Qods Mohajer

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Mohajer 4)
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Qods Mohajer
Mohajer-2 2014.jpg
An Iranian Mohajer-2 in 2014
Role surveillance UAV
National origin Iran
Manufacturer Qods Aviation Industry Company
Design group Qods Aviation Industry Company
First flight early 1980s
Introduction Feb 1984[1]
Status In service
Primary users Iranian Armed Forces
Syria
Venezuela
Hezbollah
Produced 1980s–present
Number built 253 (mid-2000s)[1]

The Qods Mohajer (Persian: مهاجر‎, "Migrant") is an Iranian single-engine tactical unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) built by the Qods Aviation Industry Company in four main variants from the 1980s to the present day. The Mohajer family is primarily used for reconnaissance, and is among the most mature and well-known Iranian UAVs.[1]

The Mohajer-1 was used during the Iran-Iraq War for battlefield surveillance. The Mohajer-2 was developed in the 1990s with improved avionics and range, and remains in service today. The Mohajer-4 is an evolutionary improvement with improved range, endurance, and surveillance ability.[1] The Mohajer-6, the most recent version, is the largest and can reportedly carry armed munitions, making it an unmanned combat aerial vehicle.

The Mohajer has been exported to Iranian allies in the Middle East and has been used in the Syrian and Iraqi civil wars. In addition, the Mohajer-2 is license-built in Venezuela as the Arpía.

Development[edit]

Mohajer was first developed at the peak of the Iran–Iraq War. Studies started between 1980 by Iranian universities and IRGC as Iran needed surveillance equipment to gather information about Iraqi movement. Four prototypes were built in 1981. It was first used in Operation Kheibar in February 1984.[1] This drone, later named Mohajer-1, was Iran's first step to manufacture UAVs, and was used to correct artillery fire and photograph enemy positions.[1] Mohajer UAVs continued to photograph Iraqi lines until the end of the war and completed 619 sorties by the war's end.[2] In addition, there are reports that Iran armed the Mohajer-1 with six RPG-7 rockets to attack enemy positions.[3][4]

A Mohajer-1.

Following the successful use of Mohajer-1, Iran wanted a version with more range and endurance. The version which was later named Mohajer-2 also had an auto pilot system to help it in its missions in places far from the reach of radio waves of command center. Its airframe was completely built with composite materials. More than 200 Mohajer-2s are built as of 2011.[2]

Mohajer-3 (also called Hodhod) was developed with a redesigned airframe to further increase range and endurance.[5] It was developed contemporaneously with the Mohajer-4 and did not enter service or production.

Mohajer-4 was later designed for both Iranian Army and IRGC. The airframe was again redesigned and better cameras were installed on the drone. Range and endurance were increased much more. There are two other variants of Mohajer-4 called "Hodhod A/100" and "Shahin". As of 2006, 30 Mohajer-4 and 10 Shahins were built.[5] The engine used is a WAE342 or 3w engine.

A Mohajer-4.

The Mohajer was designed for reconnaissance, surveillance, artillery support, electronic countermeasures, communications relay, and electronic warfare.[4]

The Mohajer has had a consistent design over its 30+ years of development, and all models have a bullet-shaped fuselage, a mid-body wing, dual tailbooms, and a top-mounted horizontal tail.

Operational history[edit]

During the 1990s civil war in Afghanistan, Mohajer drones reportedly monitored the situation.[6]

Venezuelan Arpía, a license-built copy of the Mohajer-2
A Mohajer-4 with the payload bay open.

On November 7, 2004, Hezbollah flew a UAV over northern Israel for about 5 minutes. The UAV entered Israeli airspace at more than 100 knots and an altitude of about 1,000 feet, flew briefly over the seaside city of Nahariya, and fell into the sea. Some sources have identified the UAV as Mohajer-4.[7] According to an unnamed Iranian Revolutionary Guards senior officer quoted by London-based Arab daily newspaper Asharq Al-Awsat, Iran sold eight Mohajer-4s to Hezbollah.[6]

The Mohajer-4's ground control station.

In 2010, US satellite images revealed a Venezuelan facility manufacturing Iranian drones. Later, Venezuela unveiled a drone called SANT Arpía which is identical to Mohajer-2 except that it uses skids to protect the camera during the parachute recovery,a feature from the Mohajer-4. According to some sources, Venezuela signed a $28 million contract to manufacture Mohajer-2 despite sanctions that prohibited Iran from exporting arms.[8][9]

A Mohajer-4B.

On 16 May 2015, the Turkish Air Force shot down a Mohajer-4 that had violated its airspace.[10]

Mohajer-4s have been used in the civil wars in Iraq and Syria.[1]

Mohajer-6 unveiling ceremony.

Variants[edit]

  • Mohajer-1: Initial variant developed during the Iran-Iraq war.
  • Mohajer-2: Slightly better range. Addition of auto pilot systems. Had an endurance of 1.5 hours and range of 50 km. 1990s.
  • Mohajer-2N (Novin): Introduced in 2014, it is a Mohajer-2 with improved avionics and camera equipment. It has a range of 150 km and flight endurance of 6 hours. Iranian state media describes it as capable of carrying out aerial mapping for military and civilian purposes.[11]
  • Mohajer-3: Features a more box shaped fuselage that is different from cylinder shaped fuselages of Mohajer-1 and 2. With a range of 100 km and endurance of 2–3 hours. Developed during the 1990s. Did not enter service.
  • Mohajer-4: Its fuselage is again redesigned, and features low-mounted trapezoidal wings with upward-canted wingtips to lessen drag. The operational range is increased to 150 km, altitude to 15000 feet and endurance to 7 hours. The weight of the drone is almost double that of the older versions. Known as the "Shahin" in Iranian Army Ground service.[1] There is a sub-version with unknown differences called "Hodhod A/100".[2][5] Revealed 1997.
  • Mohajer-4B: A significant evolution of the Mohajer-4 platform with multiple changes to the airframe and apparent changes to the surveillance payload.[1] Introduced 2014. All serial numbers begin "P062A–".
  • Sadegh-1: Also known as the QOM-1,[12] it is simply a Mohajer-4B with two MANPADS mounted on hardpoints.[13]
  • Mohajer-6: Mass production began in February 2018.[14]
An Iranian Mohajer-4 operator with his drone, seen on its pneumatic truck launcher.

Operators[edit]

Specifications (Mohajer-2)[edit]

Data from Galen Wright[1]

General characteristics

  • Crew: none
  • Capacity: 15 kg payload
  • Length: 2.91 m (9 ft 7 in)
  • Wingspan: 3.8 m (12 ft 6 in)
  • Empty weight: 70 kg (154 lb)
  • Max takeoff weight: 85 kg (187 lb)
  • Powerplant: 1 × WAE-342 2 stroke, 19 kW (26 hp)
  • Propellers: 2-bladed

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 200 km/h (124 mph; 108 kn)
  • Range: 50 km (31 mi; 27 nmi)
  • Endurance: 1.5
  • Service ceiling: 3,350 m (10,990 ft)

In popular culture[edit]

  • The 1989 Iranian film Mohajer features a fictional unit which operates an early model (Mohajer-1) during the Iran-Iraq War.[19]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Wright, Galen (5 March 2015). "The Arkenstone - ارکنستون: Mohajer UAV". 
  2. ^ a b c "نگاهی به نقش ناشناخته "تلاش" و "مهاجر" در کربلای 5 و والفجر 8". mashreghnews.ir. 1 October 2011. 
  3. ^ "کرار؛مهاجم خستگی ناپذیر در برد1000 کیلومتری". mashreghnews.ir. 28 September 2011. 
  4. ^ a b Martin Streetly, ed. (2014). Jane's All the World's Aircraft: Unmanned 2014-2015. London: IHS Jane's. p. 81-82. ISBN 978-0710630964. 
  5. ^ a b c "مهاجر3 و 4 مجوز ورود ایران به لیگ برتر هواپیماهای بدون سرنشین + عکس". mashreghnews.ir. 9 October 2011. 
  6. ^ a b Mohajer. Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved on 2012-10-31.
  7. ^ Terrorists Develop Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Armscontrol.ru (2004-12-06). Retrieved on 2012-10-31.
  8. ^ Emili J Blasco (Jun 11, 2012). "Los drones de Chávez esconden algo". Abcblogs.abc.es. 
  9. ^ Cenciotti, David (12 June 2012). "Iranian Mohajer-2 drone appears in Venezuela. Chavez's building his own drone fleet with the help of Tehran". theaviationist.com. 
  10. ^ "Turkish Air Force shoots down not helicopter but Syrian drone - defense ministry". 18 May 2015. 
  11. ^ "Iran unveils indigenous cruise missiles, drones". Archived from the original on 2014-08-26. Retrieved 2014-08-25. 
  12. ^ https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/checkpoint/wp/2017/08/08/an-iranian-drone-just-threatened-a-u-s-fighter-as-it-tried-to-land-on-an-aircraft-carrier/
  13. ^ https://twitter.com/arawnsley/status/895334648187727872
  14. ^ Binnie, Jeremy (February 7, 2018). "Iran's Mohajer 6 armed UAV goes into production". Jane's Information Group. 
  15. ^ https://twitter.com/MuslimTurk1/status/831163336511389699
  16. ^ "LIBYA : Haftar's strange Iranian drone". Africa Intelligence. 5 October 2017. 
  17. ^ La Fuerza Aérea Venezolana exhibe sus vehículos aéreos no tripulados ANT-1X. Infodefensa (2011-11-25). Retrieved on 2012-10-31.
  18. ^ Hugo Chávez, obligado a mostrar los «drones» desvelados por ABC. ABC.es (2012-06-14). Retrieved on 2012-10-31.
  19. ^ "The Immigrant" – via www.imdb.com. 

External links[edit]