Model United Nations
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Model United Nations, also known as Model UN or MUN, is an educational simulation and/or academic competition in which students can learn about diplomacy, international relations, and the United Nations. MUN involves and teaches researching, public speaking, debating, and writing skills, in addition to critical thinking, teamwork, and leadership abilities. Usually an extracurricular activity, some schools also offer MUN as a class.
Participants in Model UN conferences, known as delegates, are placed in committees and assigned countries, or occasionally other organizations or political figures, where they represent members of that body. They are presented with their assignments in advance, along with a topic or topics that their committee will discuss. Delegates conduct research before conferences and formulate positions that they will then debate with their fellow delegates in the committee, staying true to the actual position of the member they represent. At the end of a conference, the best-performing delegates in each committee, as well as delegations, are sometimes recognized with awards.
Model UN participants include students at middle school, high school, and college/university levels, with most conferences catering to just one of these three levels (high school and college conferences being most common). Delegates usually attend conferences together as delegations sent by their respective schools' or universities' Model UN clubs, though some delegates attend conferences independently.
- 1 History
- 2 Procedures
- 3 Languages
- 4 Attire
- 5 Committees
- 6 Organization
- 7 Model UN by region and country
- 7.1 The Americas
- 7.2 Europe
- 7.3 Asia-Pacific
- 7.4 Middle East
- 7.5 Africa
- 8 Notable participants
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
Model UN began as a series of student-led Model League of Nations simulations. It is believed that the first Model League of Nations conferences were held in the 1920s, before transitioning to Model UN after the formation of the League's successor organization, the United Nations, in 1945. Today, some Model UN conferences include simulations of the League of Nations among their committee offerings.
The first Model United Nations was held at St. Lawrence University from February 11–13, 1949. It was initiated by Dr. Harry Reiff, Head of the History and Government Department, with the assistance of departmental colleague Otto L. George. Dr. Reiff was a technical advisor on the United States delegation to the 1945 San Francisco Conference (where the UN Charter was written) and the UN Organizational Conference in London in 1945-46 (where the UN was established). The 1949 St. Lawrence University Model UN conference included delegates from regional conferences and universities, including Adelphi, Alfred, Champlain, Clarkson, McGill, Middlebury, Potsdam, St. Michael's, and Vermont. The conference continued annual for many years at St. Lawrence  and has recently been revived on the campus. Other Model UN conference were developed later at Berkeley, Harvard and the National Model United Nations  Harvard Model United Nations (HMUN), and National Model United Nations (NMUN NY) as well as many other colleges and universities.
In recent decades, Model UN has spread to East and South Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, and sub-Saharan Africa, with major conference organizers such as Indian International Model United Nations, Harvard and THIMUN establishing additional conferences in these regions to meet burgeoning demand. The Ivy League Model United Nations, an arm of the Model UN at the University of Pennsylvania, hosts conferences for high-school-aged delegates in India and China, as well.
In order to maintain decorum, most Model UN use parliamentary procedure derived from Robert's Rules of Order. However, most crisis committees forgo the formality of parliamentary procedure so as to ensure smoother operation. In addition, recently the United Nations has spearheaded efforts to introduce new Model UN rules of procedure that are more closely aligned with those used by the actual UN. Since there is no governing body for MUNs, each conference differs in the rules of procedure. The following rules of procedure apply to general MUNs but may not apply to every MUN:
MUNs are run by a group of administrators known as the dais. A dais is headed by a Secretary-General. Each committee usually has a chair (also known as moderator), a member of the dais that enforces the rules of procedure. A delegate may request the committee as a whole to perform a particular action; this is known as a motion. Documents aiming to address the issue of the committee are known as resolutions and are voted for ratification.
MUN committees can be divided into three general sessions: formal debate, moderated caucus, and unmoderated caucus. In a formal debate, the staff maintains a list of speakers and the delegates follow the order written on the 'speaker list'. Speakers may be added to the speaker list by raising their placards or sending a note to the chair. During this time, delegates talk to the entire committee. They make speeches, answer questions, and debate on resolutions and amendments. If there are no other motions, the committee goes back to formal debate by default. There is usually a time limit. In a moderated caucus, the committee goes into a recess and the rules of procedure are suspended. Anyone may speak if recognized by the chair. A vote on a motion is necessary to go into a moderated caucus. There is a comparatively shorter time limit per speech. In an unmoderated caucus, the delegates informally meet with other delegates and the staff for discussions.
Resolutions are the basis of all debate. They are considered the final results of conversations, writings, and negotiations. Resolutions must go through a draft, approval by the dais, and consequent debate and modification.
Traditionally, English has been the official and working language of most conferences, but, as Model UN has become more popular around the world, and as conferences in countries such as the United States have sought to appeal to underrepresented minorities (such as the Spanish-speaking community), committees using languages other than English, or which are bilingual, have become common. It should be noted, however, that this is still not yet a mainstream phenomenon, especially not in the United States, where most bilingual or Spanish language committees are found at conferences hosted in Puerto Rico or the South.
Nearly all Model UN conferences require delegates to wear Western business attire, as dressing professionally is an important way to show respect for the nation, organization, or individual one is representing, as well as for the rest of one’s committee.
A special committee that does not have a parallel in the actual United Nations which deals with a crisis is known as a 'Crisis Committee.' In this committee, a crisis is given to a team of students and the teams must come up with solutions. The Crisis Committee focuses on a single historical event. The event may be fictional or non-fictional.
MUNs are usually organized by high school clubs or college clubs. Organizations that coordinate MUNs such as the United Nations Association of the United States of America (UNA-USA) are considered important organizing forces.
Model UN by region and country
Although Model United Nations originated in the United States, MUN clubs and conferences are not isolated to that country. Rather, like the actual UN, Model UN is found in countries around the globe. Because Model UN is decentralized and has grown autonomously around the world, there are significant differences in how MUN is done between regions.
United States of America
MUN is referred to as National Model United Nations, also known as NMUN. There are two conferences held yearly, in New York and in Washington DC. NMUN-NY is typically held in late March/early April and NMUN-DC is held in November. NMUN-NY is a two week conference held near the UN Headquarters.
MUN is relatively popular in Denmark, with conferences at both high-school and university level. It was first introduced in 2003, it has since spread with 3 major conferences at high-school level, with at least 400 participants at each conference, with BIGMUN being the largest conference in Scandinavia.
MUN is very popular in Greece, with conferences at both high-school and university level. The first simulation introduced was Athens Model United Nations, commonly known as AMUN, in 1998 with its sister conference, Thessaloniki Model United Nations, was introduced in 2002. Both these simulations operate on a high-school level. The first university-level MUN was introduced in 2002, in Thessaloniki, known as Thessaloniki International Student Model United Nations (ThessISMUN). Held annually by the University of Macedonia, it is the leading conference in Greece, and one of the largest in Eastern Europe, with the 2016 edition hosting over 550 students. It has been named a 'Friend of the United Nations', it was included in the celebrations for the 70th anniversary of the United Nations and it has received messages from their Excellencies, the former Secretary General Boutros Boutros Ghali and current Secretary General Ban Ki-moon. There are no other MUN conferences in Greece, but students participate in MEUs hosted by the University of Piraeus (Europa.S.), and Panteion University (Eurosimulation Athens). Greece has a UNESCO simulation, held by Ionian University in Corfu, known as SimUNESCO, and the one-of-a-kind Model of Regional Co-operation, held by the University of the Aegean in Rhodes, known as RhodesMRC, which is the second largest conference in Greece after ThessISMUN.
MUN has become increasingly popular in the Republic of Ireland, with conferences at both secondary school and university level. Popular secondary school conferences are held by St. Andrew's College, Dublin which hosts it's annual SAIMUN conference, Wesley College (Dublin) which hosts it WCDMUN  and Davis College Mallow, County Cork which has been hosting it's international DCMUN conference since 2014. At university level, the University College Cork International Relations Society hosts a Model UN Conference, as does University College Dublin.
MUN in the Netherlands is almost entirely related to The Hague International Model United Nations (THIMUN) conference, which includes over 3500 participants coming from around 200 schools and 100 different countries. Although it is not located near the United-Nations Headquarters in New-York, it is one of the pioneer MUN conferences in the world, since it has been founded in 1968 and located in the International Court of Justice's (ICJ) world city of the Hague. A whole network of conferences is marked by its THIMUN affiliation, a label which basically describes the universality of the procedures that rule the conference and make it part of the UN recognized foundation. In 1995 the THIMUN Foundation was accredited as a Non-Governmental Organisation (NGO) associated with the United Nations Department of Public Information. Also, the THIMUN has established its own conferences' network throughout time: THIMUN Qatar, THIMUN Singapore, THIMUN Online MUN (O-MUN) and THIMUN Latin America conferences have been set up from 2005.
Istanbul, the largest city in Turkey, hosts particularly many High School level conferences, among them there are Model United Nations Development Programme (MUNDP), Kabatas Model United Nations Conference (KMUN), Robert College International Model United Nations Conference (RCIMUN), Turkish International Model United Nations (TIMUN), Yeditepe Model United Nations Training and Development Conference, ITU International Model United Nations,. Prof. Dr. Mümtaz Turhan Social Sciences High School Model United Nations (SOBILMUN) 
Model United Nations conferences in Australia are typically separated into tertiary and high school levels. At the high school level, the large majority of Model United Nations events are organised by the various state and territory branches of UN Youth Australia, or by the many Australian Rotary Clubs and Districts. Tertiary events, typically running for three to four days, occur within several Australian states, and are timed to coincide with holiday periods in tertiary semesters.
Model United Nations is practiced in Bangladesh since 2002. The first MUN to take place was the Model United Nations on Combating Terrorism - Bangladesh Model United Nations 2002. Since then, plenty of MUN conferences have been held in the country. But the concept of MUN became a popular one in Bangladesh from 2013.
United Nations Youth and Students Association of Bangladesh (UNYSAB) is the pioneer of MUN in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Model United Nations conferences, Bangladesh International Model United Nations 2012, Dhaka+20, Brainwiz MUN 2013, UNYSAB MUN 2014 were organized by UNYSAB. MUNs if much larger numbers were organized by UNYSAB the past year when they organized Bangladesh Model United Nations (BANMUN) Session VII in June 2015 with more than 560 delegates  and Bangladesh International Model United Nations (BIMUN) Session II in November 2015, with over 850 delegates, the largest number in Bangladesh's history.
The arena of MUN started growing leaps and bounds after the formation of the first university based MUN club of the country Dhaka University Model United Nations Association in 2011. Dhaka University National Model United Nations (DUNMUN), the most prestigious MUN conference of the country, started from 2012.
Another university based MUN club of the country Jahangirnagar University Model United Nations Association established in 2015. Jahangirnagar Model United Nations (JMUN), one of the most prestigious MUN conference of the country, started from 2015.
Worlds largest Model UN brand from India, Indian International Model United Nations is also slated to conduct its chapter conference in Dhaka in February 2016.
The Scholastica MUN (SMUN) is fast becoming a popular meet for school students, the 1st SMUN in 2016 was participated by over 100 delegates from various schools in Dhaka. The 2nd SMUN to be hold from the 25–27 August 2016 is expected to host over 250 delegates from all over the country. Scholastica is looking forward to the 2017 MUN scheduled to be hold in 28–30 September 2017.
Model United Nations first came to China in 1995, when the elite China Foreign Affairs University held the country's first collegiate MUN conference. Arriving in Chinese high schools in 2005, Model UN expanded rapidly. Peking University (PKU) students, after attending Harvard's HMUN, organized the first national Model UN conference for high school students in China. PKU's conference was initially backed by UNA-USA, however support was curtailed in 2010 due to the Great Recession.
Between 2005 and 2010, national MUN conferences such as those organized by PKU and the rivaling Fudan University in Shanghai drew the best high school students from around the country, who competed for limited spaces. Over time, lesser-known national conferences, as well as regional and even local conferences for high school students, began to develop and gradually spread to cities beyond Beijing and Shanghai.
In the realm of interscholastic MUN conferences in China, the widely acknowledged top 3 conferences are called "the ABC": Asian International Model United Nations held by Peking University; Beijing Model United Nations held by China Foreign Affairs University, and China National Model United Nations, held by United Nations Association of China, hosted in different cities annually.
Most MUN conferences in China are organized through private or academic enterprises, however some government-affiliated MUNs have also flourished, and recently, unofficial student-run grassroots conferences have begun to dominate the Chinese MUN scene.
Model United Nations at the high school level has a long history in Hong Kong. Till date, many conferences have taken place before and after the handover of the city to the People's Republic of China. The city's longest running, and arguably most popular conference is HKMUN (Hong Kong Model United Nations), while other simulations are run by students from other international schools. Prominent schools in the city's MUN circuit include Renaissance College, Island School, Australian International School, Diocesan Boys School & Hong Kong International School.
In 1996 the Cathedral Model United Nations (CMUN) was hosted by The Cathedral and John Connon School in Mumbai. Since then, Model UN has become increasingly popular in India, with an estimated 200 conferences held in the country in 2012 alone, most concentrated in Chennai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Mumbai, Bangalore, Pune and Kolkata . Global Indian MUN made it popular in Patna, Bihar with two subsequent editions in two years.
The Delhi circuit is know for regularly hosting conferences atleast once a week and sometimes several conferences are held on the same date.
Another famous MUN in Delhi is the Columban MUN hosted by St.Columba's School, New Delhi which is one of the premier institutions in the country. The Columban MUN gained immense popularity in its innaugral MUN in 2013.A Model United Nations is to be hosted by the Capital Centre,Deartment of International Relations ,Central University of Kerala,Trivandrum during the second week of October 2016
Global Indus MUN(former Global Indian MUN) is a flagship event of Ummid Foundation took initiative to introduce concept of Model UN in Patna, Bihar in year 2015. 2016 witnessed its 2nd event with 300+ delegates.
The Kansai High School Model United Nations (KHSMUN) is believed to be the first organised Model United Nations (MUN) conference aimed directly at high school English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students. The first conference was held in 1990 as a required project for third year students in Kyoto Gaidai Nishi High School's Course of International and Cultural Studies. This conference included 40 KGNHS students and 13 students from Kansai International High School in Toyonaka, Osaka. The two-day conference, held at Kyoto University of Foreign Studies, simulated the Commission on Human Rights and debated the agenda item of the Israel and Palestine Conflict. The conference went on to become an annual gathering of high school students studying EFL in Japan. Unlike other MUN events around the world, the Kansai High School Model United Nations is a non-competitive MUN event.
|2013||Water for Life|
|2014||Global Food Security|
|2015||The Rights of the Child|
|2016||Protecting the Rights of Refugees|
The Model United Nations in South Korea is widely known with a high rate of participation. Typically, many students participate in the version for high school students or for youth. At the university level, most of the students have already taken part at the MUN during their high school years and occasionally participate more than once during their college years. MUN at the university level has some committees only conducted in English and some in Korean. In 2014, at the 20th Edition of the National Model United Nations of the Republic of Korea celebrated at Yonsei University, Wonju Camps, the Secretary General of the UN, Ban Ki-moon sent a video welcoming and encouraging the students participating at the competition.
Many of the Model United Nations events have been organized by many reputable universities, organizations and educational institutes. The most prestigious of these are held in the cities of Karachi, Lahore, and Islamabad, though less notable MUNs are held in most major cities of the country. The growing of number of MUNs in these cities has resulted in the formation of a 'MUN Culture' throughout Pakistan, which helps students develop confidence and enables them to become acquainted with debating.
|GIKI Model United Nations||GIMUN||Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology||Topi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa||2007|
|Awesome Person Ever Model United Nation||MMUN||Maham Mukaram||Rawalpindi||1999|
|College of Business Management Model United Nations||CBMUN||Literary and Public Speaking Society of IoBM||Karachi|
|Hyderabad Model United Nations||HYDMUN||Students of Hyderabad||Hyderabad||2014|
|Beaconhouse Margalla Institute Diplomats' Conference||BMIDC||Students of Beaconhouse Margalla Institute||Islamabad|
|Model United Nations IBA Karachi||MUNIK||Institute of Business Administration||Karachi|
|Model United Nations in Guards Public College||GPCMUN||Guards Public College, Karachi||Karachi|
|Neroon Kot Model United Nations||NKMUN||Mehran UET, QUEST and KYI (Know Your Importance)||Hyderabad||2015|
|Model United Nation in LUMHS||MUNIL||Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences||Hyderabad||2015|
|Model United Nation in SMA||SMAMUN||Saint Mary's Academy||Rawalpindi||2005|
|QUEST Model United Nations||Q-MUN||Quaid-e-Awam University of Engineering, Science and Technology||Nawabshah|
|Badin Model United Nations||Badin-MUN||Students of Badin City||Badin||2016|
|NED UET Model United Nations||NEDMUN||OpenMIC||Karachi||201|
A high number of New Zealand high schools operate their own MUN events, with UN Youth New Zealand functioning as a managing organisation. UN Youth NZ also organises regional and national events, along with Aotearoa Youth Declaration, the Pacific Project, and New Zealand's THIMUN delegation.
The following are Model United Nation Conferences, Model ASEAN Conferences and other model diplomatic conferences held in Singapore.
- Singapore Model United Nations
- Raffles Model United Nations Conference
- Dunman High Model ASEAN Plus Summit
- Youth Model ASEAN Conference
- Hwa Chong Conflict Resolution and Inquiry
- International Model United Nations Conferences
- Middle East Summit
- River Valley Model United Nations
- Sustainable Development Youth Convention
- Nanyang Technological University Model United Nations
- Singapore Chinese Girls' School Model United Nations Conference
- United Nations Association of Singapore Model United Nations Preparatory Conference
- Saint Joseph's Institution Model United Nations
- Yale-NUS Asia-Pacific Model United Nations
- Victoria School Model United Nations
The idea of Model United Nations is relatively new among Vietnamese youth. There has been an increasing number of such conferences, including invitational ones such as UNISMUN, SAIMUN and many other non-invitational ones. These conferences are often organised by schools or student-led organizations with varying scale and exclusivity. One of the most inclusive Model United Nations conferences in the country is Vietnam National Model United Nations (VNMUN), open to not only Vietnamese in all parts of the country but also international students studying around the world.
Model United Nations is growing in popularity in the region. The largest conference in the region held in Doha, Qatar, held each January at the Qatar National Convention Center. THIMUN Qatar currently hosts over 1500 student participants. The region boasts over 8 THIMUN-affiliated conferences in places such as Istanbul (MUNDP) Jordan (AMMUN), Dubai (DIAMUN),Abu Dhabi (CAMUN), Bahrain (BayMUN), Cairo (CACMUN, HIAMUN, AISMUN and BISKMUN) and Doha (DCMUN). Most countries in the region host numerous smaller conferences. The region also has its own regional MUN magazine, The Olive Branch, co-edited by THIMUN Qatar, THIMUN Online, and Best Delegate.
The Global Classrooms program in the Middle East has been officially and exclusively implemented by the Lebanese American University in Lebanon. In 2015, United Nations Foundation entrusted LAU with the ownership of the Global Classrooms International Model UN conferences in New York City beginning spring 2016.
The LAU MUN High School program was first launched in 2005-2006 with 541 students from 76 participating schools. In 2010-2011, GC LAU MUN inaugurated its Middle School program and today, the program has witnessed exponential growth in both the numbers of students and participating schools. In its 10th year, the LAU MUN program hosted more than 2,600 students from 174 participating schools during its training sessions and conference.
For the past 10 years, more than 1,000,000 hours of teaching peace building and diplomacy were offered to a total of 16,000 Middle School and High School students from around 174 schools throughout Lebanon and from selected schools in the Arab world.
For the past 10 years, LAU sent 64 high school students to participate in the Global Classrooms International Model UN. With more than 1,500 students from more than 150 youth associations, the LAU delegation showed outstanding results in its international performance whereby the 64 students won 64 awards ranging between Diplomacy Awards and Secretary General Awards.
The success of the LAU MUN reached its utmost level of achievements when the entire Lebanese Delegation won:
- In 2014, the “Best Delegation Award” culminating in a six out of six highest awards to be given at the 15th Annual Global Classrooms International Model United Nations conference.
- In 2012, the “Secretary-General Award” in the 13th Annual Global Classrooms International Model United Nations Conference.
All students who adhere to the attendance policy will receive a Certificate of Participation. Also, to show appreciation for the esteemed advisors’ cooperation, school’s registered official advisors will also be recognized with an Advisor’s Certificate. In addition to that, students with a distinguished performance can receive: Best Position Paper Award, Diplomacy Award, and/or Secretary General’s Award. Schools with the highest ratio of awards with respect to the size of their delegation receive the Best Delegation Award. Awarded students who decide to enroll in LAU for their higher education, will receive a specific amount of scholarship.
UAE boasts MUN conferences majorly in Dubai and Abu Dhabi with conferences such as DIAMUN, CAMUN, MUN@DPSD and IHSMUN taking place. The Indian High School Model United Nations has been successfully one of the largest HMUN conferences in the region. Indian International Model United Nations is also scheduled to conduct an MUN conference in UAE in 2016. Cambridge Model United Nations (CAMUN) has been successfully running since 2008.
Conferences in Tunisia are mostly found in Tunis and they are usually sponsored by the Tunisian International Model United Nations (TIMUN). The most famous conference in Tunisia is the "Grande Simulation annuelle du TIMUN" in Tunis, which host more than 300 delegates. These conferences are usually hosted by the biggest national universities. Since the 6th edition, the "Grande Simulation annuelle" is under the patronage of the Tunisian Minister of Foreign Affairs and welcomes Tunisian ministers and diplomats.
The other conferences in Africa include NIAMUN in Marrakech Established in August 2012 by a coalition of North African youths, NAIMUN is the largest student-run Model United Nations conference in Africa and the Middle East, with 4 sub-branches in Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria and Egypt .It trains and encourages young people to address pressing global issues and engage them in resolving global problems. NAIMUN is a non-profit organization which provides an equal opportunity for all youth to actively participate in an open debate., JoMUN in Johannesburg, and the recently founded IMIRAMUN in Windhoek a recent one took place in Benin, in Cotonou. The first edition of Algeria Model United Nations was held in December 2014. The East African Model United Nations (EAMUN) takes place in Nairobi, Kenya.
Model UN builds skills that are useful in a wide variety of fields, with many participants having gone on to become leaders in diplomacy, politics, law and the media.
When I was an undergraduate at Stanford, I was twice a delegate to the Model United Nations and once a member of the Secretariat (when Stanford was the host). Students are enthusiastic role-players. We had to learn how nations and their representatives could work with others. We learned about how the United Nations (and international relations) worked in practice. The experience was valuable; the conferences were educational; and it was great fun. I am delighted to learn more than half a century later the Model UN is still going strong. I should think that in today’s great global conversation it offers ... students an even more valuable experience.— U.S. Supreme Court Justice Stephen Breyer
- Kiyotaka Akasaka, Former UN Under-Secretary-General for Communications and Public Information
- Ban Ki-moon, Secretary-General of the United Nations
- Stephen Breyer, Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court
- Chelsea Clinton, former first daughter of the United States
- Tom Donilon, former National Security Advisor in the Obama administration
- Samuel L. Jackson, American actor and producer
- Suzan G. LeVine, U.S. Ambassador to Switzerland and Liechtenstein
- Paul Ryan, Speaker of the House
- Stephen M. Schwebel, former judge and president of the International Court of Justice
- Ryan Seacrest, American television personality, best known as host of American Idol
- Joel Stein, American journalist, former writer for the Los Angeles Times and regular contributor to Time
- George Stephanopoulos, television journalist and former adviser to U.S. President Bill Clinton
- Rainn Wilson, actor best known for playing Dwight Schrute on NBC's The Office
- Best Delegate
- Boys State
- Experiential learning
- Global civics
- Global Classrooms
- List of Model United Nations conferences
- Mock trial
- Model Arab League
- Model Congress
- Model Crime Investigations
- Model United States Senate
- Moot court
- United Nations
- United Nations Association of the United States of America
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