New Democrats

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New Democrats, also known as centrist Democrats, Clinton Democrats, or moderate Democrats, are a centrist ideological faction within the Democratic Party in the United States. As the Third Way faction of the party, they are seen as culturally liberal on social issues while being moderate or fiscally conservative on economic issues.[1] New Democrats dominated the party from the late 1980s through the mid-2010s, and continue to be a large coalition in the modern Democratic Party.

However, with the rise of progressivism with presidential candidate Bernie Sanders in 2016 and 2020, higher support for protectionism in the United States,[2] and a general leftward shift of the Democratic Party since the 2010s, this faction of the party has lost popularity to the progressive wing of the party.[3][4][5][6]



After the landslide defeats to the Republican Party led by Ronald Reagan and George H. W. Bush in the 1980s, a group of prominent Democrats began to believe their party was out of touch and in need of a radical shift in economic policy and ideas of governance.[7][8] The Democratic Leadership Council (DLC) was founded in 1985 by Al From and a group of like-minded politicians and strategists.[9] They advocated a political Third Way as an antidote to the electoral successes of Reaganism.[7][8]

The landslide 1984 presidential election defeat spurred centrist Democrats to action, and the DLC was formed. The DLC, an unofficial party organization, played a critical role in moving the Democratic Party's policies to the center of the American political spectrum. Prominent Democratic politicians such as Senators Al Gore and Joe Biden (both future Vice Presidents, and Biden a future President) participated in DLC affairs prior to their candidacies for the 1988 Democratic Party nomination.[10] The DLC did not want the Democratic Party to be "simply posturing in the middle", and instead framed its ideas as "progressive" and as a "Third Way" to address the problems of its era. Examples of the DLC's policy initiatives can be found in The New American Choice Resolutions.[10][11]

Although the New Democrat label was briefly used by a progressive reformist group including Gary Hart and Eugene McCarthy in 1989,[12] the term became more widely associated with the New Orleans Declaration,[13] Bill Clinton's subsequent criticism of Democratic Presidential hopeful Jesse Jackson's variant of Rainbow/PUSH,[14] and policies of the DLC which in 1990 renamed its bi-monthly magazine from The Mainstream Democrat to The New Democrat.[15] When then-Governor Clinton stepped down as DLC chairman to run for the presidency in the 1992 United States presidential election, he presented himself as a New Democrat.[16]

First wave[edit]

After 1974, the Yellow Dog, Atari, and Watergate Baby factions within the Democratic Party found a common thread in "liberal" iterations of "illusory" supply-side progressivism, advancing their mutual conceptions of "centrism" and post-industrial society. Democratic voter "tax revolts" that began in the Carter Administration, and continued into the first Reagan Administration, unraveled this common thread. Bill Clinton and additional partisans subsequently organized the Democratic Leadership Council in 1985 and, four years later, the Progressive Policy Institute.[17] The DLC and PPI, the latter of which recently sponsored Neoliberal Project "young pragmatists" to "modernize progressive politics",[18] promoted post-1985 configurations in fiscal and monetary "leadership" for a revival of the front.[19] Elements of DLC convocations and PPI research later (re)introduced Joseph Schumpeter's innovation economics, and creative destruction as revolution, to Democratic Party platforms on political economy. Their efforts also produced electoral recoveries and even gains, especially during the 1992 elections.[20]

Historian Michael Kazin argues that the shift marked a divergence from Keynesian public spending, which aimed to stimulate a consumer market rally in a given economic sector, particularly by "laboring" individuals and families. These were fiscal and monetary goals of the latter half of the Second New Deal, as well as early Cold War liberalism. For this thesis, Clinton's "the era of big government is over" partially signified a reduction in government standards for determining levels of consumer resurgence, and the limits of public spending, in an economic sector. Kazin favored an updated version of these platforms for the Progressive Caucus and Bernie Sanders, albeit with a more diversified consumer base, in his "moral capitalism." This Kazin concept was connected to, yet distinct from, Ethical consumerism in the moral economy of capitalism.

Second wave[edit]

Presidency of Bill Clinton[edit]

Bill Clinton in 1993 signing NAFTA agreements

Bill Clinton is the Democratic politician most identified with the New Democrats due to his promise of welfare reform in the 1992 United States presidential campaign and its subsequent enactment, his 1992 promise of a middle-class tax cut and his 1993 expansion of the Earned Income Tax Credit for the working poor.[8] New Democrat successes under Clinton, underpinned by the writings of Anthony Giddens on the duality of structure, sustained a unity of opposites that became the hallmark of Third Way political economy. Allusions to this Third Way as syncretic politics and unus pro omnibus, omnes pro uno, should be explicated and the concepts assessed in shifting contexts. New Democrats are often regarded to have inspired Tony Blair in the United Kingdom and his policies within the Labour Party as New Labour, as well as prompting the continental conflation of Third Way approaches to social democracy with previous notions of democratic socialism. The two were often used interchangeably by political scientists and fostered popular conceptions of democratic socialism as a social democratic variant of libertarian socialism.[21]

Clinton presented himself as a centrist candidate to draw White middle-class voters who had left the Democratic Party for the Republican Party. Until 2016 and even after, the Third Way defined and dominated notions of centrism in U.S. partisan politics. In 1990, Clinton became the DLC chair. Under his leadership, the DLC founded two-dozen chapters and created a base of support.[10] Running as a New Democrat, Clinton won the 1992 and 1996 presidential elections.[22]

Legislation signed into domestic law with bipartisan support under President Clinton includes:

New Democrats dialectically adopted GOP proposals and platforms during the campaigns for the 1992 Congressional/state elections and 1992 United States presidential election. Below are subsequent Congressional legislative authorships and voting percentages. Please note that both the 1996 Defense of Marriage Act and 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act became law three months before the 1996 Congressional/state elections and 1996 United States presidential election.

Legislative Authorship

Congressional Democrat Voting Percentages

The Clinton Administration, supported by Congressional New Democrats, was responsible for proposing and passing the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993, which increased Medicare taxes for taxpayers with annual incomes over $135,000, yet also reduced Medicare spending and benefits across all tax brackets. Congressional Republicans demanded even deeper cuts to Medicare, but Clinton twice vetoed their bills. The Clinton Administration in turn taxed individuals earning annual incomes over $115,000, but also defined taxable "small business" earnings as less than approximately $10 million in annual gross revenue, with tax brackets for high-gross incorporated businesses beginning at that number. According to the Clinton Foundation, the revised brackets and categories increased taxes on the wealthiest 1.2% of taxpayers within these new brackets,[24] while cutting taxes on 15 million low-income families and making tax cuts available to 90% of small businesses. "Small businesses" and taxpayer classifications were reconfigured by these new tax brackets.[25] Again, according to the Clinton Foundation, these brackets raised the top marginal tax rate from 31% to 40%. Additionally, it mandated that the budget be balanced over a number of years through the implementation of spending restraints.

Bill Clinton's promise of welfare reform was passed in the form of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996. Prior to 2018, critics such as Yascha Mounk contended that Clinton's arguments for the virtues of "negative" notions of "personal responsibility [New Orleans Declaration: 'individual responsibility']," propounded within DLC circles during the 1980s, stemmed more from Ronald Reagan's[2]: 116  and Peggy Noonan's specific conception of "accountability" than any "positive notion of responsibility" or even multifarious approaches to "accountability." Additional critics distinguish the New Democrat idea of "personal responsibility" from arguments over the extent of limitations on government, if any, in platforms that advance social responsibility. The 1996 United States presidential election, the temporary relegation of Hillary Clinton to the global promotion of microcredit (argued by Claremont McKenna College historian Lily Geismer),[26] partisan compromises over this act, conflicts within the Democratic Party, as well as the act's multivalent consequences, all contributed to deliberations over passage and execution of the PRWORA.[27]

Democratic partisan criticism of the first Clinton Administration as well as the formation of the Blue Dog Coalition, particularly in response to proposals and actions by the First Lady, followed 1994 Congressional New Democrat losses in the southeast and west coast.[28] Bill Clinton's reassertion as a New Democrat during the 1996 presidential elections, and passage of the PRWORA, contributed to the founding of the New Democrat Coalition, reaffirming Clintonian Democrats as New Democrats.[29] As of August 2023, 23% of the New Democrat Coalition have become simultaneous members of, or declared an intention to vote for more proposals by, the Congressional Progressive Caucus. A number of these delegates, most notably Shri Thanedar, faced backlash from pundits and constituents alike, as evidence surfaced of alleged involvement in post-2016 attempts to rally neoconservatism.[30]

Presidency of Barack Obama[edit]

Barack Obama and Bill Clinton, 2012

In March 2009, Barack Obama, said in a meeting with the New Democrat Coalition that he was a "New Democrat" and a "pro-growth Democrat", that he "supports free and fair trade" and that he was "very concerned about a return to protectionism".[31]

Throughout the Obama administration, a "free and fair trade" attitude was espoused, including in a 2015 trade report entitled The Economic Benefits of U.S. Trade that noted that free trade "help[s] developing countries lift people out of poverty" and "expand[s] markets for U.S. exports".[32]

Throughout Obama's tenure, approximately 1,000 Democrats lost their seats across all levels of government.[33] Specifically, 958 state legislature seats, 62 house seats, 11 Senate seats, and 12 governorships,[34] with a majority of these elected officials identifying as New Democrats. Some analysts such as Henry Eten at FiveThirtyEight, believe this was due to the changing demographic shift, as more Democrats identified as liberal in 2016 than moderate.[35]

Consequently, many pundits believed that Obama's tenure marked an end of the New Democrats' dominance in the party, although the faction still remains an important part of the party's big tent.[3][4][6][5]

John Podesta served as an advisor to all three U.S. Presidents who led the New Democrats

Decline in recent years[edit]

Hillary Clinton presidential campaign[edit]

Ahead of the 2016 Democratic Party presidential primaries, many New Democrats were backing the presidential campaign of Hillary Clinton, the wife of former New Democrat president, Bill Clinton who served as a Senator from New York during the 2000s and as Barack Obama's Secretary of State during the early 2010s. Originally considered to be an expected nominee, Clinton faced an unexpected challenge from Vermont Senator, Bernie Sanders, whose campaign garnered the support of progressive and younger Democrats. Ultimately, Clinton won 34 of the 57[a] contests, compared to Sanders' 23, and garnered about 55 percent of the vote. Nevertheless, commentators saw the primary as a decline in the strength of New Democrats in the party, and an increasing influence of progressive Democrats within the party.

Ahead of the formal announcement of the 2016 Democratic National Convention, WikiLeaks published the Democratic National Committee email leak, in which DNC operatives, many of whom were New Democrats, seemed to deride Bernie Sanders' campaign[36] and discuss ways to advance Clinton's nomination,[37] leading to the resignation of DNC chair, and New Democrat member, Debbie Wasserman Schultz and other implicated officials. The leak was allegedly part of an operation by the Russian government to undermine Hillary Clinton.[38][39]

Although the ensuing controversy initially focused on emails that dated from relatively late in the primary, when Clinton was nearing the party's nomination,[37] the emails cast doubt on the DNC's neutrality towards progressive and moderate candidates.[40][41][42][43][44] This was evidenced by alleged bias in the scheduling and conduct of the debates,[b] as well as controversial DNC–Clinton agreements regarding financial arrangements and control over policy and hiring decisions.[c] Other media commentators have disputed the significance of the emails, arguing that the DNC's internal preference for Clinton was not historically unusual and didn't affect the primary enough to sway the outcome.[52][53][54][55] The controversies ultimately led to the formation of a DNC "unity" commission to recommend reforms in the party's primary process.[56][57]

Joe Biden and Chuck Schumer, 2021

Presidency of Joe Biden[edit]

The winner of the 2020 United States presidential election, was Joe Biden, who served as Vice President to Barack Obama. Joe Biden is the 46th president of the United States. In the 2020 United States House of Representatives elections, 13 Democrats lost their seats. All thirteen Democrats that lost their seats had won in the 2018 mid-term elections. Of those 13 members, 10 of them were New Democrats.

During the 117th United States Congress, the New Democrat Coalition lost its status as the largest ideological coalition in favor of the more left leaning Congressional Progressive Caucus. The CPC was founded in 1991, but only began catching up and eventually surpassed the New Democrat Coalition in the 2010s.[58][6]


According to Dylan Loewe, New Democrats tend to identify as fiscally moderate-to-conservative and socially liberal.[1]

Columnist Michael Lind argued that neoliberalism for New Democrats was the "highest stage" of left liberalism. The counterculture youth of the 1960s became more fiscally conservative in the 1970s and 1980s but retained their cultural liberalism. Many leading New Democrats, including Bill Clinton, started out in the George McGovern wing of the Democratic Party and gradually moved toward the right on economic and military policy.[59] According to historian Walter Scheidel, both major political parties shifted towards promoting free-market capitalism in the 1970s, with Republicans moving further to the political right than Democrats to the political left. He noted that Democrats played a significant role in the financial deregulation of the 1990s.[60] Anthropologist Jason Hickel and historian Gary Gerstle contended that the neoliberal policies of the Reagan era were carried forward by the Clinton administration, forming a new economic consensus which crossed party lines.[61][2]: 137–138, 155–157  According to Gerstle, "across his two terms, Clinton may have done more to free markets from regulation than even Reagan himself had done."[2]: 137–138, 155–157 

New Democrats have faced criticism from those further to the left. In a 2017 BBC interview, Noam Chomsky said that "the Democrats gave up on the working class forty years ago".[62] Political analyst Thomas Frank asserted that the Democratic Party began to represent the interests of the professional class rather than the working class.[63]

Elected to public office[edit]


  1. Bill Clinton[64] (former)
  2. Barack Obama[65] (former)
  3. Joe Biden[66][67]

Vice presidents[edit]

  1. Al Gore[10] (former)
  2. Joe Biden[68] (former)


House of Representatives[edit]

  1. Pete Aguilar[90]
  2. Colin Allred[91]
  3. Jason Altmire[92]
  4. Brad Ashford[90] (former)
  5. Cindy Axne[91]
  6. Ami Bera[90]
  7. Don Beyer[90]
  8. Lisa Blunt Rochester[91]
  9. Brendan Boyle[91]
  10. Anthony Brindisi[91] (former)
  11. Anthony Brown[91]
  12. Shontel Brown[93]
  13. Julia Brownley[91]
  14. Cheri Bustos[91]
  15. Lois Capps[90] (former)
  16. Salud Carbajal[91]
  17. Tony Cardenas[90]
  18. André Carson[90]
  19. Troy Carter[94]
  20. Sean Casten[91]
  21. Joaquin Castro[90]
  22. Gerry Connolly[90]
  23. Jim Cooper[90]
  24. Lou Correa[91]
  25. Jim Costa[91]
  26. Joe Courtney[90]
  27. Angie Craig[91]
  28. Charlie Crist[91]
  29. Jason Crow[91]
  30. Joe Crowley[95]
  31. Henry Cuellar[91]
  32. Sharice Davids[91]
  33. Susan Davis[90] (former)
  34. Madeleine Dean[91]
  35. John Delaney[90] (former)
  36. Suzan DelBene[90]
  37. Val Demings[91]
  38. Eliot L. Engel[90] (former)
  39. Veronica Escobar[91]
  40. Elizabeth Esty[90] (former)
  41. Lizzie Fletcher[90]
  42. Bill Foster[90]
  43. Vicente Gonzalez[90]
  44. Josh Gottheimer[91]
  45. Gwen Graham[90] (former)
  46. Josh Harder[91]
  47. Denny Heck[90] (former)
  48. Jim Himes[90]
  49. Steven Horsford[91]
  50. Chrissy Houlahan[91]
  51. Sara Jacobs[91]
  52. Bill Keating[91]
  53. Derek Kilmer[90]
  54. Ron Kind[90]
  55. Ann Kirkpatrick[90]
  56. Raja Krishnamoorthi[91]
  57. Ann McLane Kuster[90]
  58. Rick Larsen[90]
  59. Brenda Lawrence[91]
  60. Al Lawson[91]
  61. Susie Lee[91]
  62. Elaine Luria[91]
  63. Tom Malinowski[91]
  64. Sean Patrick Maloney[90] (former)
  65. Kathy Manning[91]
  66. Lucy McBath[91]
  67. Gregory Meeks[90]
  68. Joe Morelle[91]
  69. Seth Moulton[90]
  70. Patrick Murphy[90]
  71. Donald Norcross[91]
  72. Beto O'Rourke[90] (former)
  73. Jimmy Panetta[91]
  74. Chris Pappas[91]
  75. Scott Peters[90][91]
  76. Ed Perlmutter[90]
  77. Dean Phillips[91]
  78. Pedro Pierluisi[90] (former)
  79. Mike Quigley[90][91]
  80. Kathleen Rice[90]
  81. Laura Richardson[96]
  82. Cedric Richmond[90] (former)
  83. Deborah K. Ross[91]
  84. Raul Ruiz[91]
  85. Loretta Sanchez[90] (former)
  86. Adam Schiff[90]
  87. Brad Schneider[91]
  88. Kurt Schrader[90]
  89. David Scott[90]
  90. Kim Schrier[91]
  91. Debbie Wasserman Schultz[90]
  92. Terri Sewell[90]
  93. Mikie Sherrill[91]
  94. Elissa Slotkin[91]
  95. Adam Smith[90]
  96. Darren Soto[91]
  97. Greg Stanton[91]
  98. Haley Stevens[91]
  99. Marilyn Strickland[91]
  100. Norma Torres[90]
  101. Lori Trahan[91]
  102. David Trone[91]
  103. Juan Vargas[90]
  104. Marc Veasey[91]
  105. Filemon Vela Jr.[90] (former)
  106. Jennifer Wexton[91]
  107. Susan Wild[91]
  108. Nikema Williams[93]


See also[edit]

Explanatory notes[edit]

  1. ^ Although there are 50 states, the Democratic primaries include contests in six U.S. territories, and one contest of Democrats Abroad, who are American expatriates.
  2. ^ As far back as 2015, the sharp reduction of the debate schedule, as well as the days and times, had been criticized by multiple rivals as biased in Clinton's favor.[45] The DNC denied bias, claiming to be cracking down on the non-sanctioned debates that proliferated in recent cycles, while leaving the number of officially sanctioned debates the same as in 2004 and 2008.[46][47] Donna Brazile, who succeeded Debbie Wasserman Schultz as DNC chair after the first batch of leaks,[48] was shown in the emails leaking primary debate questions to the Clinton campaign before the debates were held, although a senior aide to Sanders came to Brazile's defense and tried to downplay the issue.[49]
  3. ^ Brazile went on to write a book about the primary and what she called "unethical" behavior in which the DNC (after its debt from 2012 was resolved by the Clinton campaign) gave the Clinton campaign control over hirings and press releases, and allegedly helped it circumvent campaign finance regulation.[50] Several Democratic leaders responded that the joint-fundraising agreement was standard, was for the purpose of the general election, and was also offered to the Sanders campaign. Another agreement that came to light gave the Clinton campaign powers over the DNC well before the primary was decided. Some media commentators noted that the Clinton campaign's level of influence on staffing decisions was indeed unusual and could have ultimately influenced factors such as the debate schedule.[51][52]


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  2. ^ a b c d Gerstle, Gary (2022). The Rise and Fall of the Neoliberal Order: America and the World in the Free Market Era. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0197519646.
  3. ^ a b Steinhauer, Jennifer (October 8, 2012). "Weighing the Effect of an Exit of Centrists". The New York Times. Retrieved January 5, 2019.
  4. ^ a b Graham, David A. (November 5, 2018). "How Far Have the Democrats Moved to the Left?". The Atlantic. Retrieved January 4, 2019.
  5. ^ a b Podkul, Alexander R.; Kamarck, Elaine (September 14, 2018). "What's happening to the Democratic Party?". Brookings Institution. Retrieved January 4, 2019.
  6. ^ a b c Marans, Daniel (November 27, 2018). "The Progressive Caucus Has A Chance To Be More Influential Than Ever". The Huffington Post. That would bring the caucus' total to 96 members, or about 40 percent of the House Democratic Caucus ― by far the largest bloc in the party.
  7. ^ a b Wayne LeMieux, The Democrats' New Path, 2006, ISBN 978-1-4196-3872-5
  8. ^ a b c John F Harris, The Survivor:Bill Clinton in the White House, Random House, 2005, ISBN 978-0-375-50847-9
  9. ^ "". Archived from the original on June 7, 2007. Retrieved May 13, 2007.
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  11. ^ "DLC: The New American Choice Resolutions". Democratic Leadership Council. Archived from the original on January 11, 2014. Retrieved February 25, 2013.
  12. ^ Herman, Steven L. (December 4, 1989). "The "New Democrats" are Liberals and Proud of It". Associated Press.
  13. ^ Toner, Robin (March 1990). "Eyes to Left, Democrats Edge Toward the Center". The New York Times.
  14. ^ Edsall, Thomas B. (June 14, 1992). "CLINTON STUNS RAINBOW COALITION". Washington Post.
  15. ^ Rae, Nicol C. (1994). Southern Democrats. Oxford University Press. p. 117. ISBN 0-19-508709-7.
  16. ^ Kelly, Michael (September 28, 1992). "The 1992 Campaign: The Democrats; Clinton Uses Farm Speech to Begin New Offensive". New York Times.
  17. ^ Atkinson, Robert D. (October 24, 2006). Supply-Side Follies: Why Conservative Economics Fails, Liberal Economics Falters, and Innovation Economics is the Answer. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. pp. 56-58 and 207-210. ISBN 978-1-4616-4273-2.
  18. ^ Mortimer, Colin. "RELEASE: Young Neoliberals Link Up With PPI". Progressive Policy Institute.
  19. ^ Cebul, Brent (March 14, 2023). Illusions of Progress: Business, Poverty, and Liberalism in the American Century. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 90-95 and 265-290. ISBN 978-1-5128-2382-0.
  20. ^ Atkinson, Robert D. (October 24, 2006). Supply-Side Follies: Why Conservative Economics Fails, Liberal Economics Falters, and Innovation Economics is the Answer. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. pp. 56-58 and 207-210. ISBN 978-1-4616-4273-2.
  21. ^ Sidney Blumenthal, The Clinton Wars, 2003, ISBN 0-374-12502-3
  22. ^ Alvarez, R. Michael, and Jonathan Nagler. "Economics, Entitlements, and Social Issues: Voter Choice in the 1996 Presidential Election." American Journal of Political Science 42, no. 4 (1998): 1361.
  23. ^ "HR 3355 - Omnibus Crime Bill - Key Vote". Retrieved October 21, 2016.
  24. ^ 1994 State of the Union Address Archived 2007-09-28 at the Wayback Machine
  25. ^ Presidential Press Conference - 08/03/1993 Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine
  26. ^ Geismer, Lily (June 2020). "Agents of Change: Microenterprise, Welfare Reform, the Clintons, and Liberal Forms of Neoliberalism". Journal of American History. 107 (1): 107–131. doi:10.1093/jahist/jaaa010.
  27. ^ Mounk, Yascha (January 3, 2017). "Responsibility Redefined". Democracy: A Journal of Ideas.
  28. ^ Lind, Michael (October 30, 2012). "Obama: Last of the "New Democrats"?".
  29. ^ Cebul, Brent (March 14, 2023). Illusions of Progress: Business, Poverty, and Liberalism in the American Century. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 90-95 and 265-290. ISBN 978-1-5128-2382-0.
  30. ^ Friess, Steve (June 24, 2018). "The Bizarro-World Trump Storming Michigan Politics". POLITICO Magazine.
  31. ^ "Obama: 'I am a New Democrat'". Politico. March 10, 2009.
  32. ^ "The Economic Benefits of U.S. Trade" (PDF). May 2015.
  33. ^ "Under Obama, Democrats suffer largest loss in power since Eisenhower". Quorum. Retrieved April 13, 2021.
  34. ^ Yglesias, Matthew (January 10, 2017). "The Democratic Party's down-ballot collapse, explained". Vox. Retrieved April 14, 2021.
  35. ^ Malone, Clare; Enten, Harry (January 19, 2017). "Barack Obama Won The White House, But Democrats Lost The Country". FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved April 13, 2021. In 2001, most Democrats — 47 percent — identified themselves as "moderate," while only 30 percent said they were "liberal." By 2016, the proportions were reversed, with 44 percent of people within the party calling themselves "liberal" and 41 percent calling themselves "moderate."
  36. ^ a b c Shear, Michael D.; Rosenberg, Matthew (July 23, 2016). "Released Emails Suggest the D.N.C. Derided the Sanders Campaign". The New York Times. Retrieved November 6, 2018.
  37. ^ a b Blake, Aaron (July 25, 2016). "Here are the latest, most damaging things in the DNC's leaked emails". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 6, 2018.
  38. ^ Adam Entous, Ellen Nakashima and Greg Miller (December 9, 2016). "Secret CIA assessment says Russia was trying to help Trump win White House". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 10, 2016.
  39. ^ Shane Harris, Ellen Nakashima and Craig Timberg (April 18, 2019). "Through email leaks and propaganda, Russians sought to elect Trump, Mueller finds". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 2, 2019.
  40. ^ "Elizabeth Warren agrees Democratic race 'rigged' for Clinton". BBC News. November 3, 2017. Retrieved November 21, 2018.
  41. ^ Schleifer, Theodore (July 25, 2016). "What was in the DNC email leak?". CNN. Retrieved November 21, 2018.
  42. ^ Chan, Melissa (July 24, 2016). "Bernie Sanders Calls for Debbie Wasserman Schultz to Resign After Email Leak". Time. Retrieved November 21, 2018.
  43. ^ Yuhas, Alan (July 24, 2016). "Hillary Clinton campaign blames leaked DNC emails about Sanders on Russia". The Guardian. Retrieved November 21, 2018.
  44. ^ Flaherty, Anne (July 24, 2016). "Sanders Calls for DNC Chair's Resignation as Hacked Emails Overshadow Convention". Haaretz. Retrieved November 21, 2018.
  45. ^ "Democratic primary debate schedule criticized as Clinton 'coronation'". The Guardian. August 6, 2015.
  46. ^ Andrew Prokop (August 6, 2015). "The Democrats just released their debate schedule, and it's great news for Hillary Clinton". Vox. Retrieved June 2, 2019.
  47. ^ Harry Enten (May 6, 2016). "Is Six Democratic Debates Too Few?". FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved September 7, 2017.
  48. ^ Caputo, Marc (July 24, 2016). "Wasserman Schultz steps down as DNC chair". Politico. Retrieved November 21, 2018.
  49. ^ "". A Times. October 12, 2016.
  50. ^ Brazile, Donna (November 2, 2017). "Inside Hillary Clinton's Secret Takeover of the DNC". Politico. Retrieved November 10, 2017.
  51. ^ Stein, Jeff (November 2, 2017). "Donna Brazile's bombshell about the DNC and Hillary Clinton, explained". Vox. Retrieved June 10, 2019.
  52. ^ a b Heersink, Boris (November 4, 2017). "No, the DNC didn’t 'rig' the Democratic primary for Hillary Clinton". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 8, 2018.
  53. ^ Houle, Dana (July 25, 2016). "No, the DNC Didn’t Rig the Primary in Favor of Hillary". The New Republic. Retrieved March 8, 2018.
  54. ^ Holland, Joshua (July 29, 2016). "What the Leaked E-mails Do and Don’t Tell Us About the DNC and Bernie Sanders" Archived December 5, 2019, at the Wayback Machine. The Nation. Retrieved March 8, 2018.
  55. ^ Gaughan, Anthony J. (August 27, 2019). "Was the Democratic Nomination Rigged? A Reexamination of the Clinton-Sanders Presidential Race". University of Florida Journal of Law & Public Policy (29). SSRN 3443916. Retrieved October 29, 2020. This article ... contends that the overwhelming weight of evidence makes clear the 2016 Democratic nomination process was not rigged in favor of Hillary Clinton. Second, this article argues that the Democratic Party rules and state election laws actually hurt Clinton and benefited Sanders.
  56. ^ Robillard, Kevin (December 9, 2017). "DNC 'unity' panel recommends huge cut in superdelegates". Politico. Retrieved June 2, 2019.
  57. ^ Seitz-Wald, Alex (August 25, 2018). "Democrats strip superdelegates of power and reform caucuses in 'historic' move". NBC News. Retrieved June 2, 2019.
  58. ^ Zengerle, Jason; Metz, Justin (June 29, 2022). "The Vanishing Moderate Democrat". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 20, 2022. Over the last decade, the Democratic Party has moved significantly to the left on almost every salient political issue ... on social, cultural and religious issues, particularly those related to criminal justice, race, abortion and gender identity, the Democrats have taken up ideological stances that many of the college-educated voters who now make up a sizable portion of the party's base cheer ... .
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Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]