Modifier Tone Letters

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Modifier Tone Letters
Range U+A700..U+A71F
(32 code points)
Plane BMP
Scripts Common
Symbol sets Tone marks
Assigned 32 code points
Unused 0 reserved code points
Unicode version history
4.1 23 (+23)
5.0 27 (+4)
5.1 32 (+5)
Note: [1][2]

Modifier Tone Letters is a Unicode block containing tone markings for Chinese, Chinantec, Africanist, and other phonetic transcriptions. It does not contain the standard IPA tone marks, which are found in Spacing Modifier Letters.

꜀◌ ꜁◌ ꜂◌ ꜃◌ ◌꜄ ◌꜅ ◌꜆ ◌꜇⟩ are used to mark yin and (underlined) yang splits of the ping, shang, qu and ru tones, respectively, in the etymological four-tone analysis of Chinese. The dotted tone letters ⟨꜈ ꜉ ꜊ ꜋ ꜌⟩ are used for the pitch of neutral tones, while the reversed tone letters ⟨꜒ ꜓ ꜔ ꜕ ꜖⟩ and neutral ⟨꜍ ꜎ ꜏ ꜐ ꜑⟩ are used for tone sandhi. ⟨◌ꜗ ◌ꜘ ◌ꜙ ◌ꜚ⟩ are used in Chinantecan languages. ⟨ꜛ ꜜ⟩ are the IPA diacritics for upstep and downstep, while ⟨ꜝ ꜞ ꜟ⟩ are substitutes people used before broad font support of the IPA, and still preferred by some.


Modifier Tone Letters[1]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
1.^ As of Unicode version 11.0


The following Unicode-related documents record the purpose and process of defining specific characters in the Modifier Tone Letters block:

Version Final code points[a] Count L2 ID WG2 ID Document
4.1 U+A700..A716 23 L2/03-317 N2626 Proposal on IPA Extensions & Combining Diacritical Marks for ISO/IEC 10646 in BMP, 2003-09-27 
L2/03-339 N2646 Constable, Peter (2003-10-08), Comments on N2626, Proposal on IPA Extensions and Combining Diacritic Marks for ISO/IEC 10646 in BMP 
L2/03-372 N2673 Anderson, Deborah (2003-10-22), Comments on N2626, “Proposal on IPA Extensions & Combining Diacritic Marks for ISO 10646 in BMP” 
L2/04-107 N2713 Revised Proposal for encoding A Supplemented Set of IPA Combining Marks, Modifier Letters & Five-Degree Contour Tone Marks, 2004-03-20 
L2/04-156R2 Moore, Lisa (2004-08-13), "A.7", UTC #99 Minutes 
5.0 U+A717..A71A 4 L2/04-246R Priest, Lorna (2004-07-26), Revised Proposal for Additional Latin Phonetic and Orthographic Characters 
L2/04-349 Priest, Lorna (2004-08-27), Proposal to Encode Chinantec Tone Marks and Orthographic 'at' Characters 
L2/04-349R N2883 Priest, Lorna (2004-12-09), Proposal to Encode Chinantec Tone Marks 
5.1 U+A71B..A71F 5 N2945 Priest, Lorna; Constable, Peter (2005-08-09), Proposal to Encode Additional Latin Phonetic and Orthographic Characters 
  1. ^ Proposed code points and characters names may differ from final code points and names

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Unicode character database". The Unicode Standard. Retrieved 2016-07-09. 
  2. ^ "Enumerated Versions of The Unicode Standard". The Unicode Standard. Retrieved 2016-07-09.