Mobileye

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Mobileye
Subsidiary of Intel
IndustryAutomotive Autonomous cars
Founded1999; 21 years ago (1999)
Jerusalem(israeli settelments)
FounderZiv Aviram
Amnon Shashua
Headquarters
Jerusalem
,
Israel
Key people
Amnon Shashua
(CEO and CTO)
BrandsEyeQ chip, REM, RSS, Mobileye 6, Mobileye 8
RevenueUS$879 million (2019)
Number of employees
1700 (2019)
ParentIntel
SubsidiariesMoovit
Websitemobileye.com

Mobileye is an Israeli subsidiary of Intel corporation that develops vision-based self-driving car[1] and advanced driver-assistance systems (ADAS) providing warnings for collision prevention and mitigation. Mobileye headquarters and main R&D centre is located in Jerusalem operating under the company name Mobileye Vision Technology Ltd.[2] The company also has sales and marketing offices in Midtown, Manhattan, US; Shanghai, China; Tokyo, Japan and Düsseldorf, Germany.

In March 2017, Intel announced that they had agreed to a US$15.3 billion takeover of Mobileye.[3] This is the largest acquisition of an Israeli company to date.[4]

A Mobileye EyeQ2 chip used in a Hyundai Lane Guidance camera module

History[edit]

Mobileye N.V. was founded in 1999, by Amnon Shashua (a researcher of the Hebrew University), when he evolved his academic research into a technical solution for a vision system which could detect vehicles using only a camera and software algorithms on a processor.[5] After receiving a license to use the technology which was owned by Yissum it was possible to incorporate the company. Together with Ziv Aviram, he set up the company's R&D headquarters in Jerusalem, Israel.

Original Mobileye logo

At first, the company developed algorithms, and a custom accelerator processor chip called the EyeQ chip. All of Mobileye's proprietary image processing algorithms run on the EyeQ chip. The company's first clients were automotive manufacturers such as BMW, General Motors and Volvo. These companies electronics suppliers integrated Mobileye's technologies into the companies' cars, at first as an optional accessory when buying a new car, and later as a standard option in new cars.[6][failed verification]

In 2006, Mobileye set up an aftermarket department, which sells finished products manufactured by Mobileye at their Philippines factory, IMI. The aftermarket products are sold to an international network of distributors on all continents who sell the products to fleets of trucks and buses, to car dealerships, and to car accessory shops.[7]

In August 2015, Tesla Motors announced that it is using Mobileye's technology to enable its self-drive solution, which would be incorporated into Model S cars from August 2015.[8] After the first deadly crash of a self-driving Model S with active Autopilot became public in June 2016, Mobileye issued a statement that its technology won't be able to recognize a crossing trailer (which was the cause of the accident) until 2018.[9] In July 2016, Mobileye announced the end of its partnership with Tesla after the EyeQ3.[10][11] EyeQ is used in over 15 million vehicles sold as of 2017.[12]

In January 2017, Mobileye, BMW and Intel announced that they were developing a test fleet of autonomous vehicles that would be on the road in the second half of 2017.[13] The companies plan to develop autonomous vehicles for the consumer market by 2021.[14] In March 2017, Intel announced their intention to buy Mobileye for $15.3 billion.[15] The deal was completed August 8, with Rothschild & Co and Citigroup as financial advisors to Intel [16] and Raymond James advising Mobileye.[17]

On 29 October 2018, Intel, Mobileye's parent company, released plans to commercialize Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) in Israel.[18] In the press briefing, Volkswagen Group was announced as the automobile supplier, with Mobileye implementing self-driving capabilities and Israeli car distributor Champion Motors providing fleet support and operations. Intel specified a program launch in early 2019, with a timeline to commercial availability by 2022.[19]

Company timeline[edit]

  • 1999: Mobileye NV co-founded by Ziv Aviram and Amnon Shashua[20]
  • 1999 (June): Introduction of the first generation Live Demonstration System
  • 1999: Mobileye received a license from Yissum to be able to use the technology.
  • 2000: Introduction of the second generation Live Demonstration System
  • 2001 (February): Introduction of the third generation Live Demonstration System
  • 2001 (May): Introduction of the fourth generation Live Demonstration System
  • 2002: Introduction of the fifth generation Live Demonstration System for Multi-Vision Applications
  • 2003: Mobileye signed cooperation agreements with Denso and Delphi.
  • 2004: Introduction of the first generation EyeQ System-on-a-Chip (SoC)
  • 2004: Mobileye and SVDO/Continental sign a development agreement
  • 2005: Mobileye and ST Microelectronics sign a chip manufacture and development partnership agreement[21]
  • 2006: Introduction of the sixth generation Live Demonstration System for Pedestrian Detection
  • 2006: Introduction of Mobileye's Aftermarket Department
  • 2006 (July): Mobileye and Magna Electronics announce partnership to develop advanced automotive driver assistance features[22]
  • 2007: U.S. investment bank Goldman Sachs invests $100 million in Mobileye[23]
  • 2007: Mobileye launches multiple series productions for LDW on GM Cadillac STS and DTS vehicles,[24] for LDW on BMW 5 and 6 Series vehicles[25] and for radar-vision fusion for enhanced Adaptive Cruise Control with Collision Mitigation by Braking on Volvo S80, XC90/70/60 and V70 vehicles[26]
  • 2007: Introduction of the Mobileye Advanced Warning System providing a world's first Aftermarket system featuring functions of lane and vehicle Detection running on a single processor[27]
  • 2008 (September): Mobileye and Continental launch a world's first combination of multiple functions of Lane Departure Warning, Intelligent Highbeam Control and Traffic Sign Recognition on the BMW 7 series[28]
  • 2008: Introduction of the second generation EyeQ2 System-on-a-Chip (SoC)[29]
  • 2009: Mobileye and Visteon sign cooperation agreement[30]
  • 2010: Co-Founders Ziv Aviram and Amnon Shashua launch the company OrCam
  • 2010: U.S. investment bank Goldman Sachs, Leumi Partners and Menora Mivtachim Holdings Ltd. invest $37 million in Mobileye[31]
  • 2010: Mobileye launches newest aftermarket product, the C2-270 Collision Prevention System, with vehicle, pedestrian, bicycle, and motorcycle detection capabilities.[32]
  • 2010: Mobileye launches a world-first vision based Pedestrian Forward Collision Warning as part of a radar-vision 'automatic emergency braking system' with Delphi and Volvo on the S60 saloon and V60 estate
  • 2010: Mobileye launches Lane Keeping and Support (LKAS) on two HKMC vehicles (Hyundai i40 and Kia Optima) for US and European introduction.
  • 2011: Mobileye launches the world's first vision only based forward collision warning system (bundled with multiple other functions of LDW IHC and TSR) on the 2011 BMW 1 series
  • 2011: Mobileye launches the world's first vision only based U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) compliant Forward Collision Warning system and lane departure warning system combination on multiple GM vehicles – Chevrolet Equinox and GMC Terrain.
  • 2011: Mobileye launches multi functional bundles including vision based FCW on the Opel Zafira and Opel Insignia.
  • 2014: Mobileye launched its IPO on the NYSE which was the biggest Israeli IPO ever in the US raising approx. $1B at a market cap of $5.3B[33]
  • 2017: Acquired by Intel for $15.3B[34]

Technology[edit]

The firm's technology is based on the use of optical vision systems with motion detection algorithms running on a custom hardware accelerator – the EyeQ chip. This is unlike many other competing systems which use a combination of visual detection, radar, and laser scanning. The firm's vehicle detection algorithms recognize motorised vehicles such as cars, motorcycles and trucks, in day and night time conditions.[citation needed] The firm's version performs its vehicle detection based functions using a single camera mounted in the rear view mirror, unlike the usual approach of using radars, laser scanners or in some cases stereo-cameras.[35]

In 2011, the firm introduced the world's first OEM production of vision-only forward collision warning system (NHTSA compliant) on multiple BMW, GM and Opel vehicles.[citation needed]

The firm’s version of lane departure warning systems was launched in multiple production platforms through 2007 and 2008 with GM, BMW and Volvo.[citation needed]

The firm's pedestrian detection technology is based on the use of mono cameras only, using pattern recognition and classifiers with image processing and optic flow analysis. Both static and moving pedestrians can be detected to a range of around 30 m using VGA resolution imagers.[citation needed] The firm announced in 2008 that by mid-2010 they would launch a world's first application of full emergency braking for collision mitigation for pedestrians. Mobileye announced in May 2009 as part of the next generation Volvo radar-vision fusion system which also provides lane departure warning and vehicle detection with radar-vision fusion for an enhanced collision mitigation by braking system on the next Volvo S60 vehicle.[36][unreliable source?]

Since 2008, BMW 7-Series cars have been equipped with the Mobileye traffic sign recognition systems, developed in cooperation with automotive supplier Continental AG.[37]

Adaptive highbeam systems automatically raise and lower the high beams without inconveniencing oncoming or preceding traffic. The firm's version, Intelligent Headlight Control, is in production on the BMW 7 series.[38]

In 2011, the firm introduced multi-functional bundles including vision based FCW on the Opel Zafira and Opel Insignia.

In 2016, Mobileye announced a deal to work with Renault Nissan on digital maps that will help the automaker's move towards driverless cars.[39]

Aftermarket[edit]

Since 2007 the firm has offered a range of aftermarket vision based ADAS systems, based on the same core technology as for production models. They currently offer lane departure warning, forward collision warning, headway monitoring and warning, low speed urban collision warning, intelligent headlamp control, speed limit indication (tsr) and pedestrian collision warning (including bicycles). These systems have also been integrated with fleet management systems.[40]

Investments[edit]

Between 2007 and 2011, the company raised $160 million. In 2013, the company sold 25% of its private shares for $400 million to a group of blue-chip investors.[41][42][43] One of Mobileye's biggest investors was Colmobil CEO Shmuel Harlap, who held a 7.2% stake.[44] Following the acquisition, he joined co-founders Amnon Shashua and Ziv Aviram in the ranks of Israeli billionaires.[45]

Insider Trading Scandal[edit]

In late March 2017, Reuters reported that the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission had charged two Israelis with engaging in insider trading, prior to the announcement of the acquisition of Mobileye by Intel.[46] According to the report, Ariel Darvasi was accused of making a profit of over $400,000, and Amir Waldman was accused of profiting more than $4 million.[47]

The case was filed in federal court in New York City (the "New York Court").[48]

Neither Intel nor Mobileye were accused by the SEC of violating the law.[49]

Within days the SEC obtained an "emergency" court order, freezing certain assets of two Virginia residents, Lawrence F. Cluff, Jr. and Roger E. Shaoul, who allegedly used insider information to make approximately $1 million on Intel’s purchase of Mobileye.[50]

In July 2017, Darvasi announced that he was fighting pancreatic cancer and had settled the charges with the SEC.[51]

In September 2017, the Israeli newspaper Haaretz speculated that the addition of Cluff and Shaoul as defendants raised the "possibility" that Mobileye founders Amnon Shashua and Ziv Aviram may be eventually named as well.[52] That did not happen.

In November 2017, the SEC filed a motion with a New York court for assistance from Israel in taking evidence from four Israeli witnesses concerning the allegations of insider trading.[53] The request was eventually increased to five Israeli witnesses.[54]

In early December 2017, the Israeli news outlet The Marker reported that Waldman flew to Canada to provide information to the SEC to try to convince it to drop the case.[55] The report in The Marker also stated that it is expected that the questioning of the Israeli witnesses would be done by the Israeli Securities Authority.[56] That did not happen. The SEC asked the New York court to request of the Israeli court to appoint American-Israeli lawyer Eric Sherby to take evidence from the Israeli witnesses.[57]

In order to keep the asset order in place, in December 2017, the SEC filed (among other things) an expert affidavit of Joseph Mason. Mason testified that he reviewed the trading records of Waldman and concluded from those records that Waldman was targeting "something that is nonpublic that he expects to occur before March 17," 2017; the offer by Intel was announced on March 13.[58] Mason also analyzed the trading records of defendant Lawrence Cluff. According to Mason, "the purchase of Mobileye options in the Cluff accounts shared similar unusual and risk characteristics as those purchased by Waldman."[59] On behalf of Waldman, an expert affidavit was submitted by Garrick Tsui. Tsui conceded that Waldman's February and March 2017 Mobileye option purchases "were significantly greater than at any time in the past."[60]

In papers filed by the SEC in May 2018,[61] the SEC informed the New York Court that two out of the five Israeli witnesses had testified in Israel pursuant to the Supplemental Request,[62] and the SEC asserted that it had obtained from the first two Israeli witnesses "valuable evidence" relating to the insider trading allegations.[63] On the other hand, counsel for Waldman asserted in court papers filed a few weeks later that the two Israeli witnesses had provided "exculpatory" testimony regarding the insider trading allegations.[64]

In November 2019, the Israeli press reported a settlement involving two defendants,[65] but the amount of the settlement was not reported. The press report again speculated that Mobileye's founders "could potentially be facing lawsuits of their own."[66] Again, that did not happen.

The SEC issued a press release in April 2020, announcing that it obtained a final judgement against the "last" defendant in the Mobileye insider trading case.[67] Waldman was ordered to pay disgorgement in the amount of $1,078,300, prejudgment interest in the amount of $40,889, and a civil penalty in the amount of $1,078,300.[68]

Awards and recognition[edit]

  • International Fleet Industry Award, Fleet Europe, November 2013[69]
  • International Fleet Industry Award, Fleet Europe, October 2011.[70]
  • Fleet Safety Forum Award for Excellence in the UK, for the Fleet Safety Product category, for the Mobileye C2-170 safety system.[71] Brake – Road Safety Charity, July 2009.
  • Best Electronic Design 2008 for Best Automotive Design, for the EyeQ2 Vision Processor.[72] Electronic Design, December 2008.
  • Entrepreneurial Company of the Year Award in the Automotive Industry. Frost & Sullivan, December 2006.[73]
  • Selected for the Top 100 Innovators Award. Red Herring Magazine, December 2005.[74]

Chips[edit]

Comparison[edit]

Mobileye[75] EyeQ1 EyeQ2 EyeQ3 EyeQ4 EyeQ5
On market 2008 2010 2014 2018 2020
Claimed autonomous level Driver Assistance 2 3 4–5
Performance (FP16 TFLOPS) 0.0044 0.026 0.256 2.5 24
Power consumption 2.5 watt 2.5 watt 2.5 watt 3 watt 10 watt
Semiconductor node 180 nm CMOS 90 nm CMOS 40 nm CMOS 28 nm FD-SOI 7 nm FinFET
Implementations Tesla Autopilot Hardware 1

Model S & X (09-'14 – 10-'16)

GM's Supercruise[76]

Cadillac CT6 (2017-2019)

Nissan's ProPilot [77][78][79]

Audi's Traffic Jam Pilot[80]

2019 Audi A8

Volvo's Pilot Assist 1, 2 & 3 [81][82]

NIO Pilot[83][84][85]

NIO ES8

NIO ES6

Li Xiang One

Nissan's ProPilot 2.0 [86][87]

BMW Driving Assistant Professional[88][89]

X5 (2019 - 2020)

3 Series (2019 - 2020)

VW Travel Assist[90]

Volkswagen Passat (2019-2020)

Volkswagen Golf 8 (2020)

Ford Mustang Mach-E (2021) [91]

Ford F-150 (2021)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  62. ^ Ibid., pp. 3-4.
  63. ^ Ibid, p. 10.
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External links[edit]