks-based programming language, with Interface designer Limited debugging tools built into IDE Yes Web-based interface designer, with connection to Java web-start program for blocks programming Android devices apk Free
App Press HTML, CSS, JavaScript Yes Yes Web-based interface designer, with a companion mobile app for preview Android, iOS The native distribution format of each platform Free to try, commercial and enterprise plans available
Appception HTML, CSS, JavaScript Yes Yes Cloud-based IDE Android, iOS The native distribution format of each platform Free and commercial licenses available
Appcelerator JavaScript Yes, in Titanium Studio. Emulator is available using native emulators Titanium Studio based on Eclipse Android, iPhone; BlackBerry, Tizen, mobile web The native distribution format of each platform Free, open-sourced Apache 2.0 licensed, commercial and enterprise licenses available
AppGyver Composer No coding required, extendable with HTML, JavaScript, CSS On device debugging Live testing on device No coding required, visual app development environment Android, iOS, web Cloud / browser based Free to develop and distribute, commercial and enterprise licenses available.
Appear IQ Mobile Web Apps (HTML5, CSS3, JavaScript), Native Apps Java, Objective-C, C#.NET/VB.NET for Windows Phone Yes Mobile simulator available Any IDE Android, iOS, Windows, Windows Phone The native distribution format of each platform Free to try, commercial and enterprise licenses available
Appery.io HTML, JavaScript, CSS, jQueryMobile, Apache Cordova Yes. Using browser debug tooling Yes. Native test apps for Android, iOS. Can export source as Android Studio or XCode projects. Cloud-based development platform Android, iOS, mobile web The native distribution format of each platform Free to try, commercial and enterprise licenses available
AppSheet No coding needed; data via spreadsheets Yes, via application editor Yes. No coding needed; visual app definition with spreadsheet data Android, iOS, web The native distribution format of each platform and also cloud-browser based Free, up to 10 app users; commercial licenses available
Aquro HTML5, CSS3, JavaScript, Visual Coding Yes Yes. Browser-based and native test app for Android, iOS Cloud-based development platform Android, iOS The native distribution format of each platform Free to try, commercial and enterprise plans available
Basic4android Visual Basic similar syntax Yes Emulator is available using native emulators Proprietary IDE Android The native distribution format of each platform Commercial licenses available
BlackBerry Java Debugger integrated in IDE Yes Eclipse, BlackBerry JDE BlackBerry only, because of RIM API alx, cod Free
Codename One Java Yes Yes Eclipse, Netbeans Android, iPhone, BlackBerry, Windows Mobile, J2ME The native distribution format of each platform Open Source GPLv2 and subscription-based build server
Configure.IT Needs no text coding or SDK, browser-based drag-and-drop interface. Yes PreviewIT app for real-time preview on device Browser-based Android, iOS Native distribution format for each platform Monthly subscription-based packages
Corona SDK Lua Yes Yes Xcode Android, iOS, Nook Color Native deployment for each platform Free unlimited trial; commercial licenses available for deployment
DragonRAD Visual drag & drop tiles Yes Uses 3rd party emulators Proprietary IDE Android, BlackBerry, Windows Mobile OTA deployment Free & commercial licenses available
DSI - Data Systems International, Inc. DSI Application Studio - flowchart based tool designed for business analysts to build and deploy mobile applications Yes Yes Proprietary IDE - graphical drag and drop design studio Android 2.0+, iOS 4+, Windows Mobile 6+, Blackberry 4.5+, Windows Desktop 7+ The native distribution format of each platform Commercial licenses available
GeneXus for Mobile and Smart Devices Knowledge representation and declarative programming-modeling for easy development, then code is automatically generated for each platform GeneXus utilizes pre-tested code libraries and user debugging of code not necessary after code generation. Publish in the cloud, test native in the device, no emulator needed Proprietary IDE Android, iOS (iPhone, iPad), BlackBerry OS, and even HTML5 if needed The native distribution format of each platform and also cloud-browser based Free to try, commercial and enterprise licenses available
GO!AppZone by Globo plc HTML5, CSS3, JavaScript. Native-code plugins in Objective-C, Java, C# Yes, IDE includes an HTML-based simulator with embedded debugging tools Yes. Native testing app for Android, BlackBerry, iOS, and Windows Phone, 8.x, RT Yes, GO!AppZone Studio Android, BlackBerry, iOS, Windows: Phone, 8.x, RT The native distribution format of each platform Free; free cloud-based compiling; free MBaaS instance for testing
HP Anywhere HTML5, CSS3, JavaScript Yes, Mobile Browser Simulator Yes, use browser-based emulator Eclipse plugin, Eclipse based stand-alone, IntelliJ IDEA plugin, any IDE using command-line interface Android, iOS, Windows 8 (desktop, tablets), mobile web app, desktop browser web page The native distribution format of each platform Developer edition free, commercial license for deployment
IBM MobileFirst Studio HTML5, CSS3, JavaScript, and native SDK languages w/ Native Worklight API Yes, Mobile Browser Simulator or integration with Native SDK Debugger Emulator is available using native emulators or Browser Simulator w/ Cordova Plugin Eclipse plugin, Eclipse based stand-alone Android, iOS, BlackBerry 6,7, & 10, Windows Phone 7.5 & 8, Windows 8 (desktop, tablets), Adobe AIR, Mobile Web App, desktop browser web page The native distribution format of each platform Developer edition free via Eclipse Marketplace, commercial license for deployment
Intel XDK HTML5, CSS3, JavaScript and Node-Webkit back-end Yes Yes Stand-alone, bundled with IDE Android, iOS, Windows 8, Amazon, Facebook, Chrome, Nook, Firefox Marketplace, Tizen The native distribution format of each platform Free
iOS SDK Objective-C, Swift Debugger integrated in Xcode IDE Bundled with iPhone SDK, integrated with Xcode IDE Xcode, AppCode iPhone, iPad, iPod Touch Only via App Store, needs review and approval by Apple Inc. Apple tools are free for an Intel-based Mac. Simulator testing is free, but installing on a device needs a fee for a developer signing key. AppCode - commercial licenses available.

Since 2015, Apple allows to install the app in your own device without a developer paid membership.[3]

iOS SDK Object Pascal Debugger integrated in Xcode IDE Included in Delphi XE2 professional or higher Embarcadero Delphi XE2 iPhone, iPad, iPod Touch Only via App Store, needs review and approval by Apple Inc. Development requires Intel-based Mac besides the IDE on Windows. Design is on Windows, Compiling and deploying must be done on Mac. Simulator testing is free, but installing on a device needs a fee for a developer signing key
Java ME Java Yes Free emulator, Sun Java Wireless Toolkit, mpowerplayer Eclipse, LMA NetBeans Mobility Pack Yes although many VM implementations have device specific bugs necessitating separate builds Jad/Jar packaging; PRC files under Palm OS Free
Kalipso Studio WYSIWYG, visual drag-n-drop Yes Yes Proprietary IDE Android, Microsoft Windows (Mobile, CE, 8 Pro, 10) The native distribution format of the platform Free to try, commercial and enterprise licenses available on request
Lazarus Object Pascal Yes, can debug in IDE via ActiveSync for Windows CE Uses the emulators of the platforms Lazarus IDE, including integrated GUI designer and debugger Compiled language available for Windows CE, Linux-based devices, Symbian port in development The native distribution format of each platform Free
LambdaNative Scheme No No, but can build and test on the localhost Eclipse (software) (optional) All native binaries: Android, iOS, BlackBerry 10, Windows, OS X, Linux, OpenBSD, OpenWrt The native distribution format of each platform Free (BSD license)
M2Active by Service2Media Lua Java language originally from gaming industry Yes, in M2Active IDE Native emulator are available M2Active based on Eclipse Android (phone, tablet), iOS (iPhone, iPad), BlackBerry, Windows Phone, J2ME, The native distribution format of each platform Enterprise licenses available
Macromedia Flash Lite ActionScript Yes Bundled with IDE Macromedia Flash MX2004/8, Eclipse Yes SIS-CAB deployment or OTA-IR-Bluetooth SWF files Varies, free but limited with MTASC
Marmalade C, C++ Yes Yes Visual Studio, Xcode All native: Android, BlackBerry, BREW, iOS (iPhone), Maemo, Palm-webOS, Samsung bada, Symbian, Windows Mobile 6.x and desktop, OS X The native distribution format of each platform Commercial licenses available
Meme IDE MemeScript Validation is provided in the problems view Yes, Android emulator can be integrated Eclipse RCP Android, Windows Mobile The native distribution format of each platform Free for development
Mendix HTML5, Java Yes Yes Yes, The Mendix App Platform All platforms, mobile apps are browser-based Not applicable, Mendix is a platform as a service Commercial licenses available
MobiOne by Genuitec HTML5, CSS, JavaScript, visual drag-n-drop Yes Yes Use any Java IDE for back-end services, integrated MyEclipse soon Android (phones, tablets), iOS (iPhone, iPad, iPod) OTA for device testing and native distribution format of each platform Trial and commercial licenses available, one time $99
Mono for Android C# Yes Yes Visual Studio 2005 and MonoDevelop Android The native distribution format of the platform
MonoTouch C# Yes Yes Visual Studio 2005 and MonoDevelop iOS The native distribution format of the platform
MoSync C, C++, Lua, HTML5, CSS, JavaScript Yes Yes Eclipse, Visual Studio 2005 and later, MoBuild w/ text editors Android, iOS (iPhone), Java ME, Moblin, Smartphone 2003, Symbian, Windows Mobile (Pocket PC), Blackberry (experimental) SIS, CAB, JAD, JAR, APK, OTA deployment Free, GPL 2.0, Free Indie Subscription; commercial subscription available
Mulberry HTML5, CSS, JavaScript Yes No, 3rd party tools No, 3rd party tools Android, iOS, Mobile Web The native distribution format of each platform, OTA deployment, Free
Netbeans IDE C++, Java Yes Yes Java development tools Android (Mobile and Tablet), Nokia (Symbian, Seria 60 - 40- 80), etc... Free
Protogrid No coding needed. JavaScript can be used for Business Logic. Yes. Using browser debug tooling. Yes. Browser-based, iOS Simulator Proprietary IDE Web, iOS, Mobile Web The native distribution format of each platform, OTA deployment Trial and commercial licenses available
NeoMAD Java, XML Yes Emulator is available using native emulators Eclipse Plugin, Eclipse Based Stand-alone Android, iOS, Windows Phone, Windows Store Apps, Blackberry, J2ME The native distribution format of each platform Free & commercial licenses available
OpenPlug ActionScript, XML Yes Yes OpenPlug ELIPS plugin for Adobe Flash Builder Android, iOS (iPad, iPhone, iPod Touch), Symbian, Windows Mobile The native distribution format of each platform Free & commercial licenses available
OpenMEAP HTML5, CSS3, JavaScript Debugger integrated in Eclipse and Xcode Emulator is available using native emulators Xcode, Eclipse Android, iOS (iPhone, iPad, iPod touch), BlackBerry The native distribution format of each platform Open source LGPL license
OutSystems OutSystems, CSS, JavaScript Yes Test directly in browser OutSystems Service Studio Andoid, iOS, Windows Phone 7 NA Free community edition for personal use, or subscription licensing for commercial use
Platino Game Engine JavaScript Yes, in Titanium Studio. Emulator is available using native emulators Titanium Studio based on Eclipse Android, iPhone The native distribution format of each platform Free to try, $49.99 for a commercial license
PhoneGap and Apache Cordova HTML, CSS, JavaScript Yes No, 3rd party tools No, 3rd party tools iPhone, Android, Tizen, Windows Phone, BlackBerry, Symbian, Palm, Bada The native distribution format of each platform Apache 2
Qt SDK C++, QML Yes Yes Qt Creator Android (technology preview), iOS (technology preview), Symbian, Maemo, MeeGo, Linux, Windows, OS X The native distribution format of each platform Free and commercial licenses available
Rhomobile Ruby with HTML interface features compiled through an interpreter into native applications Yes N/A, applications can run in Win32 runner, or in device emulators for supported platforms. Xcode or Eclipse, on-demand RhoHub version includes full IDE Yes, supports Android 1.6+, iOS 3.0+ (iPhone, iPad), Windows Mobile 6.1 Professional, Windows Mobile 6.0 Standard, BlackBerry 4.6, 4.7, 5.0, 6.0 (4.2 and 4.5 supported but database access is very slow on these devices), Symbian OTA deployment, iOS through App store, .SIS, .CAB, .APK, .COD Rhodes is free and open source under the MIT License, RhoSync is under GPL or commercial, Commercial support available. Subscription for RhoHub
RubyMotion Ruby Yes Yes Any text editor. As an IDE, RubyMine. Android, iOS The native distribution format of the platform RubyMotion is a commercial product.
Sencha Touch HTML, CSS, JavaScript Yes Yes Sencha Architect 2 Android, iOS (iPhone, iPad, iPod touch), Kindle, BlackBerry, Bada Web delivered, or hybrid via native shells for each platform GPLv3, free for commercial, paid for OEM and embedded systems
Smartface WYSIWYG design editor with JavaScript code editor Yes Yes Smartface IDE and SDK Yes: Android, iOS (iPhone, iPad, iPod touch), Kindle, Gear, Google Glass The native distribution format of each platform Community license and commercial licenses available
Stencyl Drag-and-drop editor based on Scratch, Objective-C Yes Yes Xcode iOS (iPad, iPhone, iPod Touch) The native distribution format of each platform Free and commercial development licenses
TD Mobile HTML5, High Level Event Actions, JavaScript, SAL .NET Compiler Yes Yes TD Mobile IDE Web-based apps available through mobile web browser Web URL Commercial licenses available, free deployment
Telerik Platform, and AppBuilder HTML5, CSS and Javascript Yes Test right in browser or device In-browser client, desktop client, Visual Studio, Sublime Text or command-line interface (CLI) Android, iOS, Windows phone The native distribution format of each platform Free to try, commercial and enterprise licenses available
Unity C#, JavaScript, Boo, other .NET-based languages Yes Remote used to simulate device interaction before app is uploaded to the device. Unity Editor, also works with Visual Studios and MonoDevelop. Android, iOS (iPhone, iPad), PC, Mac, desktop browser, Xbox 360, PS3, Wii. BlackBerry Playbook, Nokia Symbian, Roku 2 and others available through company's Union program. Native distribution format of each platform Free and commercial development licenses.
Verivo AppStudio WYSIWYG, graphical drag and drop, JavaScript, .NET-based languages Yes Test right in browser or device Proprietary design studio Android, iOS, Blackberry Native distribution format of each platform Free development licenses; per-CPU deployment licenses
ViziApps WYSIWYG, graphical drag and drop Yes Test right in browser or device Online design studio Android, iOS, Windows Phone planned The native distribution format of each platform Free to design, test, demo, update, app; fee to publish
V-Play Engine Objective C, C++, JavaScript, QML, Java Yes Yes Qt Creator All Platforms The native distribution format of each platform Free, Indie and Enterprise licenses are available
WinDev Mobile WLanguage Yes Yes WinDev Mobile Android, iOS (iPhone, iPad, iPod touch), Windows (Mobile, Phone, Store Apps) The native distribution format of each platform Free to try, commercial and enterprise licenses available
Wakanda HTML5, JavaScript Yes Yes Yes, Wakanda Studio Android, iOS, Windows 10 (soon) and browser-based apps apk Open Source and Commercial licenses available
Xamarin C# Yes Yes Xamarin Studio (Mac only), Visual Studio (Windows only) Android, iOS, Windows Phone, Windows Store apps The native distribution of each platform Free community edition, pro edition included in Microsoft MSDN licensing
Zuznow HTML, CSS, JavaScript, jQuery Yes Yes Web development tools Android (mobile, tablet), iOS (iPhone, iPad, iPod touch), Windows Phone, SmartTV Mobile Web, PhoneGap Free to try, commercial and enterprise licenses available

Back-end servers[edit]

Back-end tools pick up where the front-end tools leave off, and provide a set of reusable services that are centrally managed and controlled and provide the following abilities:

  • Integration with back-end systems
  • User authentication-authorization
  • Data services
  • Reusable business logic

Available tools are listed below.

Platform Programming language Integrated development environment available Cross-platform deployment Deployment options Development tool cost
Altova MobileTogether Server Browser-based interface NA Server available for Windows, Linux, macOS. Supports mobile devices running Android, iOS, Windows 8, Windows Phone 8, HTML5 browser based client On-prem, cloud, or hybrid Commercial license based on the number of mobile devices needed
Appery.io API Express JavaScript Yes. Browser-based, and native test app for Android, iOS Android, iOS, mobile web On-prem, cloud, or hybrid Free to try, commercial and enterprise licenses available
AnyPresence JavaScript, Ruby on Rails, and native SDK languages Web-based designer, Use any IDE for client-side development Android, iOS, Windows Phone 8, Java, Xamarin, mobile web, desktop web On-prem, cloud, or hybrid Commercial and enterprise licenses available
Backendless Platform Java, Objective-C, Swift, Node.js, JavaScript, ActionScript(Flex),C# (.NET) Use any front-end IDE for client-side development. Eclipse, IDEA or NetBeans for custom server-side logic development Android 2.0+, iOS 3.0+, Windows Phone 7+, JavaScript, HTML5 Client, Flash Player (Flash/Flex) On-premises and cloud Free and commercial licenses available
GO!AppZone by Globo plc JavaScript. Custom integrations connectors/server-side logic: C#, VB.NET Yes, GO!AppZone Studio Android, BlackBerry, iOS, Windows Phone, 8.x, RT On-prem, cloud or hybrid Development tools are free, commercial license or subscription needed for deployment
IBM MobileFirst Server HTML5, CSS3, JavaScript, and native SDK languages w/ Native Worklight API Eclipse plugin, Eclipse based stand-alone Android, iOS, BlackBerry 6,7, & 10, Windows Phone 7.5 & 8, Windows 8 (desktop, tablets), Adobe AIR, Mobile Web App, desktop browser web page On-prem Developer edition free via Eclipse Marketplace, commercial .icense for deployment
Kinvey Java NA Android 2.0+, iOS 3+ Cloud Commercial and enterprise licenses available
Kumulos Java, Objective-C, Swift, Node.js, JavaScript, kScript, C# .NET Use any front-end IDE for client-side development. Android 2.0+, iOS 3.0+, Windows Phone 7+, JavaScript, HTML5, Blackberry, Unity .net Angular JS, LUA Corona, C# Cloud Free for up to 25 devices while in development. Fixed Monthly fee with fair use policy.
Magnet Systems Java Eclipse  ? On-prem Commercial licenses available
Metismo Java Eclipse Android, iOS (iPhone, iPad), Java ME, BREW, BlackBerry, Nintendo DS, Palm/webOS, Sony PSP, Samsung bada, Symbian, Windows Mobile, Windows Phone 7, Windows Desktop, OS X On-prem Commercial licenses available
Wakanda JavaScript Use Wakanda Studio Android, iOS (iPhone, iPad), Windows Phone 10 (soon), HTML5 app On-prem or cloud Community and commercial editions
Verivo Akula Java Use any front-end IDE Android, iOS (iPhone, iPad), Windows Phone7 On-prem, cloud, or hybrid Free development licenses; per-CPU deployment licenses
WebORB Integration Server C#, VB.NET, Java, PHP, ActionScript, JavaScript, Objective-C,

XML

Works with Eclipse, Visual Studio, intelliJ IDEA and Amethyst IDE Android, iOS (iPhone, iPad), BlackBerry Playbook, Windows Phone 7 On-prem Free development licenses; free and commercial deployment licenses

Security add-on layers[edit]

With bring your own device (BYOD) becoming the norm within more enterprises, IT departments often need stop-gap, tactical solutions that layer atop existing apps, phones, and platform component. Features include

  • App wrapping for security
  • Data encryption
  • Client actions
  • Reporting and statistics

System software[edit]

Many system-level components are needed to have a functioning platform for developing mobile apps.

Platform Programming language Debuggers available Emulator available Integrated development environment available Cross-platform deployment Installer packaging options Development tool cost
Adobe AIR ActionScript, HTML, CSS, JavaScript Yes Yes Flash Builder, Flash Professional, IntelliJ IDEA Android, iOS (iPhone, iPad, iPod touch), BlackBerry The native distribution format of each platform Flash Builder, Flash Professional, IntelliJ IDEA - commercial licenses available Adobe AIR SDK (command line tool) - Free
BREW C; the APIs are provided in C with a C++ style interface Debugger support for the native ARM target code. Can use Visual Studio to debug the x86 testing code No Emulator for the target ARM code, has a simulator for the x86 testing code Visual Studio 6.0, Visual Studio 2003 .NET, Visual Studio 2005 Compile for the specific BREW version available on the handset OTA Related dev fees typically needed for Brew App Certification - VeriSign annual fee for becoming a certified developer. Realview ARM compiler for BREW (the free GNU C/C++ is available, but with limited function and support). TRUE BREW testing fee for distributing the application.
Firefox OS HTML5, CSS, JavaScript Yes No, but simulator available. Firefox browser, Firebug Web browser on other platform Firefox Marketplace, Web URL Development requires Mozilla Firefox and the simulator add-on
.NET Compact Framework C#, VB.NET, Basic4ppc Yes Free emulator, source code available, also bundled with IDE Visual Studio 2008, 2005, 2003, Basic4ppc IDE Windows Mobile, Windows CE, Symbian-based devices via third party tools OTA deployment, CAB files, ActiveSync Most tools free, but commercial editions of Visual Studio needed for visual designers
OpenFL Haxe (similar to Actionscript and Java) Yes Yes IntelliJ IDEA, FlashDevelop Android, iOS (iPhone, iPad, iPod touch), BlackBerry Playbook, WebOS, HTML5, Flash, Windows (exe), Linux The native distribution format of each platform Free
Palm OS C, C++, Pascal Yes OS 1.0 - 4.1: free emulator provided by PalmSource (Access); OS 5.0: - 5.4 device-specific simulators provided by Palm (palmOne) Palm OS Development System (Eclipse), CodeWarrior, PocketStudio, HB++, Satellite Forms Palm OS handhelds, or Windows Mobile with StyleTap emulator PRC files, PalmSource Installer (.psi) Free (POSE or GCC for Palm OS), or commercial (CodeWarrior), or various commercial rapid-development frameworks
Python Python Yes Add-on to Nokia Emulator Several, including plugins for Eclipse Interpreted language available natively only on Nokia Series60 (and desktops) though ports exist to other mobile platforms, including Palm OS Sis deployment with py2sis or can use Python Runtime Free
Symbian C++ Yes Free emulator Many choices Compile per target SIS deployment Commercial and free tools available
Tizen Web-based: HTML5, CSS, JavaScript Native: C, C++ Yes Free emulator Tizen SDK Web-based app to be available on web browser Tizen through App store, Web URL Development needs Windows, OS X, or Ubuntu Desktop
Ubuntu Touch Web-based: HTML5, CSS, JavaScript Native: QML, C, C++ Yes Yes Ubuntu SDK HTML5 app to be available web browser. Ubuntu Touch through App store, Web URL Development requires Ubuntu Desktop 12.04 or higher, Free
webOS JavaScript, CSS, HTML, C and C++ through the PDK Yes Free emulator Eclipse webOS, Palm only OTA deployment, webOS through App store, Web URL, Precentral, .ipk Free
Windows Mobile C, C++ Yes Free emulator (source code available), also bundled with IDE Visual Studio 2010, 2008, 2005, eMbedded VC++ (free), Satellite Forms Windows Mobile, Windows CE OTA deployment, CAB files, ActiveSync Free command-line tools or eMbedded VC++, or Visual Studio (Standard edition or better)
Windows Phone C#, Visual Basic, C, C++ Yes Free emulator, also bundled with IDE Visual Studio 2012, Visual Studio 2010 Windows Phone OTA deployment, XAP files

Criteria for selecting a development platform usually contains the target mobile platforms, existing infrastructure and development skills. When targeting more than one platform with cross-platform development it is also important to consider the impact of the tool on the user experience. Performance is another important criteria, as research on mobile applications indicates a strong correlation between application performance and user satisfaction. Along with performance and other criteria, the availability of the technology and the project's requirement may drive the development between native and cross-platform environments. To aid the choice between native and cross-platform environments, some guidelines and benchmarks have been published. Typically, cross-platform environments are reusable across multiple platforms, leveraging a native container while using HTML, CSS, and JavaScript for the user interface. In contrast, native environments are targeted at one platform for each of those environments. For example, Android development occurs in the Eclipse IDE using Android Developer Tools (ADT) plugins, Apple iOS development occurs using Xcode IDE with Objective-C and/or Swift, Windows and BlackBerry each have their own development environments.

Mobile application testing[edit]

Mobile applications are first tested within the development environment using emulators and later subjected to field testing. Emulators provide an inexpensive way to test applications on mobile phones to which developers may not have physical access. The following are examples of tools used for testing application across the most popular mobile operating systems.

  • Google Android Emulator - an Android emulator that is patched to run on a Windows PC as a standalone app, without having to download and install the complete and complex Android SDK. It can be installed and Android compatible apps can be tested on it.
  • The official Android SDK Emulator - a mobile device emulator which mimics all of the hardware and software features of a typical mobile device (without the calls).
  • MobiOne Developer - a mobile Web integrated development environment (IDE) for Windows that helps developers to code, test, debug, package and deploy mobile Web applications to devices such as iPhone, BlackBerry, Android, and the Palm Pre. MobiOne Developer was officially declared End of Life by the end of 2014.[citation needed]
  • TestiPhone - a web browser-based simulator for quickly testing iPhone web applications. This tool has been tested and works using Internet Explorer 7, Firefox 2 and Safari 3.
  • iPhoney - gives a pixel-accurate web browsing environment and it is powered by Safari. It can be used while developing web sites for the iPhone. It is not an iPhone simulator but instead is designed for web developers who want to create 320 by 480 (or 480 by 320) websites for use with iPhone. iPhoney will only run on OS X 10.4.7 or later.
  • BlackBerry Simulator - There are a variety of official BlackBerry simulators available to emulate the functionality of actual BlackBerry products and test how the device software, screen, keyboard and trackwheel will work with application.
  • Windows UI Automation - To test applications that use the Microsoft UI Automation technology, it requires Windows Automation API 3.0. It is pre-installed on Windows 7, Windows Server 2008 R2 and later versions of Windows. On other operating systems, you can install using Windows Update or download it from the Microsoft Web site.

Tools include

  • eggPlant: A GUI-based automated test tool for mobile application across all operating systems and devices.
  • Ranorex: Test automation tools for mobile, web and desktop apps.
  • Testdroid: Real mobile devices and test automation tools for testing mobile and web apps.

Patents[edit]

Many patent applications are pending for new mobile phone apps. Most of these are in the technological fields of business methods, database management, data transfer, and operator interface.[4]

On May 31, 2011, Lodsys asserted two of its four patents: U.S. Patent No. 7,620,565 ("the '565 patent") on a "customer-based design module" and U.S. Patent No. 7,222,078 ("the '078 patent") on "Methods and Systems for Gathering Information from Units of a Commodity Across a Network." against the following application developers:[5]

  • Combay
  • Iconfactory
  • Illusion Labs
  • Shovelmate
  • Quickoffice
  • Richard Shinderman of Brooklyn, New York
  • Wulven Game Studios of Hanoi, Vietnam

See also[edit]

References[edit]