Permanently protected module

Module:Convert/wikidata

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Module documentation[create]
-- Functions to access Wikidata for Module:Convert.

local Collection = {}
Collection.__index = Collection
do
	function Collection:add(item)
		if item ~= nil then
			self.n = self.n + 1
			self[self.n] = item
		end
	end
	function Collection:join(sep)
		return table.concat(self, sep)
	end
	function Collection:remove(pos)
		if self.n > 0 and (pos == nil or (0 < pos and pos <= self.n)) then
			self.n = self.n - 1
			return table.remove(self, pos)
		end
	end
	function Collection:sort(comp)
		table.sort(self, comp)
	end
	function Collection.new()
		return setmetatable({n = 0}, Collection)
	end
end

local function strip_to_nil(text)
	-- If text is a non-empty string, return its trimmed content,
	-- otherwise return nothing (empty string or not a string).
	if type(text) == 'string' then
		return text:match('(%S.-)%s*$')
	end
end

local function frequency_unit(value, unit_table)
	-- For use when converting m to Hz.
	-- Return true, s where s = name of unit's default output unit,
	-- or return false, t where t is an error message table.
	-- However, for simplicity a valid result is always returned.
	local unit
	if unit_table._symbol == 'm' then
		-- c = speed of light in a vacuum = 299792458 m/s
		-- frequency = c / wavelength
		local w = value * (unit_table.scale or 1)
		local f = 299792458 / w  -- if w == 0, f = math.huge which works here
		if f >= 1e12 then
			unit = 'THz'
		elseif f >= 1e9 then
			unit = 'GHz'
		elseif f >= 1e6 then
			unit = 'MHz'
		elseif f >= 1e3 then
			unit = 'kHz'
		else
			unit = 'Hz'
		end
	end
	return true, unit or 'Hz'
end

local function wavelength_unit(value, unit_table)
	-- Like frequency_unit but for use when converting Hz to m.
	local unit
	if unit_table._symbol == 'Hz' then
		-- Using 0.9993 rather than 1 avoids rounding which would give results
		-- like converting 300 MHz to 100 cm instead of 1 m.
		local w = 1 / (value * (unit_table.scale or 1))  -- Hz scale is inverted
		if w >= 0.9993e6 then
			unit = 'Mm'
		elseif w >= 0.9993e3 then
			unit = 'km'
		elseif w >= 0.9993 then
			unit = 'm'
		elseif w >= 0.9993e-2 then
			unit = 'cm'
		elseif w >= 0.9993e-3 then
			unit = 'mm'
		else
			unit = 'um'
		end
	end
	return true, unit or 'm'
end

local specials = {
	frequency = { frequency_unit },
	wavelength = { wavelength_unit },
	--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
	-- Following is a removed experiment to show two values as a range
	-- using '-' as the separator.
	-- frequencyrange = { frequency_unit, '-' },
	-- wavelengthrange = { wavelength_unit, '-' },
}

local function make_unit(units, parms, uid)
	-- Return a unit code for convert or nil if unit unknown.
	-- If necessary, add a dummy unit to parms so convert will use it
	-- for the input without attempting a conversion since nothing
	-- useful is available (for example, with unit volt).
	local unit = units[uid]
	if type(unit) ~= 'table' then
		return nil
	end
	local ucode = unit.ucode
	if ucode and not unit.si then
		return ucode                -- a unit known to convert
	end
	parms.opt_ignore_error = true
	ucode = ucode or unit._ucode    -- must be a non-empty string
	local ukey, utable
	if unit.si then
		local base = units[unit.si]
		ukey = base.symbol          -- must be a non-empty string
		local n1 = base.name1
		local n2 = base.name2
		if not n1 then
			n1 = ukey
			n2 = n2 or n1           -- do not append 's'
		end
		utable = {
			_symbol = ukey,
			_name1 = n1,
			_name2 = n2,
			link = unit.link or base.link,
			utype = n1,
			prefixes = 1,
		}
	else
		ukey = ucode
		utable = {
			symbol = ucode,         -- must be a non-empty string
			name1 = unit.name1,     -- if nil, uses symbol
			name2 = unit.name2,     -- if nil, uses name1..'s'
			link = unit.link,       -- if nil, uses name1
			utype = unit.name1 or ucode,
		}
	end
	utable.scale = 1
	utable.default = ''
	utable.defkey = ''
	utable.linkey = ''
	utable.bad_mcode = ''
	parms.unittable = { [ukey] = utable }
	return ucode
end

local function matches_qualifier(statement, qual)
	-- Return:
	--   false, nil : if statement does not match specification
	--   true, nil  : if matches, and statement has no qualifier
	--   true, sq   : if matches, where sq is the statement's qualifier
	-- A match means that no qualifier was specified (qual == nil), or that
	-- the statement has a qualifier matching the specification.
	-- If a match occurs, the caller needs the statement's qualifier (if any)
	-- so statements that duplicate the qualifier are not used, after the first.
	-- Then, if convert is showing all values for a property such as the diameter
	-- of a telescope's mirror (diameters of primary and secondary mirrors), it
	-- will not show alternative values that could in principle be present for the
	-- same item (telescope) and property (diameter) and qualifier (primary/secondary).
	local target = (statement.qualifiers or {}).P518  -- P518 is "applies to part"
	if type(target) == 'table' then
		for _, q in ipairs(target) do
			if type(q) == 'table' then
				local value = (q.datavalue or {}).value
				if value then
					if qual == nil or qual == value.id then
						return true, value.id
					end
				end
			end
		end
	end
	if qual == nil then
		return true, nil  -- only occurs if statement has no qualifier
	end
	return false, nil  -- statement's qualifier is not relevant because statement will be skipped
end

local function get_statements(parms, pid)
	-- Get specified item and return a list of tables with each statement for property pid.
	-- Each table is of form {statqual=sq, stmt=statement} where sq = statement qualifier (nil if none).
	-- Statements are in Wikidata's order except that those with preferred rank
	-- are first, then normal rank. Any other rank is ignored.
	local stored = {}  -- qualifiers of statements that are first for the qualifier, and will be returned
	local qid = strip_to_nil(parms.qid)  -- nil for current page's item, or an item id (expensive)
	local qual = strip_to_nil(parms.qual)  -- nil or id of wanted P518 (applies to part) item in qualifiers
	local result = Collection.new()
	local entity = mw.wikibase.getEntity(qid)
	if type(entity) == 'table' then
		local statements = (entity.claims or {})[pid]
		if type(statements) == 'table' then
			for _, rank in ipairs({ 'preferred', 'normal' }) do
				for _, statement in ipairs(statements) do
					if type(statement) == 'table' and rank == statement.rank then
						local is_match, statqual = matches_qualifier(statement, qual)
						if is_match then
							result:add({ statqual = statqual, stmt = statement })
						end
					end
				end
			end
		end
	end
	return result
end

local function input_from_property(tdata, parms, pid)
	-- Given that pid is a Wikidata property identifier like 'P123',
	-- return a collection of {amount, ucode} pairs (two strings)
	-- for each matching item/property, or return nothing.
	--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
	-- There appear to be few restrictions on how Wikidata is organized so it is
	-- very likely that any decision a module makes about how to handle data
	-- will be wrong for some cases at some time. This meets current requirements.
	-- For each qualifier (or if no qualitifer), if there are any preferred
	-- statements, use them and ignore any normal statements.
	-- For each qualifier, for the preferred statements if any, or for
	-- the normal statements (but not both):
	-- * Accept each statement if it has no qualifier (this will not occur
	--   if qual=x is specified because other code already ensures that in that
	--   case, only statements with a qualifier matching x are considered).
	-- * Ignore any statements after the first if it has a qualifier.
	-- The rationale is that for the diameter at [[South Pole Telescope]], want
	-- convert to show the diameters for both the primary and secondary mirrors
	-- if the convert does not specify which diameter is wanted.
	-- However, if convert is given the wanted qualifier, only one value
	-- (_the_ diameter) is wanted. For simplicity/consistency, that is also done
	-- even if no qual=x is specified. Unclear what should happen.
	-- For the wavelength at [[Nançay Radio Telescope]], want to show all three
	-- values, and the values have no qualifiers.
	--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
	local result = Collection.new()
	local done = {}
	local skip_normal
	for _, t in ipairs(get_statements(parms, pid)) do
		local statement = t.stmt
		if statement.mainsnak and statement.mainsnak.datatype == 'quantity' then
			local value = (statement.mainsnak.datavalue or {}).value
			if value then
				local amount = value.amount
				if amount then
					amount = tostring(amount)  -- in case amount is ever a number
					if amount:sub(1, 1) == '+' then
						amount = amount:sub(2)
					end
					local unit = value.unit
					if type(unit) == 'string' then
						unit = unit:match('Q%d+$')  -- unit item id is at end of URL
						local ucode = make_unit(tdata.wikidata_units, parms, unit)
						if ucode then
							local skip
							if t.statqual then
								if done[t.statqual] then
									skip = true
								else
									done[t.statqual] = true
								end
							else
								if statement.rank == 'preferred' then
									skip_normal = true
								elseif skip_normal then
									skip = true
								end
							end
							if not skip then
								result:add({ amount, ucode })
							end
						end
					end
				end
			end
		end
	end
	return result
end

local function input_from_text(tdata, parms, text, insert2)
	-- Given string should be of form "<value><space><unit>" or
	-- "<value1><space>ft<space><value2><space>in" for a special case (feet and inches).
	-- Return true if values/units were extracted and inserted, or return nothing.
	text = text:gsub('&nbsp;', ' '):gsub('%s+', ' ')
	local pos = text:find(' ', 1, true)
	if pos then
		-- Leave checking of value to convert which can handle fractions.
		local value = text:sub(1, pos - 1)
		local uid = text:sub(pos + 1)
		if uid:sub(1, 3) == 'ft ' and uid:sub(-3) == ' in' then
			-- Special case for enwiki to allow {{convert|input=5 ft 10+1/2 in}}
			insert2(uid:sub(4, -4), 'in')
			insert2(value, 'ft')
		else
			insert2(value, make_unit(tdata.wikidata_units, parms, uid) or uid)
		end
		return true
	end
end

local function adjustparameters(tdata, parms, index)
	-- For Module:Convert, adjust parms (a table of {{convert}} parameters).
	-- Return true if successful or return false, t where t is an error message table.
	-- This is intended mainly for use in infoboxes where the input might be
	--    <value><space><unit>    or
	--    <wikidata-property-id>
	-- If successful, insert values and units in parms, before given index.
	local text = parms.input  -- should be a trimmed, non-empty string
	local pid = text:match('^P%d+$')
	local sep = ','
	local special = specials[parms[index]]
	if special then
		parms.out_unit = special[1]
		sep = special[2] or sep
		table.remove(parms, index)
	end
	local function quit()
		return false, pid and { 'cvt_no_output' } or { 'cvt_bad_input', text }
	end
	local function insert2(first, second)
		table.insert(parms, index, second)
		table.insert(parms, index, first)
	end
	if pid then
		parms.input_text = ''  -- output an empty string if an error occurs
		local result = input_from_property(tdata, parms, pid)
		if result.n == 0 then
			return quit()
		end
		local ucode
		for i, t in ipairs(result) do
			-- Convert requires each input unit to be identical.
			if i == 1 then
				ucode = t[2]
			elseif ucode ~= t[2] then
				return quit()
			end
		end
		local item = ucode
		if item == parms[index] then
			-- Remove specified output unit if it is the same as the Wikidata unit.
			-- For example, {{convert|input=P2044|km}} with property "12 km".
			table.remove(parms, index)
		end
		for i = result.n, 1, -1 do
			insert2(result[i][1], item)
			item = sep
		end
		return true
	else
		if input_from_text(tdata, parms, text, insert2) then
			return true
		end
	end
	return quit()
end

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--- List units and check syntax of definitions ---------------------------------
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
local specifications = {
	-- seq = sequence in which fields are displayed
	base = {
		title = 'SI base units',
		fields = {
			symbol = { seq = 2, mandatory = true },
			name1  = { seq = 3, mandatory = true },
			name2  = { seq = 4 },
			link   = { seq = 5 },
		},
		noteseq = 6,
		header = '{| class="wikitable"\n!si !!symbol !!name1 !!name2 !!link !!note',
		item = '|-\n|%s ||%s ||%s ||%s ||%s ||%s',
		footer = '|}',
	},
	alias = {
		title = 'Aliases for convert',
		fields = {
			ucode  = { seq = 2, mandatory = true },
			si     = { seq = 3 },
		},
		noteseq = 4,
		header = '{| class="wikitable"\n!alias !!ucode !!base !!note',
		item = '|-\n|%s ||%s ||%s ||%s',
		footer = '|}',
	},
	known = {
		title = 'Units known to convert',
		fields = {
			ucode  = { seq = 2, mandatory = true },
			label  = { seq = 3, mandatory = true },
		},
		noteseq = 4,
		header = '{| class="wikitable"\n!qid !!ucode !!label !!note',
		item = '|-\n|%s ||%s ||%s ||%s',
		footer = '|}',
	},
	unknown = {
		title = 'Units not known to convert',
		fields = {
			_ucode = { seq = 2, mandatory = true },
			si     = { seq = 3 },
			name1  = { seq = 4 },
			name2  = { seq = 5 },
			link   = { seq = 6 },
			label  = { seq = 7, mandatory = true },
		},
		noteseq = 8,
		header = '{| class="wikitable"\n!qid !!_ucode !!base !!name1 !!name2 !!link !!label !!note',
		item = '|-\n|%s ||%s ||%s ||%s ||%s ||%s ||%s ||%s',
		footer = '|}',
	},
}

local function listunits(tdata, ulookup)
	-- For Module:Convert, make wikitext to list the built-in Wikidata units.
	-- Return true, wikitext if successful or return false, t where t is an
	-- error message table. Currently, an error return never occurs.
	-- The syntax of each unit definition is checked and a note is added if
	-- a problem is detected.
	local function safe_cells(t)
		-- This is not currently needed, but in case definitions ever use wikitext
		-- like '[[kilogram|kg]]', escape the text so it works in a table cell.
		local result = {}
		for i, v in ipairs(t) do
			if v:find('|', 1, true) then
				v = v:gsub('(%[%[[^%[%]]-)|(.-%]%])', '%1\0%2')  -- replace pipe in piped link with a zero byte
				v = v:gsub('|', '&#124;')                        -- escape '|'
				v = v:gsub('%z', '|')                            -- restore pipe in piped link
			end
			result[i] = v:gsub('{', '&#123;')                    -- escape '{'
		end
		return unpack(result)
	end
	local wdunits = tdata.wikidata_units
	local speckeys = { 'base', 'alias', 'unknown', 'known' }
	for _, sid in ipairs(speckeys) do
		specifications[sid].units = Collection.new()
	end
	local keys = Collection.new()
	for k, v in pairs(wdunits) do
		keys:add(k)
	end
	table.sort(keys)
	local note_count = 0
	for _, key in ipairs(keys) do
		local unit = wdunits[key]
		local ktext, sid
		if key:match('^Q%d+$') then
			ktext = '[[d:' .. key .. '|' .. key .. ']]'
			if unit.ucode then
				sid = 'known'
			else
				sid = 'unknown'
			end
		elseif unit.ucode then
			ktext = key
			sid = 'alias'
		else
			ktext = key
			sid = 'base'
		end
		local result = { ktext }
		local spec = specifications[sid]
		local fields = spec.fields
		local note = Collection.new()
		for k, v in pairs(unit) do
			if fields[k] then
				local seq = fields[k].seq
				if result[seq] then
					note:add('duplicate ' .. k)  -- cannot happen since keys are unique
				else
					result[seq] = v
				end
			else
				note:add('invalid ' .. k)
			end
		end
		for k, v in pairs(fields) do
			local value = result[v.seq]
			if value then
				if k == 'si' and not wdunits[value] then
					note:add('need si ' .. value)
				end
				if k == 'label' then
					local wdl = mw.wikibase.label(key)
					if wdl ~= value then
						note:add('label changed to ' .. tostring(wdl))
					end
				end
			else
				result[v.seq] = ''
				if v.mandatory then
					note:add('missing ' .. k)
				end
			end
		end
		local text
		if note.n > 0 then
			note_count = note_count + 1
			text = '*' .. note:join('<br />')
		end
		result[spec.noteseq] = text or ''
		spec.units:add(result)
	end
	local results = Collection.new()
	if note_count > 0 then
		local text = note_count .. (note_count == 1 and ' note' or ' notes')
		results:add("'''Search for * to see " .. text .. "'''\n")
	end
	for _, sid in ipairs(speckeys) do
		local spec = specifications[sid]
		results:add("'''" .. spec.title .. "'''")
		results:add(spec.header)
		local fmt = spec.item
		for _, unit in ipairs(spec.units) do
			results:add(string.format(fmt, safe_cells(unit)))
		end
		results:add(spec.footer)
	end
	return true, results:join('\n')
end

return { _adjustparameters = adjustparameters, _listunits = listunits }