Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

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Ash plumes on Kamchatka Peninsula, eastern Russia.
Hurricane Katrina near Florida peninsula.
California wildfires.
Solar irradiance spectrum and MODIS bands.
External view of the MODIS unit.
Exploded view of the MODIS subsystems.
This detailed, photo-like view of Earth is based largely on observations from MODIS.

The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is a satellite-based sensor used for earth and climate measurements. There are two MODIS sensors in Earth orbit: one on board the Terra (EOS AM) satellite, launched by NASA in 1999; and one on board the Aqua (EOS PM) satellite, launched in 2002. MODIS has now been replaced by the VIIRS,[citation needed] which first launched in 2011 aboard the Suomi NPP satellite.

The MODIS instruments were built by Santa Barbara Remote Sensing.[1] They capture data in 36 spectral bands ranging in wavelength from 0.4 μm to 14.4 μm and at varying spatial resolutions (2 bands at 250 m, 5 bands at 500 m and 29 bands at 1 km). Together the instruments image the entire Earth every 1 to 2 days. They are designed to provide measurements in large-scale global dynamics including changes in Earth's cloud cover, radiation budget and processes occurring in the oceans, on land, and in the lower atmosphere.

Support and calibration is provided by the MODIS characterization support team (MCST).[2]


With its high temporal resolution although low spatial resolution, MODIS data are useful to track changes in the landscape over time. Examples of such applications are the monitoring of vegetation health by means of time-series analyses with vegetation indices,[3] long term land cover changes (e.g. to monitor deforestation rates),[4][5][6][7] global snow cover trends,[8][9] water inundation from pluvial, riverine, or sea level rise flooding in coastal areas,[10] change of water levels of major lakes such as the Aral Sea,[11][12] and the detection and mapping of wildland fires in the United States.[13] The United States Forest Service's Remote Sensing Applications Center analyzes MODIS imagery on a continuous basis to provide information for the management and suppression of wildfires.[14]


Orbit 705 km, 10:30 a.m. descending node (Terra) or 1:30 p.m. ascending node (Aqua), sun-synchronous, near-polar, circular
Scan rate 20.3 rpm, cross track
Swath 2330 km (cross track) by 10 km (along track at nadir)
Telescope 17.78 cm diam. off-axis, afocal (collimated), with intermediate field stop
Size 1.0 × 1.6 × 1.0 m
Weight 228.7 kg
Power 162.5 W (single orbit average)
Data rate 10.6 Mbit/s (peak daytime); 6.1 Mbit/s (orbital average)
Quantization 12 bits
Spatial resolution 250 m (bands 1–2) 500 m (bands 3–7) 1000 m (bands 8–36)
Temporal resolution 1–2 days [15]
Design life 6 years


MODIS utilizes four on-board calibrators in addition to the space view in order to provide in-flight calibration: solar diffuser (SD), solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM), spectral radiometric calibration assembly (SRCA), and a v-groove black body.[16] MODIS has used the marine optical buoy for vicarious calibration.

MODIS bands[edit]

Band Wavelength
Primary use
1 620–670 250 Land/cloud/aerosols
2 841–876 250
3 459–479 500 Land/cloud/aerosols
4 545–565 500
5 1230–1250 500
6 1628–1652 500
7 2105–2155 500
8 405–420 1000 Ocean color/
9 438–448 1000
10 483–493 1000
11 526–536 1000
12 546–556 1000
13 662–672 1000
14 673–683 1000
15 743–753 1000
16 862–877 1000
17 890–920 1000 Atmospheric
water vapor
18 931–941 1000
19 915–965 1000
Band Wavelength
Primary use
20 3.660–3.840 1000 Surface/cloud
21 3.929–3.989 1000
22 3.929–3.989 1000
23 4.020–4.080 1000
24 4.433–4.498 1000 Atmospheric
25 4.482–4.549 1000
26 1.360–1.390 1000 Cirrus clouds
water vapor
27 6.535–6.895 1000
28 7.175–7.475 1000
29 8.400–8.700 1000 Cloud properties
30 9.580–9.880 1000 Ozone
31 10.780–11.280 1000 Surface/cloud
32 11.770–12.270 1000
33 13.185–13.485 1000 Cloud top
34 13.485–13.785 1000
35 13.785–14.085 1000
36 14.085–14.385 1000

MODIS data[edit]

MODIS Level 3 datasets[edit]

The following MODIS Level 3 (L3) datasets are available from NASA, as processed by the Collection 5 software.[17]

Daily 8-day 16-day 32-day Monthly Yearly Grid Platform Description
MxD08_D3 MxD08_E3 MxD08_M3 1° CMG Terra, Aqua Aerosol, cloud water vapor, ozone
MxD10A1 MxD10A2 500 m SIN Terra, Aqua Snow cover
MxD11A1 MxD11A2 1000 m SIN Terra, Aqua Land surface temperature/emissivity
MxD11B1 6000 m SIN Terra, Aqua Land surface temperature/emissivity
MxD11C1 MxD11C2 MxD11C3 0.05° CMG Terra, Aqua Land surface temperature/emissivity
MxD13C1 MxD13C2 0.05° CMG Terra, Aqua Vegetation indices
MxD14A1 MxD14A2 1000 m SIN Terra, Aqua Thermal anomalies, fire
MCD45A1 500 m SIN Terra+Aqua Burned area
250 m SIN 500 m SIN 1000 m SIN 0.05° CMG 1° CMG Time window Platform Description
MxD09Q1 MxD09A1 8-day Terra, Aqua Surface reflectance
MxD09CMG Daily Terra, Aqua Surface reflectance
MCD12Q1 MCD12C1 Yearly Terra+Aqua Land cover type
MCD12Q2 Yearly Terra+Aqua Land cover dynamics

(global vegetation phenology)

MxD13Q1 MxD13A1 MxD13A2 MxD13C1 16-day Terra, Aqua Vegetation indices
MxD13A3 MxD13C2 Monthly Terra, Aqua Vegetation indices
MCD43A1 MCD43B1 MCD43C1 16-day Terra+Aqua BRDF/albedo model parameters
MCD43A3 MCD43B3 MCD43C3 16-day Terra+Aqua Albedo
MCD43A4 MCD43B4 MCD43C4 16-day Terra+Aqua Nadir BRDF-adjusted reflectance


Raw MODIS data stream can be received in real-time using a tracking antenna, due to the instrument's direct broadcast capability.[18]

Alternatively, the scientific data are made available to the public via several World Wide Web sites and FTP archives, such as:

Most of the data are available in the HDF-EOS format — a variant of Hierarchical Data Format prescribed for the data derived from Earth Observing System missions.[21]

Image based on observations from MODIS

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "MODIS Components". Retrieved 11 August 2015.
  2. ^ "MODIS Characterization Support Team". Retrieved 18 July 2015.
  3. ^ LU, L., KUENZER, C., WANG, C., GUO, H., Li, Q., 2015: Evaluation of three MODIS-derived Vegetation Index Time Series for Dry land Vegetation Dynamics Monitoring. Remote Sensing, 2015, 7, 7597–7614; doi:10.3390/rs70607597
  4. ^ LEINENKUGEL; P., WOLTERS, M., OPPELT, N., KUENZER, C., 2014: Tree cover and forest cover dynamics in the Mekong Basin from 2001 to 2011. Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 158, 376–392
  5. ^ KLEIN, I., GESSNER, U. and C. KUENZER, 2012: Regional land cover mapping in Central Asia using MODIS time series. Applied Geography 35, 1–16
  6. ^ LU, L., KUENZER, C., GUO, H., Li, Q., LONG, T., LI, X., 2014: A Novel Land Cover Classification Map Based on MODIS Time-series in Nanjing, China. Remote Sensing, 6, 3387–3408; doi:10.3390/rs6043387
  7. ^ GESSNER, U.; MACHWITZ, M.; ESCH, T.; TILLACK, A.; NAEIMI, V.; KUENZER, C.; DECH, S. (2015): Multi-sensor mapping of West African land cover using MODIS, ASAR and TanDEM-X/TerraSAR-X data. Remote Sensing of Environment. 282–297
  8. ^ Hall, Dorothy K; Riggs, George A; Salomonson, Vincent V; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E; Bayr, Klaus J (2002). "MODIS snow-cover products". Remote Sensing of Environment. 83 (1–2): 181–194. Bibcode:2002RSEnv..83..181H. doi:10.1016/S0034-4257(02)00095-0. S2CID 129808147.
  9. ^ Hall, Dorothy K.; Riggs, George A.; Salomonson, Vincent V. (1995). "Development of methods for mapping global snow cover using moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer data". Remote Sensing of Environment. 54 (2): 127–140. Bibcode:1995RSEnv..54..127H. doi:10.1016/0034-4257(95)00137-P.
  10. ^ KUENZER, C, KLEIN, I., ULLMANN; T., FOUFOULA-GEORGIOU, E., BAUMHAUER, R., DECH, S., 2015: Remote Sensing of River Delta Inundation: exploiting the Potential of coarse spatial Resolution, temporally-dense MODIS Time Series. Remote Sensing, 7, 8516–8542
  11. ^ KLEIN, I., DIETZ, A., GESSNER, U., DECH, S., KUENZER, C., 2015: Results of the Global WaterPack: a novel product to assess inland water body dynamics on a daily basis. Remote Sensing Letters, Vol. 6, No. 1, 78–87
  12. ^ "Shrinking Aral Sea."NASA Earth Observatory. Retrieved: 30 September 2014.
  13. ^ Wigglesworth, Alex (6 November 2019). "Satellite image shows Kincade fire burn scar". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  14. ^ "MODIS Active Fire Mapping Program FAQs." Archived 2 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine United States Forest Service. Retrieved: 30 September 2014.
  15. ^
  16. ^ "MODIS Design". Retrieved 11 August 2015.
  17. ^ "MODIS Products Table". Archived from the original on 11 August 2011. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
  18. ^ "Direct Broadcast at MODIS Website". Retrieved 2 June 2009.
  19. ^ "About Reverb". Archived from the original on 20 November 2011. Retrieved 7 November 2011.
  20. ^ "LANCE-MODIS". NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Retrieved 15 September 2014.
  21. ^ "HDF-EOS Tools and Information Center". Retrieved 2 June 2009.

External links[edit]

Modis has 36 spectral bands