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Model United Nations

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Delegates attending a committee
Delegates attending a committee session at Jakarta MUN (JMUN) in Jakarta, Indonesia
Conference assembly
Conference assembly at Turkish International Model United pagal in Istanbul, Turkey

Model United Nations, also known as Model UN or MUN, is an educational simulation and/or academic activity in which students can learn about diplomacy, international relations, and the United Nations. MUN involves and teaches participants speaking, debating, and writing skills, in addition to critical thinking, teamwork, and leadership abilities.[1][2] Usually an extracurricular activity, some schools also offer Model UN as a class. It is meant to engage students and allow them to develop deeper understanding into current world issues.[3]

Participants in Model United Nations conferences, known as delegates, are placed in committees and assigned countries to represent, or occasionally other organizations or political figures, where they represent members of that body. They are presented with their assignments in advance, along with a topic or topics that their committee will discuss. Delegates conduct research before conferences and formulate positions that they will then debate with their fellow delegates in the committee, staying true to the actual position of the member they represent.[4] At the end of a conference, the best-performing delegates in each committee, as well as delegations, are sometimes recognized with awards.

Model UN participants include students at middle school, high school, and college/university levels, with most conferences catering to just one of these three levels (high school and college conferences being most common).[5] Delegates usually attend conferences together as delegations sent by their respective schools' or universities' Model UN clubs, though some delegates attend conferences independently.[6]


Model UN began as a series of student-led Model League of Nations simulations.[7] It is believed that the first Model League of Nations conferences were held in the 1920s, before transitioning to Model UN after the formation of the League's successor organization, the United Nations, in 1945.[8] Today, some Model United Nations conferences include simulations of the League of Nations among their committee offerings.

The first recorded instance of a Model United Nations conference was at Swarthmore College on April 5, 1947.[9] Over 150 students from over 41 colleges were reported as participating. The delegates simulated a General Assembly and recommended that member states "establish an international control and development of atomic energy", "conclude a treaty on disarmament", that the UN adopt "a uniform system for citizenship of refugees", that the UN amend the charter to adopt a definition of aggression, and that nations "promote the reconstruction of devastated areas through economic assistance through the U.N."[9][10]

Another historic Model United Nations was held at St. Lawrence University from 11–13 February 1949.[11] It was initiated by Dr. Harry Reiff, Head of the History and Government Department, with the assistance of departmental colleague Otto L. George.[12] Dr. Reiff was a technical advisor on the United States delegation to the 1945 San Francisco Conference (where the UN Charter was written) and the UN Organizational Conference in London in 1945-46 (where the UN was established).[13] The 1949 St. Lawrence University Model UN conference included delegates from regional conferences and universities, including Adelphi, Alfred, Champlain, Clarkson, McGill, Middlebury, Potsdam, St. Michael's, and Vermont.[14][15][16] The conference continued annually for many years at St. Lawrence [17][18] and has recently been revived on the campus.[19]

The three oldest conferences in the world that are still active today were established in the early 1950s. Berkeley Model United Nations (BMUN) at Berkeley (1952)[20][21] and Harvard Model United Nations (HMUN) at Harvard (1953) featured high school students as delegates, whereas Harvard National Model United Nations (HNMUN) has been running college-level conferences since 1954.[22]

In the early 1990s, Model UN spread to Europe, East and South Asia, the Middle East, North Africa, and sub-Saharan Africa.[23]


Delegates negotiating during an unmoderated caucus

In order to maintain decorum, most Model UN committees use parliamentary procedure derived from Robert's Rules of Order. However, most crisis committees forgo the formality of parliamentary procedure so as to ensure smoother operation. In addition, recently the United Nations has spearheaded efforts to introduce new Model UN rules of procedure that are more closely aligned with those used by the actual UN.[24][25][26][27] Since there is no governing body for MUNs, each conference differs in the rules of procedure. The following rules of procedure apply to general MUNs but may not apply to every MUN:

MUNs are run by a group of administrators known as the secretariat. A secretariat is headed by a Secretary-General. Each committee usually has a chair (also known as moderator or director), a member of academics department of the secretariat that enforces the rules of procedure and oversees the progression of debate within a committee. A delegate may request the committee as a whole to perform a particular action; this is known as a motion. Documents aiming to address the issue of the committee are known as resolutions and are voted upon when deemed acceptable by the dais of the committee.[28]

MUN committees can be divided into three general sessions: formal debate, moderated caucus, and unmoderated caucus. In a formal debate, the staff maintains a list of speakers and the delegates follow the order written on the 'speaker list'. Speakers may be added to the speaker list by raising their placards or sending a note to the chair. During this time, delegates talk to the entire committee. They make speeches, answer questions, and debate on resolutions and amendments. If there are no other motions, the committee goes back to formal debate by default. There is usually a time limit. In a moderated caucus, the committee goes into a recess and the rules of procedure are suspended. Anyone may speak if recognized by the chair. A vote on a motion is necessary to go into a moderated caucus. There is a comparatively shorter time limit per speech. In an unmoderated caucus, the delegates informally meet with other delegates and the staff for discussions.[27][29]

Resolutions are the basis of all debate.[30] They are considered the final results of conversations, writings, and negotiations. Resolutions must go through a draft, approval by the dais, and consequent debate and modification.[31]

Academic aspects

Participation in Model UN is meant to foster negotiation, speaking and communication skills.[32] In addition, crisis committees, which deal with crisis scenarios which can be contemporary or historical, can develop leadership skills and the ability to adapt and deal with unexpected situations. Material issues of diplomacy and policy are also approached through a quasi-academic process. In preparation for a conference, topics are chosen for each committee, and typically, research and background guides (called Study Guides) are made available by the organizers of a conference for each committee. Delegates of each committee are often expected to pre-formulate the position of the country or group they represent, based on these background guides, and submit the result of this preparation to their committee as a so-called Position Paper.[33] The purpose of this procedure is to familiarize delegates with the substantial topics of debate, encourage academic research and writing, and to enable substantial preparation for conferences.

While several guides on the techniques of writing Position Papers, including templates and examples, are available,[34][35][36] no conferences publish their Study Guides, Position Papers or Resolutions.[citation needed] Currently, only one subscription-based Position Paper database is available.[37] Mun is not arguing the nature of a question, proving research facts, or standing up and defending a foreign policy agenda but providing solutions that every nation, human and nature can endeavour and use to resolve crises and rise in the risk of uniting strength to maintain international peace and security. This is the difference between the parliament and the UN, distinguishing power struggle from diplomacy.


Placard for the United Kingdom in Spanish at the International Model United Nations of Buenos Aires (MINUBA) in Argentina

Traditionally, English has been the official and working language of most conferences, but, as Model UN has become more popular around the world, and as conferences in countries such as the United States have sought to appeal to underrepresented minorities (such as the Spanish-speaking community), committees using languages other than English, or which are bilingual, have become common.[38] It should be noted, however, that this is still not yet a mainstream phenomenon, especially not in the United States, where most bilingual or Spanish language committees are found at conferences hosted in Puerto Rico or the South,[39] apart from Spain.


Nearly all Model United Nations conferences require delegates to wear Western business attire, as dressing professionally is an important way to show respect for the nation, organization, or individual one is representing, as well as for the rest of one's committee.[40]


While Model United Nations conferences regularly simulate the bodies of the United Nations, the European Union, government cabinets, and regional bodies such as ASEAN as so-called Committees, as well as corporate boards, NGOs or so-called Press Corps, idiosyncrasies and fictional Committees also exist. An example for such a special committee that does not have a parallel in the actual United Nations which deals with a crisis is known as a 'Crisis Committee.'[41] In this committee, a crisis is given to a team of students and the teams must come up with solutions.[42] The Crisis Committee traditionally focuses on a single historical event, but recently current and future events have been used as well. The event may be fictional or non-fictional.[41]


Model United Nations conferences are usually organized by high school clubs or college clubs.[43]

Model UN by region and country

Although Model United Nations originated in the United States, MUN clubs and conferences are not isolated to that country. Rather, like the actual UN, Model UN is found in countries around the globe.[44] Because Model UN is decentralized and has grown autonomously around the world, there are significant differences in how MUN is done between regions.[45]



MUN is relatively popular in Denmark, with conferences at both high-school and university level. It was first introduced in 2003,[46] it has since spread with 3 major conferences at high-school level, with at least 400 participants at each conference,[46][47] with BIGMUN being the largest conference in Scandinavia.[48]


MUN has become popular in Spain at the beginning of this decade, hosting the largest number of Conferences in Madrid. One of them is the Complutense International Model of United Nations (COMPIMUN), that will include for its third edition other international organisations such as the Asia Cooperation Dialogue, or the 9-11, apart from the traditional UN related Committees.

The Netherlands

The largest MUN in the Netherlands is The Hague International Model United Nations (THIMUN) conference, which includes over 3500 participants coming from around 200 schools and 100 different countries.[49] Although it is not located near the United-Nations Headquarters in New-York, it is one of the pioneer Model United Nations conferences in the world, since it has been founded in 1968[citation needed] and located in the International Court of Justice's (ICJ) world city of the Hague. A whole network of conferences is marked by its THIMUN affiliation, a label which basically describes the universality of the procedures that rule the conference and make it part of the UN recognized foundation.[clarification needed] In 1995 the THIMUN Foundation was accredited as a Non-Governmental Organisation (NGO) associated with the United Nations Department of Public Information.[50] Also, THIMUN has established its own conferences' network throughout time: THIMUN Qatar, THIMUN Singapore, THIMUN Online MUN (O-MUN) and THIMUN Latin America conferences have been set up from 2005.[51] The second and third biggest MUN-conferences of the Netherlands are MUNISH (Model United Nations at the International School of the Hague and HMUN (Haarlem Model United Nations). There is also The European International Model UN TEIMUN which is founded in 1987 and is the oldest university Model UN in Europe.[52]


In Turkey, Model United Nations conferences are mostly held by non-profit university-clubs. Istanbul hosts more conferences than all Turkish other cities combined. Yeditepe Model United Nations Club, the oldest and one of the most popular clubs in Turkey,[peacock term] holds three different conferences, being, Yeditepe Model United Nations Training and Development Conference, Justinianus Moot Courts, and Model United Nations Conference Istanbul (MUNIST). Also, Koç University Model United Nations Conference (KUMUN), Kadir Has University Model United Nations Conference (HASMUN), alongside with the training conference of the Kadir Has University Model United Nations Training Conference (HASTRAIN), Izmir University of Economics Model United Nations Conference (ECOMUN),[53] alongside with the training conference, İzmir University of Economics Training Conference (EcoTRAIN) are most qualified conferences in Turkey. These conferences simulate not only General Assembly committees, but also Joint Crisis Cabinets, Futuristic, Fictional and Historical timeline-based committees.

United Kingdom

There are a very large number of Model United Nations conferences on both the University and Sixth Form level in the United Kingdom. Almost every university that has an MUN society holds a yearly conference, of varying size, with the largest being London International Model United Nations - so much so a features film was shot about it (Winning London), followed by CUIMUN hosted in Cambridge and OxiMUN in Oxford. However, in recent years conferences such as YorkMUN and ScotMUN in Edinburgh have been gaining popularity amongst UK delegations. The UK MUN circuit is not particularly well integrated with the European circuit, with most UK delegations not crossing international borders to get to their conferences and international delegations to UK conferences outside of the big three a rarity, but recently European conferences have begun to recruit chairing staff quite heavily from the UK.



The Kabul Model United Nations was established in Kabul in 2014.[54][55] The objectives are to bring young female and male individuals together to discuss global issues and promote diplomacy, human rights, peace building, and social welfare.[55] Participants include university students up to the age of 30. They come from four or five Afghanistan provinces to develop critical thinking and public speaking skills.[56] Pamir International Model United Nations (PIMUN) was established in October 2016.[57]


Model United Nations conferences in Australia are typically separated into tertiary and high school levels. At the high school level, the large majority of Model United Nations events are organised by the various state and territory branches of UN Youth Australia,[58] or by the many branches of Rotary Australia.[59] Tertiary events, typically running for three to four days, occur within several Australian states, and are timed to coincide with holiday periods in tertiary semesters, with the largest three typically being VicMUN, NCMUN and SydMUN.


Model United Nations is practiced in Bangladesh since 2002, when the Model United Nations on Combating Terrorism - Bangladesh Model United Nations first took place.[60][61] Since then, plenty of Model United Nations conferences have been held in the country. But the concept of MUN became a popular one in Bangladesh from 2013.[62]

United Nations Youth and Students Association of Bangladesh (UNYSAB) established MUN in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Model United Nations conferences include: Bangladesh International Model United Nations 2012; Dhaka+20, Brainwiz MUN 2013 and UNYSAB MUN 2014, organized by UNYSAB. Conferences of much larger numbers were organized by UNYSAB when they organized Bangladesh Model United Nations (BANMUN) Session VII in June 2015 with more than 560 delegates [63] and Bangladesh International Model United Nations (BIMUN) Session II in November 2015, with over 850 delegates, the largest number in Bangladesh's history.[64]

MUN in Bangladesh grew rapidly after the formation of the first university based MUN club of the country Dhaka University Model United Nations Association in 2011.[citation needed] Dhaka University National Model United Nations (DUNMUN) started from 2012.[65][66][67] Worlds largest Model UN brand from India, Indian International Model United Nations is also slated to conduct its chapter conference in Dhaka in February 2016.[citation needed]


Model United Nations first came to China in 1995, when the China Foreign Affairs University held the country's first collegiate Model United Nations conferences.[68][69][70] Arriving in Chinese high schools in 2005, Model UN expanded rapidly. Peking University (PKU) students, after attending Harvard's HMUN, organized the first national Model UN conference for high school students in China.[citation needed] PKU's conference was initially backed by UNA-USA, however support was curtailed in 2010 due to the Great Recession.

Between 2005 and 2010, national Model United Nations conferences such as those organized by PKU and the rivaling Fudan University in Shanghai drew the best high school students from around the country, who competed for limited spaces. Over time, lesser-known national conferences, as well as regional and even local conferences for high school students, began to develop and gradually spread to cities beyond Beijing and Shanghai.[71]

In the realm of interscholastic Model United Nations conferences in China, the widely acknowledged[according to whom?] top 3 conferences are called "the ABC": Asian International Model United Nations held by Peking University; Beijing International Model United Nations held by China Foreign Affairs University, and China National Model United Nations, held by United Nations Association of China, hosted in different cities annually. Another famous conference is the Annual NEOMUN conference, also known as SCAMUN by internal members.[72]

Most Model United Nations conferences in China are organized through private or academic enterprises, however some government-affiliated MUNs have also flourished, and recently, unofficial student-run grassroots conferences have begun to dominate the Chinese MUN scene.[71]


In 1996, the Cathedral Model United Nations was hosted by The Cathedral and John Connon School in Mumbai.[citation needed] Since then, schools and colleges in India started taking up Model United Nations as an activity in their school.

In 2011 VIBGYOR Group of Schools Model United Nations (VHMUN) was created. This simulation is organized by school students every year.[citation needed]

In 2016, on 24, 25, 26 September. The Sri Sri Academy, in Kolkata organised its first Model United Nations Conference - SSMUN.[citation needed]

In 2017, on 11 and 12 November, Symbiosis International School in Pune hosted the inaugural edition of its entirely student-organized Model UN conference, SymbiMUN. The founder and Secretary-General of the conference, Siddharth Baphna, along with his organizing team of Symbiosis students, collaborated with the education nonprofit Teach for India to train and sponsor twenty underprivileged children to participate. They donated all proceeds from the event to Teach for India, and plan to expand annually to give more underprivileged children Model UN opportunities.[citation needed]

In the same year, 2017, a private Model UN conference was founded called the Backslash Model United Nations.[citation needed]

In 2018, Siliguri Model United Nations is organising its inaugural conference, in collaboration with the United Nations.

In 2018 , a Model UN with a goal to help the underprivileged sections of society was founded called The Social Model United Nations (TSMUN) [73]

In 2018, the BMVB Model United Nations (BMVB MUN) conference was held in collaboration with the Servants of the People Society.[74]


The Kansai High School Model United Nations (KHSMUN) is believed to be[by whom?] the first organised Model United Nations (MUN) conference aimed directly at high school English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students. The first conference was held in 1990 as a required project for third year students in Kyoto Gaidai Nishi High School's Course of International and Cultural Studies. This conference included 40 KGNHS students and 13 students from Kansai International High School in Toyonaka, Osaka. The two-day conference, held at Kyoto University of Foreign Studies, simulated the Commission on Human Rights and debated the agenda item of the Israel and Palestine Conflict. The conference went on to become an annual gathering of high school students studying EFL in Japan. Unlike the majority of other MUN events around the world, the Kansai High School Model United Nations is a non-competitive MUN event.[75]


The largest MUN conference in Korea is the Seoul Model United Nations (SEOMUN) Conference, which includes hundreds of participants from around the world. It has been held on an annual basis since 1997. The hosting responsibility rotates between three international schools in Korea: Korea International School, Seoul International School, and Seoul Foreign School. The conference is usually held at the Coex Mall in Gangnam District, Seoul.


The largest MUN conference in Taiwan is the Pan Asia MUN(PAMUN) Conference, which is held by National Taiwan University, also PAMUN is widely recognized[by whom?] as the most international MUN conference in Taiwan. There are also some regional MUN conference such as Taiwan Model United Nation (TWMUN) held by National Tsing Hua university(NTHU) and National Chiao Tung university(NCTU), Taipei Model United Nation (TMUN) held by National Chenchi University(NCCU), and Phoenix MUN held by National Cheng Kong University(NCKU). As opposed to in China, English is the usual official language of MUN in Taiwan except for some special committees which use Chinese as official language. There are also conferences for high school students in Taiwan, such as the Taiwan Model United Nation (TAIMUN) hosted by American School in Taichung, Southern Taiwan Model United Nation (STMUN) which take turns hosting by Kaohsiung American School and I-Shou International School. This trend is still booming. In 2017, the New Taipei City Model United Nations (NTCMUN) was held in New Taipei City. With the resource and service of the local government, participants are allowed to attend for free; moreover it provides simultaneous interpretation equipment to help participants understand the process thoroughly. The second session of NTCMUN is about to launch in August, 2018.


MUN in Thailand is usually hosted by the international schools and universities in Thailand. Bangkok Patana School, Concordian International School, Ekamai International School, Harrow International School, International Seaboard Eastern School, NIST International School, Chulalongkorn University and Thammasat University have all hosted Model United Nations conferences. These conferences are typically separated into university and high school levels. Model United Nations conferences are run by the school or the university club, with some guidance from their advisors. There are also conferences like ThaiMUN and APMUN, both are bigger than what the International School and university have hosted. APMUN was hosted by the Royal Thai Embassy on 20 to 24 September 2012. Unlike other Model United Nations conferences the APMUN and ThaiMUN are 3-4 day conferences, other Model United Nations conferences are usually hosted for 1 day. ThaiModel United Nations conferences are hosted by international schools or universities each year. Students from multiple international schools gather and form a host committee. The host committee decides where will ThaiMUN be hosted in that year. Thailand's MUN, unlike most Model United Nations conferences around the world, are non-competitive, and are intended to help students improve their academic and social skills .


Sindh: In the Province of Sindh Many of the Model United Nations have been organized by many Reputable Universities, Organizations and Educational Institutes.

Punjab: In the Province of Punjab Many of the Model United Nations have been organized by many reputable universities like Lahore University of Management Sciences. Punjab also has Pakistan's first ever academy for MUNs known as The Model UN Academy. In the city of Bahawalpur, MUNs are organised by Army Public School and Sadiq Public School.[76]

Name Abbreviation Organizer Location Year established
National Panchayat NP Young Democrats of Pakistan Karachi 2017
Forman Christian College Model United Nations FORMUN Forman Christian College Lahore 2015
Hope Model United Nations HopeMUN [Private] Karachi 2015
Mehran UET Model United Nations MUETMUN Mehran University of Engineering and Technology Jamshoro, Hyderabad 2015
College of Business Management Model United Nations CBMUN Literary and Public Speaking Society of IoBM Karachi
Hyderabad Model United Nations HYDMUN Students of Hyderabad Hyderabad 2014
Model United Nations IBA Karachi MUNIK Institute of Business Administration Karachi
Model United Nations in Guards Public College GPCMUN Guards Public College, Karachi Karachi
Neroon Kot Model United Nations NKMUN Mehran UET, QUEST and KYI (Know Your Importance) Hyderabad 2015
Model United Nation in LUMHS MUNIL Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences Hyderabad 2015
Pauls Model United Nation PAULMUN ST Pauls High School Karachi 2015
Karachi University Model United Nation KUMUN University of Karachi Karachi 2014
Bahawalpur Model United Nation BMUN [Private], Asim Masoom Zubair (President BMUN)(Campus Ambassador Youth Assembly United Nations), Emadudin Khan Bahawalpur 2017
Lahore Open Model United Nations LOMUN Syed Sabeet Raza, Syed Mohsin Raza, Afnan Shabbir, Ahmer Shabbir, Fiza Shehzad, Zubair Ahmed Lahore 2014

New Zealand

A high number of New Zealand high schools operate their own MUN events, with UN Youth New Zealand functioning as a managing organisation.[77] UN Youth NZ also organises regional and national events, along with Aotearoa Youth Declaration, the Pacific Project, and New Zealand's THIMUN delegation.[78]


The following are Model United Nation Conferences, Model ASEAN Conferences and other model diplomatic conferences held in Singapore.

  • SIMUN Singapore Model United Nations at the Singapore French School[79]
  • Raffles Model United Nations Conference 2019[80]
  • Dunman High Model ASEAN Plus Summit 2019[81]
  • National Public School International Model United Nations 2019[82]
  • Hwa Chong Conflict Resolution and Inquiry 2019[83]
  • International Model United Nations Conference / Middle Eastern Summit 2019[84]
  • River Valley Model United Nations 2019[85]
  • Sustainable Development Youth Convention 2019[citation needed]
  • Nanyang Technological University Model United Nations[86]
  • Singapore Chinese Girls' School Model United Nations 2019[87]
  • United Nations Association of Singapore Model United Nations Preparatory Conference 2019[88]
  • Saint Joseph's Institution Model United Nations 2018[89]
  • Singapore Model United Nations 2019[90]
  • Model United Nations 2019[91]
  • Jurong-Pioneer Junior College Model United Nations 2019[citation needed]


The idea of Model United Nations is relatively new among Vietnamese youth. There has been an increasing number of such conferences, including invitational ones such as UNISMUN, SAIMUN and many other non-invitational ones. These conferences are often organised by schools or student-led organizations with varying scale and exclusivity. One of the most inclusive Model United Nations conferences in the country is Vietnam National Model United Nations (VNMUN), open to not only Vietnamese in all parts of the country but also international students studying around the world.[92]

Middle East

Model United Nations is growing in popularity in the region. The largest conference in the region held in Doha, Qatar, held each January at the Qatar National Convention Center.[93] THIMUN Qatar currently hosts over 1500 student participants. The region boasts over 8 THIMUN-affiliated conferences in places such as Istanbul (MUNDP) Jordan (AMMUN), Dubai (DIAMUN), Bahrain (BayMUN), Cairo (CIMUN and MUN MIU) and Doha (DCMUN).[citation needed] Most countries in the region host numerous smaller conferences. The region also has its own regional MUN magazine, The Olive Branch, co-edited by THIMUN Qatar, THIMUN Online, and Best Delegate.[94]


Though local MUN conferences are popular in Lebanon, it was not until 2017 that an international MUN conference had been organized making BeyMUN (Beirut Model United Nations) the first international MUN conference held in Lebanon. In its first year, the conference drew more than 100 participants from local and international universities.[citation needed] After the success of BeyMUN'16, a second edition of the conference was underwent in 21-23, April 2017.


The Indian High School Model United Nations is one of the largest Model United Nations conferences in the region. It has conducted many conferences, intra-school and international in the past.

Saudi Arabia

Model United Nations play a big role in Extra-Curricular Activities in many schools. The American International School, Riyadh, hosts an annual intra-school conference, with a significant attendance from the British International School, Riyadh. In British International School, a weekly gathering is conducted to entertain a Model UN Conference and debate on a resolution.


Model Un has recently become popular in Israel with the organisation proMUN taking the lead to host local clubs and conferences in the country.



Model United Nations Conference was organized for the very first time in Algeria[95] back in 2014 by Mr. ARIF Abdeljalil, and so far it is approved to be a unique chance for Algerian youth talents to network and discuss world issues, as it offered them the opportunity to participate in an experiential education in practical global policymaking.

Algeria MUN[96] celebrated its 3rd Annual Conference in December 2016 -Algiers- which was organized in 3 languages; English, Arabic and French. The profile of participant in this youth-based event should be between the age 16 to 29 years old, a current student, English understanding, and taking an active role in our society.


Conferences in Tunisia are mostly found in Tunis and they are usually sponsored by the Tunisian International Model United Nations (TIMUN[97]). The most famous conference in Tunisia is the "Grande Simulation annuelle du TIMUN" in Tunis, which host more than 300 delegates. These conferences are usually hosted by the biggest national universities. Since the 6th edition, the "Grande Simulation annuelle" is under the patronage of the Tunisian Minister of Foreign Affairs and welcomes Tunisian ministers and diplomats.[citation needed]

Other countries

The other conferences in Africa include NIAMUN[98] in Marrakech. Established in August 2012 by a coalition of North African youths, NAIMUN is the largest student-run Model United Nations conference in Africa and the Middle East, with 4 sub-branches in Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria and Egypt. It trains and encourages young people to address pressing global issues and engages them in resolving global problems. NAIMUN is a non-profit organization which provides an equal opportunity for all youth to actively participate in an open debate. JoMUN[99] in Johannesburg, and the recently founded IMIRAMUN[100] in Windhoek took place in Benin, in Cotonou. The first edition of Algeria Model United Nations was held in December 2014.[101] The East African Model United Nations (EAMUN) takes place in Nairobi, Kenya. Also mentionable is the recently conducted Lagos Model United Nations held at the University of Lagos in Nigeria, the first of its kind in West Africa. The conference first held in 2016 and is hoped to be an annual occurrence. The idea was made reality by Nigerian Students of the Faculty of Law of the aforementioned University after several experiences of the National MUN especially winning many awards.

South America



The Americas Model United Nations (AMUN[102] ) was the first MUN Conference to be held in Latin America, accomplishing 21 years of history in 2018 with the edition Bring Walls Down, Build Up Connections. The event official language is English, which has enabled AMUN to receive students from various countries worldwide. The Model seeks to get as close as possible to the reality of a multilateral diplomatic forum, including its specific rules and procedures. The committees vary with each edition of the project, as well as its themes addressed, among which are international security, cooperation, human rights, democracy and transnational crimes. The event lasts five days and extrapolates the academic sphere, allowing interpersonal experiences and cultural activities. Among the cultural activities, there is a tour around Brasília, the city hosting the event, and the Nations Fair, in which the peculiarities and customs of each country are shown by the participants representing them on the Conference.

BRAMUN - BRAMUN - is a conference that occurs yearly in March and is designed for high school students from different countries in South America. The conference happens at Costa do Sauípe in Bahia, Brazil and will be heading to its seventeenth edition in 2019. BRAMUN 2019 will have ten committees: five "normal" committees among which are included the Security Council, Historic Security Council, the Political Committee, ECOSOC and the Human Rights Council and five special committees. Some examples of special committees will be the Crisis Cabinet of the Spanish Popular Front, the European Commission, the International Court of Justice and the Cabinets of Khrushchev and Eisenhower which will have joint topics. BRAMUN also has activities for delegates to participate when they are not participating in their respective committees. These activities make part of the BRAMUN Cup, which in the past has included football, basketball, volleyball, knowledge bowl, Mr. and Ms. BRAMUN, a treasure hunt and a Delegate Luau.

SMUN - The Swiss Model United Nations - is an annual conference strictly for high school students. The conference is held by Colégio Suíço-brasileiro de Curitiba, hence the "Swiss" name. Each year, the conference is reinvented, 2016's edition had committees such as the Commission on Narcotic Drugs and the Scientific and Technological Subcommittee of COPUOS (Committee On the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space), whereas the 2017 conference was entirely composed of crisis committees with a special committee called the Crisis Directorate Committee, specifically made to design and develop crisis. International high schools are invited every year to participate however, schools can also volunteer to participate.

FAMUN - FACAMP Model United Nations – is a model annually organized by FACAMP – Faculdades de Campinas, located in the city of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil.
It is a multidisciplinary initiative with the objective of simulating different international organizations, especially the ones under the United Nations organisational umbrella.
Over 5 days, approximately 500 high school and college students from different Brazilian cities discuss issues of great international relevance by performing the role as Heads of State and Government, Ministers and Diplomats.
The organization of FAMUN follows the orientation of the UN4MUN approach: developed by the United Nations Department of Public Information, the approach proposes to bring MUNs’ practice closer to the real procedures of the United Nations. The result is a focus on debate that captures the spirit of cooperation and the process of reaching consensus.[103]


At university level, Model United Nations started in Peru in 2006 with the United Nations Studies Circle (CENU), a college team from the University of Lima founded to compete at Harvard National Model United Nations. This team would evolution into a full-scale organization, the Peruvian Association for the Study of the United Nations (AENU Peru for its Spanish acronym), a non-for-profit NGO charged with task of promoting MUN in Peru and creating Peru's first "National Delegation", using past experience to select the finest delegates from Peru's finest universities, thus creating the Peruvian Universities Debate Team (PU). Starting their new trademark since 2011, PU's has garnered the Best Large Delegation award at Harvard World Model United Nations 2014 held in Brussels, Belgium, and the Best Large Delegation award at Harvard National Model United Nations - Latin America 2017, held in Lima, Peru.

In 2014, Peruvian Debate Society was founded by experienced MUN delegates as a new alternative towards competing in Harvard International Relations Council conferences. Starting their full-scale performance in 2015, PDS's has achieved the Best Large Delegation award at Harvard National Model United Nations - Latin America in three editions out of four participations. Recently, the team became the second Peruvian delegation to win the Best Large Delegation award at Harvard World Model United Nations 2018, held in Panama City, Panama.

At high school level, MUN has been a popular extracurricular activity since 2012, with the first high school conference Lima Model United Nations (LiMUN) 2012, followed by Villa Maria Model United Nations (VMMUN) 2015, Newton Model United Nations (NewMUN) 2015, and Carmelitas Model United Nations 2015, being the latter school the host for the first Ivy League Model United Nations Conference Peru (ILMUNC 2016). Each school delegation hosts its own conference, transcending from the capital city of Lima to Cusco, Arequipa and Piura.

In 2015, the Promotora International de Debates - Perú (PRIDE Peru) was founded as an NGO towards the projection of creating the first Inter-school Delegation, United Schools of Peru, in order to compete internationally. The team has garnered twice the Best International Delegation award at the Ivy League Model United Nations Conference (2016 & 2018), and at the WFUNA International Model United Nations (WIMUN 2017 & 2018).

North America

United States

Notable participants

See also

Further reading

  • Dille, Brian (2017). Engaging the United Nations: A Brief Introduction to the UN. Engagement Learning. ISBN 9780998851808.
  • Leslie, Scott A. (2004). A Guide to Delegate Preparation: A Model United Nations Handbook. The United Nations Association of the United States of America, 2004 edition (October 2004), softcover, 296 pages. ISBN 1-880632-71-3.
  • Muldoon, J. P. (1995). The Model United Nations Revisited. Simulation & Gaming, 26(1), 27–35. doi:10.1177/1046878195261003


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External links