Timeline of the history of genetics

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This is a timeline of events concerning the Modern Evolution of Genetics, from Gregor Mendel to present day.

19th century[edit]

1900s[edit]

  • 1902 - Archibald Garrod discovered inborn errors of metabolism. An explanation for epistasis is an important manifestation of Garrod’s research, albeit indirectly. When Garrod studied alkaptonuria, a disorder that makes urine quickly turn black due to the presence of gentesate, he noticed that it was prevalent among populations whose parents were closely related.[2][3][4]
  • 1904 - Walter Sutton and Theodor Boveri established the chromosome theory with their research which were done independent of each other and published in the years of 1902 to 1904. Boveri was studying sea urchins when he found that all the chromosomes in the sea urchins had to be present for proper embryonic development to take place. Sutton's work with grasshoppers showed that chromosomes occur in matched pairs of maternal and paternal chromosomes which separate during meiosis.[5] He concluded that this could be "the physical basis of the Mendelian law of heredity."[6]
  • 1908 - G.H. Hardy and Wilhelm Weinberg proposed the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium model which describes the frequencies of alleles in the gene pool of a population, which are under certain specific conditions, as constant and at a state of equilibrium from generation to generation unless specific disturbing influences are introduced.

1910s[edit]

  • 1910 - Thomas Morgan determined the nature of sex-linked traits by studying Drosophila melanogaster. He determined that the white-eyed mutant was sex-linked based on Mendelian's principles of segregation and independent assortment.[7] More significantly, Morgan and his students affirmed the Chromosome Theory of Heredity.
  • 1911 - Alfred Sturtevant, one of Morgan's students, invented the procedure of linkage mapping which is based on the frequency of recombination.[8] A few years later, he constructed the world's first chromosome map.[9]

1920s[edit]

1930s[edit]

1940s[edit]

1950s[edit]

1960s[edit]

  • 1960 – Jacob and collaborators discovered the operon, a group of genes whose expression is coordinated by an operator[26][27]
  • 1961 - Francis Crick and Sydney Brenner discovered frame shift mutations. In the experiment, proflavin-induced mutations of the T4 bacteriophage gene (rIIB) were isolated. Proflavin causes mutations by inserting itself between DNA bases, typically resulting in insertion or deletion of a single base pair. The mutants could not produce functional rIIB protein.[28] These mutations were used to demonstrate that three sequential bases of the rIIB gene’s DNA specify each successive amino acid of the encoded protein. Thus the genetic code is a triplet code, where each triplet (called a codon) specifies a particular amino acid.
  • 1961 - Sydney Brenner, Francois Jacob and Matthew Meselson identified the function of messenger RNA.[29]
  • 1966 - Marshall W. Nirenberg, Philip Leder, Har Gobind Khorana cracked the genetic code by using RNA homopolymer and heteropolymer experiments, through which they figured out which triplets of RNA were translated into what amino acids in yeast cells.

1970s[edit]

1980s[edit]

  • 1980 - Paul Berg, Walter Gilbert and Frederick Sanger developed methods of mapping the structure of DNA. In 1972, recombinant DNA molecules were produced in Paul Berg’s Stanford University laboratory. Berg was awarded the 1980 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for constructing recombinant DNA molecules that contained phage lambda genes inserted into the small circular DNA mol.[35]
  • 1980 - Stanley Norman Cohen and Herbert Boyer received first U.S. patent for gene cloning, by proving the successful outcome of cloning a plasmid and expressing a foreign gene in bacteria to produce a "protein foreign to a unicellular organism." These two scientist were able to replicate proteins such as HGH, Erythropoietin and Insulin. The patent earned about $300 million in licensing royalties for Stanford.[36]
  • 1982 - The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the release of the first genetically engineered human insulin, originally biosynthesized using recombination DNA methods by Genentech in 1978.[37] Once approved, the cloning process lead to mass production of humulin (under license by Eli Lilly & Co.).
  • 1983 - Barbara McClintock was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for her discovery of mobile genetic elements. McClintock studied transposon-mediated mutation and chromosome breakage in maize and published her first report in 1948 on transposable elements or transposons. She found that transposons were widely observed in corn, although her ideas weren't widely granted attention until the 1960s and 1970s when the same phenomenon was discovered in bacteria and Drosophila melanogaster.[38]
  • 1983 - Kary Mullis of the Cetus Corporation drafted a technique for amplifying DNA through a cloning procedure that became known as polymerase chain reaction.[39] Heat applied to the DNA segment causes it to separate, allowing the DNA polymerase to bind with the single strand of DNA. Taq polymerase (heat activated polymerase that synthesizes DNA, isolated from Thermophilus aquaticus) is necessary for polymerase chain reaction to work, because other polymerase proteins would denature in such physiological conditions. In the presence of an excess of mononucleotides, the polymerase will replicate the DNA and the process can be repeated a number of times, yielding an exponential growth of the number of DNA strands.
  • 1985 - Alec Jeffreys announced DNA fingerprinting method. Jeffreys was studying DNA variation and the evolution of gene families in order to understand disease causing genes.[40] In an attempt to develop a process to isolate many mini-satellites at once using chemical probes, Jeffreys took x-ray films of the DNA for examination and noticed that mini-satellite regions differ greatly from one person to another. In a DNA fingerprinting technique, a DNA sample is digested by treatment with specific nucleases or Restriction endonuclease and then the fragments are separated by electrophoresis producing a template distinct to each individual banding pattern of the gel.[41]
  • 1986 - Jeremy Nathans found genes for color vision and color blindness, working with David Hogness, Douglas Vollrath and Ron Davis as they were studying the complexity of the retina.[42]
  • 1989 - Thomas Cech discovered that RNA can catalyze chemical reactions,[43] making for one of the most important breakthroughs in molecular genetics, because it elucidates the true function of poorly understood segments of DNA.

1990s[edit]

2000s[edit]

  • 2000 - The full genome sequence of Drosophila melanogaster is completed.
  • 2003 - The Human Genome Project is officially completed after being funded by Congress in 1988. Within the limits of today's technology, the human genome is as complete as it can be. Small gaps that are unrecoverable in any current sequencing method remain, accounting for about 1 percent of the gene-containing portion of the genome, or euchromatin. New technologies will have to be invented to obtain the sequence of these regions.[48]
  • 2004 - Merck introduced a vaccine for Human Papillomavirus which promised to protect women against infection with HPV 16 and 18, which inactivates tumor suppressor genes and together cause 70% of cervical cancers.
  • 2007 - Michael Worobey traced the evolutionary origins of HIV by analyzing its genetic mutations, which revealed that HIV infections had occurred in the United States as early as the 1960s.
  • 2008 - Houston-based Introgen developed Advexin (FDA Approval pending), the first gene therapy for cancer and Li-Fraumeni syndrome, utilizing a form of Adenovirus to carry a replacement gene coding for the p53 protein.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Principles of Genetics / D. Peter Snustad, Michael J. Simmons – 5th Ed. pp.210
  2. ^ Principles of Biochemistry / Nelson and Cox – 2005. pp.681
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  4. ^ Cell and Molecular Biology, Concepts and experiments / Gerald Karp –5th Ed (2008). pp. 430-431
  5. ^ O'Connor, C. & Miko, I. (2008) Developing the chromosome theory. Nature Education [1]
  6. ^ Sutton, W. S. (1902) On the morphology of the chromosome group in Brachystola magna. Biological Bulletin. 4:24-3, pp. 39 [2]
  7. ^ Principles of Genetics / D. Peter Snustad, Michael J. Simmons – 5th Ed. p.99
  8. ^ Principles of Genetics / D. Peter Snustad, Michael J. Simmons – 5th Ed. pp.147
  9. ^ Principles of Genetics / D. Peter Snustad, Michael J. Simmons – 5th Ed. pp.109
  10. ^ Principles of Genetics / D. Peter Snustad, Michael J. Simmons – 5th Ed. pp.190
  11. ^ Beadle GW, Tatum EL. Genetic Control of Biochemical Reactions in Neurospora. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1941 Nov 15;27(11):499-506. PMID 16588492
  12. ^ Luria SE, Delbrück M. Mutations of Bacteria from Virus Sensitivity to Virus Resistance. Genetics. 1943 Nov;28(6):491-511. PMID 17247100
  13. ^ Principles of Genetics / D. Peter Snustad, Michael J. Simmons – 5th Ed. pp. 212-213
  14. ^ Avery, O. T., MacLeod, C. M., McCarty, M. (1944) Studies on the Chemical Nature of the Substance Inducing Transformation of Pneumococal Types. Journal of Experimental Medicine. 79(2):137-156 [3]
  15. ^ Luria SE. Reactivation of Irradiated Bacteriophage by Transfer of Self-Reproducing Units. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1947 Sep;33(9):253-64. PMID 16588748
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  17. ^ Principles of Genetics / D. Peter Snustad, Michael J. Simmons – 5th Ed. pp.217 Table 9.1
  18. ^ Tamm, C., Herman, T., Shapiro, S., Lipschitz, R., Chargaff, E. (1953) Distribution Density of Nucleotides within a Desoxyribonucleic Acid Chain. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 203(2):673-688 [4]
  19. ^ HERSHEY AD, CHASE M. Independent functions of viral protein and nucleic acid in growth of bacteriophage. J Gen Physiol. 1952 May;36(1):39-56. PMID 12981234
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  24. ^ Cell and Molecular Biology, Concepts and experiments / Gerald Karp –5th Ed (2008) pp. 467-469
  25. ^ Meselson M, Stahl FW. THE REPLICATION OF DNA IN ESCHERICHIA COLI. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1958 Jul 15;44(7):671-82. PMID 16590258
  26. ^ Jacob F, Perrin D, Sánchez C, Monod J, Edelstein S. [The operon: a group of genes with expression coordinated by an operator. C.R.Acad. Sci. Paris 250 (1960) 1727-1729]. C R Biol. 2005 Jun;328(6):514-20. English, French. PMID 15999435
  27. ^ PERRIN D, SANCHEZ C, MONOD J. [Operon: a group of genes with the expression coordinated by an operator]. JACOB F, C R Hebd Seances Acad Sci. 1960 Feb 29;250:1727-9. French. PMID 14406329
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  29. ^ Molecular Station: Structure of protein coding mRNA (2007)
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  31. ^ Genetics and Genomics Timeline: The discovery of messenger RNA (mRNA) by Sydney Brenner, Francis Crick, Francois Jacob and Jacques Monod [8]
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  37. ^ Funding Universe: Genentech, Inc
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External links[edit]