Modern Maximum

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History of sunspot number observations showing the recent elevated activity.

The Modern Maximum[1] refers to the period of relatively high solar activity[2] which began with Solar Cycle 15 in 1914. It reached a maximum in Cycle 19 during the late 1950s and may have ended with Cycle 23 in 2000 as Cycle 24 is recording, at best, very muted solar activity.[3] This period is a natural example of solar variation, and one of many that are known from proxy records of past solar variability. The Modern Maximum reached a double peak once in the 1950s and again during the 1990s.


  1. ^ Solanki, Sami K.; Usoskin, Ilya G.; Kromer, Bernd; Schüssler, Manfred; Beer, Jürg (2004). "Unusual activity of the Sun during recent decades compared to the previous 11,000 years" (PDF). Nature. 431 (7012): 1084–7. Bibcode:2004Natur.431.1084S. doi:10.1038/nature02995. PMID 15510145. Retrieved 17 April 2007. , "11,000 Year Sunspot Number Reconstruction". Global Change Master Directory. Retrieved 2005-03-11. 
  2. ^ Usoskin I.G. (2017). "A History of Solar Activity over Millennia". Living Reviews in Solar Physics. 14 (3). Bibcode:2017LRSP...14....3U. doi:10.1007/s41116-017-0006-9.  PDF Copy
  3. ^ Rigozo, N. R.; Echer, E.; Vieira, L. E. A.; Nordemann, D. J. R. (2001). "Reconstruction of Wolf Sunspot Numbers on the Basis of Spectral Characteristics and Estimates of Associated Radio Flux and Solar Wind Parameters for the Last Millennium". Solar Physics. 203: 179–191. Bibcode:2001SoPh..203..179R. doi:10.1023/A:1012745612022.