Modern system of ranked Shinto shrines

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1878 engraving by Yōshū Chikanobu (1838–1912). The figures represented in these three panels are: * Centre: Front. Emperor Meiji in a Western chair with his wife, Empress Shōken, seated in the foreground. The Imperial couple are accompanied behind and in the flanking panels with an array of Shinto kami and historical figures from Japan's past. Rear. The kami Izanami, Kunitokotatchi and Izanagi. * Right: Front. Emperor Kōmei (seated in foreground), Empress Go-Sakuramachi (here presented as a man with a false goatee), and Emperor Jinmu (carrying a rough bow and perched eagle. Rear. The kami Amaterasu (standing and holding the three Sacred Treasures of Japan) and Ninigi-no-Mikoto (who first brought to earth the Imperial regalia—the sword, Kusanagi, the mirror, Yata no Kagami, and the jewel, Yasakani no magatama). * Left: Front: Emperor Go-Momozono (clothed in red), Emperor Kōkaku (clothed in black) and Emperor Ninkō (clothed in green). Rear. The kami Hiko-hohodemi (clothed in white) and Ugayafukiaezu (clothed in yellow).

The modern system of ranked Shinto shrines (近代社格制度, Kindai Shakaku Seido, sometimes called simply shakaku (社格)) was an organizational aspect of the establishment of Japanese State Shinto. This system classified Shinto shrines as either official government shrines or "other" shrines. The official shrines were divided into

  1. Imperial shrines (kampeisha), which are parsed into minor, medium, or major sub-categories; and
  2. National shrines (kokuheisha), which are similarly categorized as minor, medium, or major.[1]

Some shrines are the "first shrines" called ichinomiya that have the highest rank in their respective provinces of Japan.

The Ise Grand Shrine stood at the top of all shrines and thus was outside the classification.[2][3]

History[edit]

On the fourteenth day of the fifth month of 1871, by decree of the Dajō-kan, the fundamental elements of the modern shrine system were established: a hierarchic ranking of Shinto shrines, with specification of the grades of priest who could officiate at the various levels of shrine.[4] These rankings were set aside in 1946, when such rankings were deemed "State Shinto" by the Occupation Shinto Directive. The Jinja Honcho currently has a slightly different List of Special Shrines (別表神社, beppyo jinja).

Kan-sha[edit]

The Kan-sha (官社) or "official government shrines" had two subdivisions, Kanpei-sha or "government shrines" and Kokuhei-sha or "national shrines".[4]

Kanpei-sha[edit]

In 1871, the Kanpei-sha (官幣社) identified the hierarchy of government-supported shrines most closely associated with the imperial family.[5] The kampeisha were shrines venerated by the imperial family. This category encompasses those sanctuaries enshrining emperors, imperial family members, or meritorious retainers of the Imperial family.[1]

Imperial shrines, 1st rank[edit]

The most highly ranked Imperial shrines or Kanpei-taisha (官幣大社) encompassed 67 sanctuaries.[5]

name location notes
Kamo-wakeikazuchi jinja[5] Kita-ku, Kyoto one of the Twenty-two Shrines; Wake-ikazuchi-no-kami; ichinomiya of Yamashiro Province[6]
Kamo-mioya jinja[5] Sakyō-ku, Kyoto one of the Twenty-two Shrines; Tamayori-hime-no-mikoto; Kamo Taeketsunumi-no-mikoto; ichinomiya of Yamashiro Province[6]
Iwashimizu Hachimangū[5] Yawata, Kyoto one of the Twenty-two Shrines; Homuda-wakeno-mikoto (Emperor Ōjin); Okinaga-tarashi-hime-no-mikoto (Empress Jingū)
Matsunoo taisha[5] Ukyō-ku, Kyoto one of the Twenty-two Shrines; Oyamagui-no-mikoto; Nakatsushima-hime-no-mikoto
Hirano jinja[5] Kita-ku, Kyoto one of the Twenty-two Shrines; Imaki-no-kami, Kudo-no-kami; Furuaki-no-kami, Hime-kami
Fushimi Inari-taisha[5] Fushimi-ku, Kyoto one of the Twenty-two Shrines
Ōmiwa jinja[5] Sakurai, Nara one of the Twenty-two Shrines; ichinomiya of Yamato Province[6]
Ōyamato jinja[5] Tenri, Nara one of the Twenty-two Shrines
Isonokami jingū[7] Tenri, Nara one of the Twenty-two Shrines
Kasuga taisha[8] Nara, Nara one of the Twenty-two Shrines
Hirose taisha[5] Kawai, Nara one of the Twenty-two Shrines
Tatsuta taisha[5] Sangō, Nara one of the Twenty-two Shrines
Nibu-kawakami jinja[5] Higashiyoshino, Nara one of the Twenty-two Shrines
Hiraoka Shrine[5] Higashiosaka, Osaka ichinomiya of Kawachi Province[6]
Ōtori taisha[9] Sakai, Osaka ichinomiya of Izumi Province[6]
Sumiyoshi taisha[9] Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka one of the Twenty-two Shrines; ichinomiya of Settsu Province[6]
Ikukunitama jinja[9] Tennōji-ku, Osaka
Hirota jinja[9] Nishinomiya, Hyōgo one of the Twenty-two Shrines
Hikawa Shrine[10] Saitama, Saitama ichinomiya of Musashi Province[6]
Awa jinja[9] Tateyama, Chiba ichinomiya of Awa Province[6]
Katori jingū[11] Katori, Chiba ichinomiya of Shimōsa Province[6]
Kashima jingū[9] Kashima, Ibaraki ichinomiya of Hitachi Province[6]
Mishima Taisha[9] Mishima, Shizuoka ichinomiya of Izu Province[6]
Atsuta jingū[12] Atsuta-ku, Nagoya
Hinokuma Shrine[9] Wakayama, Wakayama ichinomiya of Kii Province[13]
Kunikakasu Shrine[9] Wakayama, Wakayama ichinomiya of Kii Province[13]
Izumo taisha[9] Izumo, Shimane ichinomiya of Izumo Province[14]
Usa jingū[9] Usa, Ōita ichinomiya of Buzen Province[13]
Izanagi Shrine[9] Awaji, Hyōgo ichinomiya of Awaji Province[13]
Kashii-gū[9] Higashi-ku, Fukuoka
Miyazaki jingū[9] Miyazaki, Miyazaki
Kashihara jinjū[9] Kashihara, Nara
Heian jingū[9] Sakyō-ku, Kyoto
Kehi Shrine[9] Tsuruga, Fukui ichinomiya of Echizen Province[14]
Kagoshima jingū[9] Kirishima, Kagoshima ichinomiya of Ōsumi Province[13]
Udo jingū[9] Nichinan, Miyazaki
Asama jinja[9] Fujinomiya, Shizuoka[15] Konohana-sakuya-hime-no-mitoko
Takebe jinja[9] Ōtsu, Shiga[16] Yamato-takeru-no-mitoko; ichinomiya of Ōmi Province[6]
Hokkaidō jingū[17] Sapporo, Hokkaidō ichinomiya of Ezo Province[18]
Munakata Taisha[9] Munakata, Fukuoka
Yoshino Shrine[19] Yoshino, Nara
Taiwan jingū[20] Taipei, Taiwan now extinct
Karafuto jinja[20] Toyohara, Karafuto removed from Sakhalyn
Yasaka jinja[20] Higashiyama-ku, Kyoto one of the Twenty-two Shrines
Itsukushima jinja[20] Hatsukaichi, Hiroshima ichinomiya of Aki Province[13]
Hie jinja[10] Chiyoda, Tokyo Oyamagui-no-kami
Suwa Taisha[20] Suwa, Nagano ichinomiya of Shinano Province[14]
Kamayama Shrine[20] Wakayama, Wakayama
Hakozaki-gū[20] Higashi-ku, Fukuoka ichinomiya of Chikuzen Province[13]
Aso jinja[20] Aso, Kumamoto ichinomiya of Higo Province[13]
Taga taisha[20] Taga, Shiga
Kirishima jingū[20] Kirishima, Kagoshima
Chōsen Jingū[20] Seoul, Korea now extinct
Omi Shrine[20] Ōtsu, Shiga
Gassan Shrine Tsuruoka, Yamagata one of the Three Mountains of Dewa
Meiji jingū[21] Shibuya, Tokyo
Fujisan Hongū Sengen Taisha[22] Fujinomiya, Shizuoka ichinomiya of Suruga Province[6]
Hiyoshi taisha[5] Ōtsu, Shiga one of the Twenty-Two Shrines
Takebe taisha Ōtsu, Shiga ichinomiya of Ōmi Province[14]
Kumano Hongū Taisha Tanabe, Wakayama
Kumano Hayatama Taisha Shingū, Wakayama
Niutsuhime jinja Katsuragi, Wakayama
Fuyo jinja Buyeo County, Korea now extinct
Kantō jingū Ryōjun, Kwantung Leased Territory now extinct
Nan'yō jinja[23] Koror, Palau Amaterasu Ōmikami. holy relics and kami were evacuated by submarine in 1944[24]

Imperial shrines, 2nd rank[edit]

The mid-range of ranked Imperial shrines or Kanpei-chūsha (官幣中社) included 23 sanctuaries.[9]

name location notes
Shiramine jingū[25] Kamigyō-ku, Kyoto Emperor Junnin; n.b., raised to kanpei-taisha in 1940
Akama jingū[20] Shimonoseki, Yamaguchi Emperor Antoku; n.b., raised to kanpei-taisha in 1940
Minase jinja[25] Shimamoto, Osaka Emperor Go-Toba, Emperor Tsuchimikado and Emperor Juntoku; n.b., raised to kanpei-taisha in 1940
Kamakura-gū[20] Kamakura, Kanagawa[26] Morinaga-shinnō
Iinoya-gū[20] Kita-ku, Hamamatsu[27] Munenaga-shinnō
Yatsushiro-no-miya[20] Yatsushiro, Kumamoto[28] Kanenaga-shinnō, Nganari--shinnō
Umenomiya jinja.[20] Ukyō-ku, Kyoto[29] Sakatoke-no-kami, Ōwakako-no-kami, Satatokeko-no-kami
Kifune jinja.[20] Sakyō-ku, Kyoto Kuraokami-no-kami
Ōharano jinja.[20] Nishikyō-ku, Kyoto.[20] Take-mikazuchi-no-mitoko, Iwainushi-no-mitoko, Hime-kami
Yoshida jinja.[20] Sakyō-ku, Kyoto Take-mikazuchi-no-mitoko, Iwainushi-no-mitoko, Hime-kami
Kitano Tenmangū.[20] Kamigyō-ku, Kyoto Sugawara no Michizane
Tsukiyomi jinja.[20] Unzen Tsukiomi-no-mitoko
Kanasana jinja.[20] Kamikawa, Saitama[30] Amaterasu Ōmikami, Susanoo-no-mikoto
Ikasuri jinja Chūō-ku, Osaka ichinomiya of Settsu Province[6]
Hikosan jingū Soeda, Fukuoka
Yatsushiro-gū Yatsushiro, Kumamoto
Kanegasaki-gū[31] Tsuruga, Fukui[32] Takanaga Shinnō, Tsunenaga shinnō
Dazaifu Tenmangū.[31] Dazaifu, Fukuoka Sugawara no Michizane
Ikuta jinja[31] Chūō-ku, Kobe Waka-hirume-no-mikoto
Nagata jinja.[31] Nagata-ku, Kobe[33] Kotohshironushi-no-mikoto
Watatsumi jinja (Tarumi jinja).[31] Tarumi-ku, Kobe, Harima Waka-hirume-no-mikoto
Ehikoyama jinja.[31] Hikozan, Buzen Ame no Oshihone-no-mikoto (Ame-n-oshiho-mimi-no-mitoko)
Sumiyoshi jinja[31] Shimonoseki, Yamaguchi[34] the aramitama of the Sun Goddess, Tsuki-sasaki-itsu no mitama-amasakaru-muka-tsu-hime-no- mitoko; ichinomiya of Nagato Province[13]
Kibitsu jinja[31] Okayama, Okayama Ōkibitsu-hiko-no-mikoto, son of Emperor Korei; ichinomiya of Bitchū Province[13]
Kumano Nachi Taisha[31] Nachikatsuura, Wakayama[35] Ketsumiko, Kumano Hayatama-no-kami, Kumano Fusumi-no-kami
Itakeso jinja[31] Wakayama, Wakayama[36] Ōya-hiko-no-mikoto
Mikami jinja[31] Yasu, Shiga[37] Ame-no-mikage-no-mikoto
Tainan jinja.[31] Tainan, Taiwan now extinct; Prince Kitashirakawa Yoshihisa-no-mikoto

Imperial shrines, 3rd rank[edit]

The lowest ranked among the Imperial shrines or Kanpei-shōsha (官幣小社) were five sanctuaries.[31]

name location notes
Ōkunitama jinja.[31] Fuchū, Tokyo[38] Musashi no Ōkuni-tama-no-kami
Shigaumi jinja.[31] Higashi-ku, Fukuoka[39] Uwatsutsunoo-no-mikoto, Kakatsutsunoo-no-mitoko, Sokotsutsunoo-no-mikoto
Sumiyoshi Jinja.[31] Hakata-ku, Fukuoka[40] Uwatsutsunoo-no-mikoto, Kakatsutsunoo-no-mitoko, Sokotsutsunoo-no-mikoto; ichinomiya of Chikuzen Province[13]
Kamado-jinja.[31] Dazaifu, Fukuoka[41] Tamayori-hime
Naminoue jinja.[31] Naha, Okinawa[42] Hayatama-no-o, Izanami, Kotosaka-no-o-no-mikoto; ichinomiya of Ryūkyū[43]

Other Imperial shrines[edit]

In addition to the officially ranked Imperial shrines, a further grouping of Bekkaku kanpeisha (別格官幣社), special shrines that fell outside this ranking system, was created at a later date.[44]

Kokuhei-sha[edit]

The Kokuhei-sha (国幣社) identified the hierarchy of government-supported shrines with national significance. The kokuheisha enshrined kami considered beneficial to more local areas.[1]

National shrines, 1st rank[edit]

The most highly ranked, nationally significant shrines or Kokuhei Taisha (国幣大社) were six sanctuaries.

name location notes
Keta Shrine Hakui, Ishikawa ichinomiya of Noto Province[14]
Nangū Taisha Tarui, Gifu ichinomiya of Mino Province[6]
Tado Shrine Kuwana, Mie
Kumano Shrine (Matsue) Matsue, Shimane ichinomiya of Izumo Province[14]
Ōyamazumi jinja Imabari, Ehime ichinomiya of Iyo Province[13]
Kōra taisha Kurume, Fukuoka ichinomiya of Chikugo Province[13]

National shrines, 2nd rank[edit]

The mid-range of ranked, nationally significant shrines or Kokuhei Chūsha (国幣中社) encompassed 47 sanctuaries.

name location notes
Hakodate Hachiman Shrine Hakodate, Hokkaidō
Shiogama jinja Shiogama, Miyagi ichinomiya of Mutsu Province[14]
Chōkaisan Ōmonoimi jinja Yuza, Yamagata ichinomiya of Dewa Province
Tsutsukowake jinja Tanagura, Fukushima ichinomiya of Mutsu Province[14]
Isasumi jinja Aizumisato, Fukushima ichinomiya of Iwashiro Province
Nikkō Futarasan jinja Nikkō, Tochigi ichinomiya of Shimotsuke Province[14]
Utsunomiya Futarasan jinja Utsunomiya, Tochigi ichinomiya of Shimotsuke Province[14]
Ichinomiya Nukisaki jinja Tomioka, Gunma ichinomiya of Kōzuke Province[14]
Ōarai Isozaki jinja Ōarai, Ibaraki
Sakatsura Isozaki jinja Hitachinaka, Ibaraki
Tamasaki jinja Ichinomiya, Chiba ichinomiya of Kazusa Province[6]
Samukawa jinja Samukawa, Kanagawa ichinomiya of Sagami Province[6]
Tsurugaoka Hachimangū Kamakura, Kanagawa
Ichinomiya Asama jinja Fuefuki, Yamanashi ichinomiya of Kai Province[6]
Ikushima Tarushima jinja Ueda, Nagano
Yahiko jinja Yahiko, Niigata ichinomiya of Echigo Province[14]
Imizu Jinja Takaoka, Toyama ichinomiya of Etchū Province
Shirayamahime jinja Hakusan, Ishikawa ichinomiya of Kaga Province[14]
Wakasahiko Shrine Obama, Fukui ichinomiya of Wakasa Province[14]
Masumida jinja Ichinomiya, Aichi ichinomiya of Owari Province[6]
Ōagata jinja Inuyama, Aichi
Aekuni jinja Ueno, Iga ichinomiya of Iga Province[6]
Izumo daijingu Kameoka, Kyoto ichinomiya of Tanba Province[14]
Komori jinja Miyazu, Kyoto ichinomiya of Tango Province[14]
Izushi jinja Toyooka, Hyōgo ichinomiya of Tajima Province[14]
Iwa jinja Shisō, Hyōgo ichinomiya of Harima Province[13]
Nakayama Shrine Tsuyama, Okayama ichinomiya of Mimasaka Province[13]
Ani jinja Okayama, Okayama ichinomiya of Bizen Province[13]
Hayatani jinja Hatsukaichi, Hiroshima
Ube jinja Tottori, Tottori ichinomiya of Inaba Province[13]
Mizuwakasu jinja Okinoshima, Shimane ichinomiya of Oki Province[14]
Miho jinja Matsue, Shimane
Tamanooya jinja Hōfu, Yamaguchi ichinomiya of Suō Province[13]
Tamura jinja Takamatsu, Kagawa ichinomiya of Sanuki Province[13]
Kotohira-gu Kotohira, Kagawa
Isono jinja Saijō, Ehime
Inbe jinja Tokushima, Tokushima
Ōasahiko jinja Naruto, Tokushima ichinomiya of Awa Province[13]
Tosa jinja Kōchi, Kōchi ichinomiya of Tosa Province[13]
Sashimuta jinja Ōita, Ōita ichinomiya of Bungo Province[13]
Tajima jinja Karatsu, Saga
Sumiyoshi jinja Iki, Nagasaki
Watasumi jinja Tsushima, Nagasaki ichinomiya of Tsushima Province
Chinzei Taisha Suwa jinja Nagasaki, Nagasaki
Nitta jinja Satsumasendai, Kagoshima ichinomiya of Satsuma Province[13]

National shrines, 3rd rank[edit]

The lowest ranked, nationally significant shrines or Kokuhei Shōsha (国幣小社) includes 50 sanctuaries.

name location notes
Iwakiyama jinja Hirosaki, Aomori ichinomiya of Mutsu Province
Koshiō jinja Akita, Akita
Komagata jinja Ōshū, Iwate ichinomiya of Rikuchū Province
Dewa jinja Tsuruoka, Yamagata one of the Dewa Sanzan
Yudonosan jinja Tsuruoka, Yamagata one of the Dewa Sanzan
Chichibu jinja Chichibu, Saitama
Hakone jinja Hakone, Kanagawa
Oguni jinja Mori, Shizuoka ichinomiya of Tōtōmi Province[6]
Shizuoka Sengen jinja Aoi-ku, Shizuoka
Izusan jinja Atami, Shizuoka
Togakushi jinja Nagano, Nagano
Hotaka jinja Azumino, Nagano
Watatsu jinja Sado, Niigata ichinomiya of Sado Province[14]
Takase jinja Nanto, Toyama ichinomiya of Etchū Province[14]
Oyama jinja Tateyama, Toyama ichinomiya of Etchū Province[14]
Sugōisobe Jinja Kaga, Ishikawa
Tsurugi jinja Echizen, Fukui
Minashi Jinja Takayama, Gifu ichinomiya of Hida Province[14]
Inaba jinja Gifu, Gifu
Toga jinja Toyokawa, Aichi ichinomiya of Mikawa Province[6]
Tsushima jinja Tsushima, Aichi
Owari Ōkunitama jinja Inazawa, Aichi
Kibitsuhiko jinja Okayama, Okayama ichinomiya of Bizen Province[13]
Kibitsu jinja Fukuyama, Hiroshima ichinomiya of Bingo Province[13]
Nunakuma jinja Fukuyama, Hiroshima
Ōgamiyama jinja Yonago, Tottori
Shitori jinja Yurihama, Tottori ichinomiya of Hōki Province[14]
Hinomisaki jinja Izumo, Shimane
Mononobe jinja Ōda, Shimane ichinomiya of Iwami Province[14]
Susa jinja Izumo, Shimane
Sada jinja Matsue, Shimane
Iminomiya jinja Shimonoseki, Yamaguchi
Chiriku Hachiman Shrine Miyaki, Saga ichinomiya of Buzen Province
Yusuhara Hachimangū Oita, Oita ichinomiya of Bungo Province[13]
Fujisaki Hachiman jinja Kumamoto, Kumamoto
Tsuno jinja Tsuno, Miyazaki ichinomiya of Hyūga Province[13]
Hirasaki-jinja Ibusuki, Kagoshima ichinomiya of Satsuma Province[13]
Keijo Jinja Seoul, Korea extinct
Ryūtōzan Jinja Busan, Korea extinct
Taikyu Jinja Daegu, Korea extinct
Heijō Jinja Pyongyang, Korea extinct
Kōshū Jinja Gwangju, Korea extinct
Kōgen Jinja Chuncheon, Korea extinct
Zenshū Jinja Jeonju, Korea extinct
Kankō Jinja Hamhung, Korea extinct
Shinchiku Jinja Hsinchu, Taiwan extinct
Taichu Jinja Taichung, Taiwan extinct
Kagi Jinja Chiayi, Taiwan extinct

"Min-sha"[edit]

The Sho-sha (諸社) or various smaller shrines ranking below these two levels of Kan-sha ("official government shrines") are commonly, though unofficially, referred to as "people's shrines" or Min-sha (民社). These lower-ranking shrines were initially subdivided by the proclamation of the fourteenth day of the fifth month of 1871 into four main ranks, "Metropolitan", "Clan" or "Domain", "Prefectural", and "District" shrines.[4] By far the largest number of shrines fell below the rank of District shrine. Their status was clarified by the District Shrine Law (郷社定則, Gōsha Teisoku) of the fourth day of the seventh month of 1871, in accordance with which "Village shrines" ranked below their respective "District shrines", while the smaller local shrines or Hokora ranked beneath the "Village shrines".[4]

Metropolitan shrines[edit]

"Metropolitan shrines" were known as Fu-sha (府社).[4] At a later date, the "Prefectural shrines" were classed together with the "Metropolitan shrines" as "Metropolitan and Prefectural Shrines" or Fuken-sha (府県社).[4]

Clan or Domain shrines[edit]

"Clan shrines" or "Domain shrines" were known as Han-sha (藩社).[4] Due to the abolition of the han system, no shrines were ever placed in this category.[44]

Prefectural shrines[edit]

"Prefectural shrines" were known as Ken-sha (県社).[4] At a later date, the "Prefectural shrines" were classed together with the "Metropolitan shrines" as "Metropolitan and Prefectural Shrines" or Fuken-sha (府県社).[4]

District shrine[edit]

"District shrines" were known as Gō-sha (郷社).[4]

Village shrines[edit]

"Village shrines" were known as Son-sha (村社) and ranked below their respective "District shrines", in accordance with the District Shrine Law of 4 July 1871.[4]

Hokora or Ungraded shrines[edit]

Small local shrines known as Hokora () are ranked beneath the village shrines, in accordance with the District Shrine Law of 4 July 1871.[4] At a later date, shrines beneath the rank of "Village shrines" were classed as "Ungraded shrines" or Mukaku-sha (無格社).[4]

Statistics[edit]

New shrines were established and existing shrines promoted to higher ranks at various dates, but a 1903 snapshot of the 193,297 shrines in existence at that time saw the following:[4]

  • Kan-sha
    • Imperial shrines: 95
    • National shrines: 75
  • "Min-sha"
    • Metropolitan and prefectural shrines: 571
    • District shrines: 3,476
    • Village shrines: 52,133
    • Ungraded shrines: 136,947

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Institute for Japanese Culture and Classics, Kokugakuin University: Glossary of Shinto Names and Terms, Kampei Taisha.
  2. ^ Holtom, D.C. (2012-11-12) [First published 1965]. The National Faith Of Japan. A Study in Modern Shinto. Routledge. p. 12. ISBN 9781136165573.
  3. ^ Bocking, Brian (1997). A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Curzon Press. p. 120. ISBN 9780700710515.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Fridell, Wilbur M (1975). "The Establishment of Shrine Shinto in Meiji Japan". Japanese Journal of Religious Studies. Nanzan Institute for Religion and Culture. 2 (2–3): 137–168. doi:10.18874/jjrs.2.2-3.1975.137-168.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1959). The Imperial House of Japan, p. 124.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v "Nationwide List of Ichinomiya," p. 1; retrieved 2013-1-28.
  7. ^ Nara National Museum: No. 31, Map of the Precincts of Kanpei Taisha Isonokami Shrine Archived 2011-07-19 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ National Diet Library (NDL): Kanpei Taisha Kasuga Jinja
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Ponsonby-Fane. Imperial, p. 125.
  10. ^ a b Sawada, Janine Anderson. (2004). Practical pursuits: religion, politics, and personal cultivation in nineteenth-century Japan, p. 312 n15.
  11. ^ Chiba prefectural government: Chiba, Katori Shrine[permanent dead link]
  12. ^ Encyclopedia of Shinto: Atsuta Shinkō
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab "Nationwide List of Ichinomiya," p. 3; retrieved 2013-1-28.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x "Nationwide List of Ichinomiya," p. 2; retrieved 2013-1-28.
  15. ^ Asama Shrine: Fujinomiya, Shizuoka = Ōmiya in Suruga province
  16. ^ Takebe Taisha: Ōtsu, Shiga = Seta in Ōmi province
  17. ^ Ponsonby-Fane, (1963). The Vicissitudes of Shinto, p. 328.
  18. ^ 北海道神宮 ... Hokkaido Jingu Shrine at Nippon-Kichi.jp; retrieved 2012-1-29.
  19. ^ NDL: Kanpei Taisha Yoshino Jingu
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Ponsonby-Fane. Imperial, p. 126.
  21. ^ Breen, John et al. (2000). Shinto in History: ways of the Kami, p. 276.
  22. ^ Bernstein, Andrew. "Whose Fuji?: Religion, Region, and State in the Fight for a National Symbol,"[permanent dead link] Monumenta Nipponica, Vol. 63, No. 1, Spring 2008, pp. 51-99; Ponsonby-Fane, (1959). The Imperial House of Japan, p. 125.
  23. ^ Peattie, Mark R. (1988). Nanʻyō: the rise and fall of the Japanese in Micronesia, 1885-1945, pp. 225-229; n.b., construction completed in 1941
  24. ^ Peattie, p. 339 n61.
  25. ^ a b Ponsonby-Fane. Imperial, p. 126; n.b., raised to kanpei-taisha in 1940
  26. ^ Kamakura-gū: Kamakura, Kanagawa = Kamakura in Sagami province
  27. ^ Iinoya-gū:Kita-ku, Hamamatsu = Iya in Tōtōmi province.
  28. ^ Yatsushiro Shrine: Yatsushiro, Kumamoto = Yatsushiro in Higo province
  29. ^ Umenomiya Shrine: Ukyō-ku, Kyoto = Umetsu in Yamashiro province
  30. ^ Kanasana Shrine: Kamikawa, Saitama = Aoyagi in Musashi province.
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Ponsonby-Fane. Imperial, p. 127.
  32. ^ Kanegazaki Shrine: Tsuruga, Fukui = Tsuruga in Echizen province
  33. ^ Nagata Shrine: Nagata-ku, Kobe = Kobe in Settsu province.
  34. ^ Sumiyoshi Shrine: Shimonoseki, Yamaguchi = Katsuyama in Nagato province
  35. ^ Kumano Nachi Taisha: Nachikatsuura, Wakayama = Nachi in Kii province; n.b., Kii Province (紀伊国, Kii no Kuni) = Kishū (紀州), was a province of Honshū in Wakayama Prefecture and Mie Prefecture.
  36. ^ Itakeso Shrine: Wakayama, Wakayama = Nishiyama Higashimura in Kii province; n.b., Kii Province (紀伊国, Kii no Kuni) = Kishū (紀州)
  37. ^ Mikami Shrine: Yasu, Shiga = Mikamimura in Ōmi province
  38. ^ Ōkunitama jinja at Fuchū, Tokyo = Fuchū in Musashi province
  39. ^ Shigaumi Shrine: Higashi-ku, Fukuoka = Fukuoka, Chikuzen province
  40. ^ Sumiyoshi Shrine: Hakata-ku, Fukuoka = Fukuoka in Chikuzen province
  41. ^ Kamado Shrine: Dazaifu, Fukuoka = Fukuoka in Chikuzen province
  42. ^ Naminoe Shrine: Naha, Okinawa = Wakasa on Okinawa Island in the Ryukyu Kingdom
  43. ^ Kerr, George H. (1953). Ryukyu Kingdom and Province before 1945, p. 203.
  44. ^ a b "Modern Shrine Ranking System". Encyclopedia of Shinto. Kokugakuin University. Retrieved 29 September 2019.

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