A mogroside is a glycoside of cucurbitane derivatives found in certain plants, such as the fruit of the gourd vine, Siraitia grosvenorii (known as monkfruit or luo han guo). Mogrosides are extracted from S. grosvenorii and used in the manufacture of sugar substitutes.
- Mogroside II A1
- Mogroside II B
- 7-Oxomogroside II E
- 11-Oxomogroside A1
- Mogroside III A2
- 11-Deoxymogroside III
- 11-Oxomogroside IV A
- Mogroside V
- 7-Oxomogroside V
- 11-Oxo-mogroside V
- Mogroside VI
One analysis of 200 candidate genes of Siraitia grosvenorii revealed five enzyme families involved in the synthesis of mogroside V: squalene epoxidases, triterpenoid synthases, epoxide hydrolases, cytochrome P450s, and UDP-glucosyltransferases. The metabolic pathway for mogroside biosynthesis involves an initial stage of fruit development when squalene is metabolized to di-glucosylated, tetra-hydroxycucurbitadienols, then during fruit maturation, branched glucosyl groups are added and catalyzed, leading to the sweet M4, M5, and M6 mogrosides.
Some mogrosides are used in traditional Chinese medicine and some are extracted for manufacturing as sweeteners. Mogroside V extract from S. grosvenorii fruit is 250 times sweeter than sucrose.
- Itkin, M.; Davidovich-Rikanati, R.; Cohen, S.; Portnoy, V.; Doron-Faigenboim, A.; Oren, E.; Freilich, S.; Tzuri, G.; Baranes, N.; Shen, S.; Petreikov, M.; Sertchook, R.; Ben-Dor, S.; Gottlieb, H.; Hernandez, A.; Nelson, D. R.; Paris, H. S.; Tadmor, Y.; Burger, Y.; Lewinsohn, E.; Katzir, N.; Schaffer, A. (2016). "The biosynthetic pathway of the nonsugar, high-intensity sweetener mogroside V from Siraitia grosvenorii". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 113 (47): E7619–E7628. doi:10.1073/pnas.1604828113. PMC 5127336. PMID 27821754.
- Subhuti Dharmananda (January 2004), "Luo han guo - Sweet fruit used as sugar substitute and medicinal herb". Institute for Traditional Medicine, Portland, Oregon.
- Li C, Lin L, Sui F, Jiang T (2014). "Chemistry and pharmacology of Siraitia grosvenorii: a review". Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines. 12 (2): 89–102. doi:10.1016/S1875-5364(14)60015-7. PMID 24636058.
- Media related to Mogrosides at Wikimedia Commons