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ParadigmsImperative, structured, modular
FamilyWirth Modula
Designed byNiklaus Wirth
DeveloperNiklaus Wirth
First appeared1975; 48 years ago (1975)
Typing disciplineStatic, strong, safe
PlatformPDP-11, LSI-11
Influenced by
Alma-0, Go, Modula-2

The Modula programming language is a descendant of the Pascal language. It was developed in Switzerland, at ETH Zurich, in the mid-1970s by Niklaus Wirth, the same person who designed Pascal. The main innovation of Modula over Pascal is a module system, used for grouping sets of related declarations into program units; hence the name Modula. The language is defined in a report by Wirth called Modula. A language for modular multiprogramming published 1976.[1]

Modula was first implemented by Wirth on a PDP-11. Very soon, other implementations followed, most importantly, the compilers developed for University of York Modula, and one at Philips Laboratories named PL Modula, which generated code for the LSI-11 microprocessor.

The development of Modula was discontinued soon after its publication. Wirth then concentrated his efforts on Modula's successor, Modula-2.


  1. ^ Wirth, Niklaus (1 January 1976). "Modula: a language for modular multiprogramming". ETH Library. ETH Zurich. doi:10.3929/ethz-a-000199440.