Moderation and Development Party

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Moderation and Development Party
Leader Hassan Rouhani[1]
Secretary-General Mohammad Bagher Nobakht[2]
Spokesperson Gholamali Dehghan[3]
Executive Secretary Morteza Bank[4]
Founded 1999; 18 years ago (1999)[1]
Headquarters Tehran, Iran
Ideology Moderation
Islamic democracy
Political position Centre[5]

Moderation and Development Party (Persian: حزب اعتدال و توسعه‎, translit. Hezb-e E'tedāl va Towse'eh‎) is a political party in Iran. It is a pragmatic-centrist political party which held its first congress in 2002.[3]

The party is part of the faction called "modernist right", "moderate reformists" and "technocrats" that draws from upper-level bureaucrats, industrialists and managers.[6] It is classified as "republican right", which deals with a platform on modernization and economic growth rather than social justice, along with the Executives of Construction Party and the Islamic Labour Party.[7]

The party has been allied with Popular Coalition of Reforms[5] and Pervasive Coalition of Reformists[8] in parliamentary elections and has had good relations with both Mohammad Khatami’s reform program and Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani.[2] In April 2017, the party joined the supreme policymaking council of reformists.[9]

Some sources branded them as part of the conservative camp in the 2000s[10][11][12] or reformists under the leadership of Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani.[13] In 2003, the party's spokesperson wrote in Hamshahri that the party regards itself among "true reformists", who are idealists considering "social realities" interpretated with the "principle of moderation".[14]

Presidential candidates[edit]

Year Candidate
2001 Mohammad Khatami
2005 Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani[15]
2009 Mir-Hossein Mousavi[16]
2013 Hassan Rouhani[1]
2017 Hassan Rouhani[17]


Current officeholders[edit]



  1. ^ a b c Seyed Hossein Mousavian (5 July 2013), "The Rise of the Iranian Moderates", Al-Monitor, retrieved 7 December 2016 
  2. ^ a b Khani, Mohamamd Hassan (17 July 2012). "Political Parties in the Islamic Republic of Iran". Iran Review. Retrieved 1 April 2016. 
  3. ^ a b "Iran Report". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 16 February 2004. Retrieved 10 March 2017. 
  4. ^ "Iran News Round Up", Critical Threats Project, 8 December 2015, retrieved 7 April 2017 
  5. ^ a b "Guide: Iranian parliamentary elections". BBC World. Retrieved March 10, 2015. 
  6. ^ Rabasa, Angel; Waxman, Matthew; Larson, Eric V.; Marcum, Cheryl Y. (2004). The Muslim World After 9/11. Rand Corporation. p. 221. ISBN 9780833037558. 
  7. ^ Mohseni, Payam (2016). "Factionalism, Privatization, and the Political economy of regime transformation". In Brumberg, Daniel; Farhi, Farideh. Power and Change in Iran: Politics of Contention and Conciliation. Indiana Series in Middle East Studies. Indiana University Press. p. 44. 
  8. ^ Parisa Hafezi (18 February 2016). Dominic Evans, ed. "Factbox: Parties and politics in Iran's parliamentary election". Reuters. Retrieved 27 February 2017. 
  9. ^ "Moderation party joins reformist policy-making council", Tehran Times, 10 April 2017, retrieved 14 April 2017 
  10. ^ Beeman, William O. (Summer 2004). "Elections and Governmental Structure in Iran: Reform Lurks Under the Flaws" (PDF). Brown Journal of World Affairs. XI (1): 55–67. 
  11. ^ "How Iran votes". BBC World. 3 February 2004. Retrieved 27 March 2017. 
  12. ^ Kaveh-Cyrus Sanandaji (2009), "The Eighth Majles Elections in the Islamic Republic of Iran: A Division in Conservative Ranks and the Politics of Moderation", Iranian Studies, Routledge, 42 (4): 621–648, doi:10.1080/00210860903106345 
  13. ^ Aras, Bulent (September 2001). "Transformation of the Iranian political system: Towards a new model?" (PDF). Middle East Review of International Affairs. 5 (3). 
  14. ^ "In the Gap between the Two Wings", Hamshahri (in Persian) (3005), p. Politics, 15 March 2003, retrieved 1 June 2017 
  15. ^ "Moderation and Development Party backs Rowhani for president", Mehr News Agency, 14 September 2008, retrieved 24 November 2016 
  16. ^ "Party leader wants debates among candidates' representatives", Mehr News Agency, 30 May 2009, retrieved 24 November 2016 
  17. ^ "Moderation and Development Party to back Rouhani", Tehran Times, 14 January 2017, retrieved 14 January 2017