|Cultural origins||Late 1950s|
Modal jazz is jazz that uses musical modes rather than chord progressions as a harmonic framework. Though earlier precedents exist, modal jazz was crystallized as a distinct theory by composer George Russell in his 1953 book Lydian Chromatic Concept of Tonal Organization.
Particularly popular in the 1950s and 1960s, modal jazz is epitomized by Miles Davis's 1958 composition "Milestones", 1959 album Kind of Blue, and John Coltrane's classic quartet from 1960–64, both of which were directly inspired by Russell. Other important performers include Woody Shaw, Bill Evans, Herbie Hancock, Wayne Shorter, McCoy Tyner, Larry Young, Pharoah Sanders, Joe Henderson, Chick Corea and Bobby Hutcherson. Though the term comes from the use of the pitches of particular modes (or scales) in the creation of solos, modal jazz compositions or accompaniments may only or additionally make use of the following techniques:[not in citation given]
- slow-moving harmonic rhythm, where single chords may last four to sixteen or more measures
- pedal points and drones
- absent or suppressed standard functional chord progressions
- quartal harmonies or melodies
An understanding of modal jazz requires knowledge of musical modes. In bebop as well as in hard bop, musicians use chords to provide the background for solos. A song starts out with a theme that introduces the chords for the solos. These chords repeat throughout the whole song, while the soloists play new, improvised themes over the repeated chord progression. By the 1950s, improvising over chords had become such a dominant part of jazz, that sidemen at recording dates were sometimes given nothing more than a list of chords to play from.
Mercer Ellington has stated that Juan Tizol conceived the melody to "Caravan" in 1936 as a result of his days studying music in Puerto Rico, where they couldn't afford much sheet music so the teacher would turn the music upside down after they had learned to play it right-side up. This "inversion" technique led to a modal sound throughout Tizol's work.
Saxophonist Wayne Shorter has noted that the 1953 song "Glass Enclosure" by pianist Bud Powell was one of the earliest jazz songs to make use of Lydian chords, based on the Lydian mode that was not widely used in jazz until about a decade later.
Towards the end of the 1950s, spurred by the experiments of composer and bandleader George Russell, musicians began using a modal approach. They chose not to write their pieces using conventional chord changes, but instead using modal scales. Musicians employing this technique include Miles Davis, Freddie Hubbard, Bill Evans, Herbie Hancock, and Wayne Shorter.
Among the significant compositions of modal jazz were "So What" by Miles Davis and "Impressions" by John Coltrane. "So What" and "Impressions" follow the same AABA song form and were in D Dorian for the A sections and modulated a half step up to E-flat Dorian for the B section. The Dorian mode is the natural minor scale with a raised sixth. Other compositions include Davis' "Flamenco Sketches", Bill Evans' "Peace Piece", and Shorter's "Footprints".
Miles Davis recorded one of the best selling jazz albums of all time in this modal framework. Kind of Blue is an exploration of the possibilities of modal jazz. Included on these sessions was tenor saxophonist John Coltrane who, throughout the 1960s, would explore the possibilities of modal improvisation more deeply than any other jazz artist. The rest of the musicians on the album were alto saxophonist Cannonball Adderley, pianists Bill Evans and Wynton Kelly (though never on the same piece), bassist Paul Chambers, and drummer Jimmy Cobb. (Kelly, Chambers, and Cobb would eventually form the Wynton Kelly Trio.) This record is considered a kind of test album in many conservatories focusing on jazz improvisation. The compositions "So What" and "All Blues" from Kind of Blue are considered contemporary jazz standards. Davis has acknowledged the crucial role played by Bill Evans, a former member of George Russell's ensembles, in his transition from hard bop to modal playing.
While Davis' explorations of modal jazz were sporadic throughout the 1960s—he would include several of the tunes from Kind of Blue in the repertoire of his "Second Great Quintet"—Coltrane would take the lead in extensively exploring the limits of modal improvisation and composition with his own classic quartet, featuring Elvin Jones (drums), McCoy Tyner (piano), and Reggie Workman and Jimmy Garrison (bass). Several of Coltrane's albums from the period are recognized as seminal albums in jazz more broadly, but especially modal jazz: Africa/Brass (1961), Live! at the Village Vanguard (1962), Crescent (1964), A Love Supreme (1964), and Meditations (1965). Coltrane's compositions from this period such as "India," "Chasin' the Trane," "Crescent," and "Impressions" have entered the jazz repertoire, along with his interpretations of standards like Richard Rodgers' "My Favorite Things", and the traditional "Greensleeves".
Coltrane's modal explorations gave rise to an entire generation of saxophonists (mostly playing tenor saxophone) that would then go on to further explore modal jazz (often in combination with jazz fusion), such as Michael Brecker, David Liebman, Steve Grossman, and Bob Berg.
Another great innovator in the field of modal jazz is pianist Herbie Hancock. Although more popularly known for working in Miles Davis's "Second Great Quintet", Hancock recorded a number of solo albums, the fifth of which was Maiden Voyage (1965), two years after joining Miles' band. On the title song of this album Hancock uses solely suspended chords that are played throughout the entire piece and played with a very open sound due to Hancock's use of fourths in voicing the chords. The piece's haunting repeating vamps in the rhythm section and the searching feeling of the entire piece has made "Maiden Voyage" one of the most famous modal pieces.
A true precursor to modal jazz was found in the hands of virtuoso jazz pianist, composer and trio innovator Ahmad Jamal whose early use of extended vamps (freezing the advance of the song at some point for repetition or interjecting new song fragments) allowed him to solo for long periods infusing that section of the song with fresh ideas and percussive effects over a repetitive drum and bass figuration. Miles Davis was effusive in his praise for Jamal's influence on him, his playing, and his music: a perfect setup for the modal work that lay in Davis's future.
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Well Tizol did the melody, and he said that, you know, he used to hear those unusual melodies, because in Puerto Rico where he studied, they were very poor and they couldn't afford too much music. So in order to make them get more practice and get varied compositions, they'd turn the music upside down. And the result, you get that modal sound that comes from most of the things Tizol's involved in.
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