Ulmus × hollandica 'Modiolina'
|Ulmus × hollandica cultivar|
|Hybrid parentage||U. glabra × U. minor|
The elm cultivar Ulmus 'Modiolina', or Wheel-nave elm, was first described by Dumont de Courset in 1802, as U. campestris var. modiolina, "l'orme tortillard" (:twisty elm). "L'orme tortillard" itself had first been described by Duhamel in 1764. Poederlé (1774) identified the tree as the 'orme maigre' growing in the region that later became part of Belgium. Browne (1851) and Elwes and Henry (1913) regarded 'Modiolina' as synonymous with Loddiges' and Loudon's U. tortuosa but not with U. tortuosa (Host). Van Houtte marketed an U. campestris modiolina (tortuosa), and Späth an U. campestris modiolina.
A second cultivar was distinguished as a hybrid by Chevalier in Les Ormes de France (1942) and called U. × 'Modiolina', "l'orme à moyeux".
"L'orme tortillard" was said to have crowded and twisted branches, small leaves and a pyramidal form. When old, a number of knots or 'bosses' appeared on the bark. The tree produced few seeds, and in some years none at all. Duhamel noted that "l'orme Tortillard" 'has the most useful wood of all the elms, and also has fine foliage', adding that it is 'easily raised from seed, grafts, or layers'.
"L'orme à moyeux" (:wheel-naves elm) was said to resemble English Elm in form, to be from 20 metres (66 ft) to 25 metres (82 ft) in height, and to have doubly serrated smooth leaves of a dull green measuring up to 11 centimetres (4.3 in) by 6 centimetres (2.4 in) wide with a petiole of 5 millimetres (0.20 in) to 6 millimetres (0.24 in).
Pests and diseases
'Modiolina' comes from the Latin modiolus, the nave of a wheel (see Cultivation).
"L'orme Tortillard" was particularly abundant along the road from Paris to Meaux. "L'orme Tortillard" and "l'orme à moyeux" have been considered in France to be the best of the elms for use by wheelwrights, their timber especially suitable for hubs of wheels. Specimens obtained by Swingle in France and sent to the USA in 1898 were described as having "large" leaves One tree was planted in 1899 at the Dominion Arboretum, Ottowa, Canada.
No specimens are known to survive.
- Dumont de Courset, George Louis Marie (1802). Le botaniste cultivateur. 3. p. 700.
- Elwes, Henry John; Henry, Augustine (1913). The Trees of Great Britain & Ireland. 7. pp. 1894–1895.
- Poederlé, Eugène Joseph Charles Gilain Hubert d'Olmen (1774). Manuel de l'arboriste et du forestier belgiques. 1. p. 266.
- Cultures de Louis van Houtte: Plantes Vivaces de Pleine Terre [Catalogue de Louis van Houtte, 1881-2] p.303
- Katalog (PDF). 108. Berlin, Germany: L. Späth Baumschulenweg. 1902–1903. pp. 132–133.
- Green, Peter Shaw (1964). "Registration of cultivar names in Ulmus". Arnoldia. Arnold Arboretum, Harvard University. 24 (6–8): 41–80. Retrieved 16 February 2017.
- Browne, Daniel Jay (1851). The Trees of America. New York: Harper & Brothers. p. 481.
- Duhamel Du Monceau, Henri-Louis (1764). De l'exploitation des bois. 1. p. 294.
- Duhamel Du Monceau, Henri-Louis (1804). Traité des arbres et arbustes. 2 (2 ed.). p. 144.
- "Les Ormes de France" (PDF). Revue de botanique appliquée et d'agriculture coloniale. 22 (254): 456–457. 1942.
- Ryston Hall Arboretum catalogue. c. 1920. pp. 13–14.
- Elwes & Henery (1913), p.1894; Chevalier (1942), p.435
- Inventory No. 2 of Foreign Seeds & Plants Imported by the Section of Seed & Plant Introduction, Numbers 1001–1900 (PDF). Washington D. C.: USDA. 1899. p. 80.
- Catalogue of the trees and shrubs in the arboretum and botanic gardens at the central experimental farm (2 ed.). 1899. p. 75.
- "Herbarium specimen - L.1590647". Botany catalogues. Naturalis Biodiversity Center. (1910)
- "Herbarium specimen - L.4214707". Botany catalogues. Naturalis Biodiversity Center. Kew specimen (1936), from Späth nursery (1896)
- "Herbarium specimen - WAG.1853078". Botany catalogues. Naturalis Biodiversity Center.