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Keïta in 1961
|1st President of Mali|
July 20, 1960 – November 19, 1968
|Succeeded by||Moussa Traoré|
June 4, 1915|
Bamako Coura, Upper Senegal and Niger
May 16, 1977 (aged 61)|
|Nationality||French, since 1960: Malian|
|Political party||Sudanese Union-African Democratic Rally|
He was born in Bamako-Coura, a neighborhood of Bamako, which was at the time the capital of French Sudan. His family were Malian Muslims who claimed direct descent from the founders of the Mali Empire. He was educated in Bamako and at the école normale William-Ponty in Dakar, where he was top of his class. Beginning in 1936, he worked as a teacher in Bamako, Sikasso and Tombouctou. His nickname after primary schooling was Modo.
Modibo Keïta was involved in various associations. In 1937, he was the coordinator of the art and theater group. Along with Ouezzin Coulibaly, he helped found the Union of French West African Teachers.
Keïta joined the Communist Study Groups (GEC) cell in Bamako.
In 1943, he founded the L'oeil de Kénédougou, a magazine critical of colonial rule. This led to his imprisonment for three weeks in 1946 at the Prison de la Santé in Paris.
In 1945 Keïta was a candidate for the Constituent Assembly of the French Fourth Republic, supported by GEC and the Sudanese Democratic Party. Later the same year, he and Mamadou Konaté founded the Bloc soudanais, which developed into the Sudanese Union.
In October 1946, the African Democratic Rally (RDA) was created at a conference in Bamako of delegates from across French Africa. While the coalition was led by Félix Houphouët-Boigny, Keïta assumed the post of RDA Secretary-General in French Sudan, and head of the Soudanese affiliate: the US-RDA. In 1948, he was elected general councilor of French Sudan. In 1956, he was elected mayor of Bamako and became a member of the National Assembly of France. He twice served as secretary of state in the governments of Maurice Bourgès-Maunoury and Félix Gaillard. Modibo Keïta was elected constituent assembly president of the Mali Federation on July 20, 1960, which consisted of French Sudan and Senegal. Senegal would later leave the federation.
President of Mali
This section relies largely or entirely on a single source. (January 2017)
After the collapse of the federation, the US-RDA proclaimed the Soudanese Republic's complete independence as the Republic of Mali. Keïta became its first president, and soon afterward declared the US-RDA to be the only legal party.
As a socialist, he led his country towards the progressive socialization of the economy; at first starting with agriculture and trade, then on October 1960 creating the SOMIEX (Malian Import and Export Company), which had a monopoly over the exports of the products of Mali, as well as manufactured and food imports (e.g. sugar, tea, powdered milk) and their distribution inside the country. The establishment of the Malian franc in 1962, and the difficulties of provisioning, resulted in a severe inflation and dissatisfaction of the population, particularly the peasants and the businessmen.
In June 1961, he paid a state visit to the United Kingdom, where Queen Elizabeth II invested him as an honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Saint Michael and Saint George. Although Keïta was initially viewed with some wariness by the United States because of his socialist views, he made it clear that he sought good relations with Washington. In September 1961, he travelled to America in the company of Sukarno and met with President John F. Kennedy. Keïta, afterward, felt that he had a friend in Kennedy.
On the political level, Modibo Keïta quickly imprisoned opponents like Fily Dabo Sissoko. The first post-independence elections, in 1964, saw a single list of 80 US-RDA candidates returned to the National Assembly, and Keïta was duly reelected to another term as president by the legislature. From 1967, he started the "revolution active" and suspended the constitution by creating the National Committee for the Defense of the Revolution (CNDR). The exactions of the "milice populaire" (the US-RDA militia) and the devaluation of the Malian franc in 1967 brought general unrest.
After being transferred back to the capital Bamako in February 1977 in what was claimed to be an action by the government towards national reconciliation in preparation for his release, Modibo Keïta died, still a prisoner, on May 16, 1977. His reputation was rehabilitated in 1992 following the overthrow of Moussa Traoré and subsequent elections of president Alpha Oumar Konaré. A monument to Modibo Keïta was dedicated in Bamako on June 6, 1999.
As a Pan-Africanist
Modibo Keïta devoted his entire life to African unity. He first played a part in the creation of the Federation of Mali with Léopold Sédar Senghor. After its collapse, he moved away from Léopold Sédar Senghor, but with Sékou Touré, the president of Guinea, and Kwame Nkrumah, the President of Ghana, he formed the Union of the States of Western Africa. In 1963, he played an important role in drafting the charter of the Organization of African Unity (OAU).
In 1963, he invited the king of Morocco and the president of Algeria to Bamako, in the hope of ending the Sand War, a frontier conflict between the two nations. Along with Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia, Keïta was successful in negotiating the Bamako Accords, which brought an end to the conflict. As a result, he won the Lenin Peace Prize that year.
From 1963 to 1966, he normalized relations with the countries of Senegal, Upper Volta and Côte d'Ivoire. An advocate of the Non-Aligned Movement, Modibo defended the nationalist movements like the Algerian National Liberation Front (FLN).
Malian author Massa Makan Diabaté satirizes Keïta's presidency in his novel The Butcher of Kouta, which features a socialist, dictatorial president named "Bagabaga Daba" (literally, "ant with a big mouth"), who is later removed by a military coup.
- The fact that Keïta was deputy in the French National Assembly, then member of the French government, implies that he was not only a French colonial subject, but even that he legally benefited of full French citizenship.
- The Times, June 8, 1961, p. 16; Issue 55102; col. B
- P. J. Imperato, Mali: a search for direction, p. 69
- P. Diarra, Cent ans de catholicisme au Mali, p. 273
- Sangare, Mamadou. L'histoire et le roman dans la trilogie Kouta de Massa Makan Diabate. Paris: Septentrion, 1999. p. 128.
- Portions of this article were translated from the French language Wikipedia article fr:Modibo Keïta.
- memorialmodibokeita.org: Biographie.
- "Modibo Keita." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 06 Oct. 2008.
- The Big Read : Modibo Keïta: A devoted pan-africanist, The Daily Observer (Gambia), Friday September 5, 2008.
- Francis G. Snyder. The Political Thought of Modibo Keita. The Journal of Modern African Studies, Vol. 5, No. 1 (May, 1967), pp. 79–106
- John N. Hazard. Mali's Socialism and the Soviet Legal Model. The Yale Law Journal, Vol. 77, No. 1 (Nov., 1967), pp. 28–69
- Modibo Keita (1915 - 1977), The Presidency of South Africa (2006).
- Mali, 48 ans après : Socialisme, dictature, révolte et révolution. A N'fa Diallo, Le National (Bamako), 16 September 2008.
- 22 septembre : Le souvenir d’un grand jour. Hady Barry, Nouvel Horizon (Bamako), 19 September 2008.
- De l’Union française à l’indépendance : Que de chemins parcourus !. Abdrahamane Dicko, Les Echos (Bamako), 19 September 2008.
- Rosa De Jorio, Narratives of the Nation and Democracy in Mali. A View from Modibo Keita’s Memorial, Cahiers d'études africaines, 172, 2003.
- page on the French National Assembly website
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Modibo Keita.|
- modibokeita.free.fr: Site devoted to Modibo Keita : portrait, discussion, photos, and videos.
- Article du journal Le Flambeau Bamako, Mali.(Organe de la Jeunesse Union Africaine - Mali): Modibo Keita "Notre liberté serait un mot vide de sens si nous devions toujours dépendre financièrement de tel ou tel pays".