Model 1822 Musket
|Model 1822 Musket|
Springfield Armory Model 1822 Musket
|Place of origin||United States|
|Used by||United States, Confederate States|
American Civil War
|Caliber||.69 musket ball|
|Rate of fire||2-3 round/min|
|Effective firing range||100 to 200 yards max 50 to 75 effective|
The Model 1822 was an improvement to the Model 1816 Musket. Some documents refer to the Model 1822 as its own separate model, but other documents refer to it as a variant of the Model 1816.
Like the Model 1816, the Model 1822 was a .69 caliber smoothbore flintlock, with a 42 inch barrel and an overall length of 58 inches. One of the most noticeable differences in the Model 1822 is the attachment of the lower sling swivel. The forward part of the trigger bow was provided with an enlargement which was drilled to receive the sling swivel rivet. Previously, the sling swivel had been affixed to a stud in front of the trigger bow.
The Model 1822 was produced by the Springfield Armory, Harpers Ferry Armory, and numerous other contractors. It was eventually replaced by the Springfield Model 1835, which is also considered by many to be a continuation of the Model 1816.
Like other flintlocks, many of the Model 1822 were converted to percussion lock systems in the 1840s and 1850s, as percussion caps were more reliable and weather resistant than flintlocks. Some also had their barrels rifled so that they could fire the newly developed Minie ball. However, during the Mexico City Campaign, General Winfield Scott insisted on his army being equipped with flintlock muskets because they were easy to make or procure, important in a hostile country where supply lines were vulnerable.
The Model 1822 was used in both the Mexican American War and the American Civil War. During the latter, .69 caliber muskets (mostly percussion, but some flintlocks as well) were common in the early part of the war (either in their original form or converted to rifling). They had totally disappeared from the Army of the Potomac by the second half of 1862 (aside from the Irish Brigade, which carried Model 1842 muskets until 1864), but the less-well equipped Confederates used them for longer, and the Army of Northern Virginia's ordnance chief claimed that Gettysburg was the first battle in which the army was completely free of smoothbore muskets. In the West, the situation was worse for both sides and smoothbores remained in use in the Union armies into 1863. Some Confederate regiments were still carrying .69 caliber muskets at the Battle of Franklin in November 1864.
- "Guns on the Early Frontiers" by Carl P. Russell, Published by U of Nebraska Press, 1980
- http://www.nps.gov/spar/historyculture/sa-firearms-questions.htm Springfield Armory Weapons Research