Mohammad Abdul Ghafoor Hazarvi

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Abdul Ghafoor Hazarvi
عبدالغفور ہزاروی
Born 9 Dhu al-Hijjah 1326 Hijri / 1 January 1909 Georgian calendar
Kot Najeebullah, North-West Frontier Province, British India
Died 7 Sha'aban 1390 Hijri / 9 October 1970(1970-10-09) (aged 61)
Resting place Wazirabad, Punjab, Pakistan
Nationality British Indian and later Pakistani
Ethnicity Karlal
Era Modern era
Region South Asia
Occupation Political leader
Religion Islam
Denomination Sunni
Jurisprudence Hanafi
Main interest(s) Fiqh, Tafsir, Sunnah, Hadith, Sharia, ʿAqīdah, Seerah, Mantiq, Islamic philosophy, oratory
Notable idea(s) Jamiat Ulema-e-Pakistan, Majlis-e-Tahaffuz-e-Khatme Nabuwwat
Notable work(s) Manaqib-al-Jaleela
Alma mater Darul Uloom Bareily
Disciple of Hamid Raza Khan
Awards Nishan-e-Imtiaz (1958)
President of the Jamiat Ulema-e-Pakistan
In office
19 September 1948 – 9 October 1970
Preceded by Office created
Succeeded by Khwaja Qamar ul Din Sialvi

Akhundzada Mohammad Abdul Ghafoor Hazarvi (Urdu: اخوندزادہ محمد عبدالغفور ہزاروی چشتی‎) was an influential Pakistani Muslim theologian, orator, and a revivalist leader of Pakistan.[1][2] He was one of the founding members of the political party Jamiat Ulema-e-Pakistan. He also served as the chairman of Majlis-e-Tahaffuz-e-Khatme Nabuwwat, an Islamic organisation that opposed the Ahmadiyya Movement.[3]

Early life[edit]

Hazarvi was born in the village of Chamba, Kot Najeebullah, North-West Frontier Province, British India. He was the eldest of four children.[4] His father, Abdul Hameed Hazarvi, belonged to the Karlal Hindko tribe and was a follower of the Chishti order[5]

Hazarvi studied Islamic law and the Urdu, Persian, and Arabic languages at the maktab in Chamba Village. He completed the Dawra Hadith and Qur'anic exegesis with Hamid Raza Khan, the elder son of Ahmad Raza Khan, in Madrasa Manzar-e-Islam, Bareily. At that time, Hazarvi became interested in and studied mathematics.[6]

Pledge of allegiance and services[edit]

Around age 11, Hazarvi took the Bay'ah before Pir Meher Ali Shah.[7] In 1937, he went to Jeendhar Sharif, Gujrat, to meet with Gohar Munir Jeendharvi, who conferred khilafah upon him, thus giving him permission to speak on behalf of the Uwaisi Order.[8]

After his studies, he taught the Quran and Hadith at the Madrasa Manzar-e-Islam in Bareilly, India, a key institution in the Barelvi movement. Later, he started teaching Dars-i-Nizami at the Jamia Khudam-ul-Sufiya in Gujrat. In 1935, Hazarvi established Jamia Nizamia Ghousia in Wazirabad, where he served as the Mohatmim and Khatib.[8]

Hazarvi had a close relationship with Sardar Ahmad Qadri, as both had studied under Hamid Raza Khan.[9] Hazarvi founded and was affiliated with many organisations, such as Jamiat Ulema-e-Pakistan, Anjuman-e-Talaba-e-Islam, Majlis-e-Tahaffuz-e-Khatme Nabuwwat and All India Majlis-e-Ittehad-e-Millat, which merged with the All-India Muslim League in 1940.[10]

Muslim League[edit]

Abdul Ghafoor Hazarvi was one of the provincial delegates to the Lahore Resolution of the All India Muslim League session on March 22-24, 1940.[11][12] When the Pakistan Movement almost succeeded, Hazarvi was among the scholars who sided with Muhammad Ali Jinnah and the Muslim League at "All India Sunni Conference″ held at Banaras in 1946.[11][12] He was twice nominated as a member of the Council of Islamic Ideology, where he worked to incorporate Islam into existing laws.[11][12] Abdul Ghafoor Hazarvi supported AIML during the elections of 1945-46. During the referendum in 1947 in NWFP, he visited the province and mustered support for AIML.[13][14][15]

Agitation[edit]

During the Ayub era, Harzavi (then president of Jamiat Ulema-e-Pakistan) was tried for mutiny under the Official Secret Act, along with eight other prominent leaders belonging to different political parties. The trial took place over two years. Eventually, the case was dropped by the administration for lack of evidence. In 1965, a joint opposition was organised. Hazarvi, along with other leaders of the COP, toured East and West Pakistan to create mass awareness and organize a strong national democratic movement. The military ruler, president Muhammad Ayub Khan (1958–1969), banned political parties and warned Hazarvi against continued political activism. However, Jamiat Ulema-e-Pakistan supported the opposition party, the Pakistan Democratic Movement. In the 1964–1965 presidential elections, Hazarvi supported the opposition leader, Fatima Jinnah.[16]

Khatme Nabuwwat Movement[edit]

Hazarvi branded Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian a heretic and an apostate. Ahmad claimed to be the Mahdi awaited by Muslims, as well as the second coming of Jesus Christ and the reincarnation of Prophet Muhammad. These claims proved to be controversial among Muslims. Hazarvi called Ahmad and his followers (Ahmadis) Kuffar.[17]

Hazarvi was a founding member of the Majlis-e-Tahaffuz-e-Khatme abuwwat, an Islamic movement in Pakistan. He led the movement against Ahmadis and held a Khatme Nabuwwat Conference at Chenab Nagar (formerly Rabwah) during October 22-23, 1953.[18] Hazarvi was also a central figure in the Khatme Nabuwwat Movement of 1953, which demanded that the government of Pakistan declare the Ahmadis non-Muslims.[19]

Works[edit]

Abdul Ghafoor Hazarvi wrote and translated numerous books on a variety of subjects. Among his famous works were his compilation of Manaqib-al-Jaleela, a book on Islamic Jurisprudence.[20]

His other works include

  1. Tahqiq-ul-Haq Fi Kalima-tul-Haq (The Truth about Kalima-tul-Haq)
  2. Shamsul Hidayah
  3. I'la Kalimatillah Fi Bayan-e-Wa Ma Uhilla Bihi Legharillah
  4. AlFatuhat-us-Samadiyyah (Divine Bounties)
  5. Tasfiah Mabain Sunni Wa Shi'ah
  6. Majmua Fatawa

Jihad[edit]

Hazarvi believed that directives pertaining to war in the Qur'an are specific only to Muhammad and peoples of his times, particularly the progeny of Abraham: the Ishmaelites, the Israelites, and the Nazarites. Muhammad and his designated followers waged a war against polytheists, the Israelites, and the Nazarites of Arabia, as well as some Jewish and Christian sects. The wars are seen as a form of divine punishment. As a condition for exoneration, Arabic polytheists were asked to submit to Islam. The others were asked for jizya and submission to Muslim political authority in exchange for exemption from the death punishment and military protection as the dhimmis of the Muslims. Hazarvi argued that, after Muhammad and his companions, Islam does not oblige Muslims to wage war for the propagation or implementation of Islam.

According to Hazarvi, the only valid basis for jihad is to end oppression when all other measures have failed.[21] Only an organised Islamic state can wage a jihad. No person, party, or group should wage jihad with arms under any circumstances. Hazarvi also argued that the death punishment for apostasy was only specified for recipients of divine punishment during Muhammad's time. Jihad against Muhammad's apostates was justified because they had persistently denied the truth of Muhammad's mission even after God (through Muhammad) made it evident to them. [22]

According to Hazarvi, formation of an Islamic state is not a religious obligation for Muslims. However, he believes that if and when Muslims form a state of their own, Islam imposes certain religious obligations on its rulers. Salat (obligatory prayer), zakah (mandatory charity), and 'amr bi'l-ma'ruf wa nahi 'ani'l-munkar (preservation and promotion of society's good conventions and customs and eradication of social vices) should be established through courts, police, and other government officials in accordance with the law.

According to Hazarvi, the Qur'an specifies norms for male and female interaction in surah An-Nur.[23] While in surah Al-Ahzab, special directives are given to the wives of Muhammad[24] and Muslim women to distinguish themselves when they were being harassed in Medina.[25][26] The Qur'an creates a distinction between men and women only to maintain family relations and relationships.[27]

Penal laws[edit]

According to Hazarvi:

  • The Islamic punishments of hudud are maximum sentences that can be mitigated by a court of law on the basis of extenuating circumstances.[28]
  • The shariah (divine law) does not stipulate any fixed amount for the diyya (monetary compensation for unintentional murder); the determination of the amount for the unintentional murder of a man or a woman is left to conventions of society.[28]
  • Ceteris paribus (all other things being equal), a woman's testimony is equal to that of a man's.[29]
  • Rape is hirabah and deserves severe punishments as mentioned in the Quran 5:33. It does not require four witnesses to register as in the case of Zina (Arabic) (consensual sex). Those who were punished by stoning (rajm) in Muhammad's time were also punished under hirabah for rape, sexual assault against women, and prostitution.[28]

Sources of Islam[edit]

According to Hazarvi:

  • All that constitutes Islam is contained in the Qur'an and Sunnah. Nothing besides these two constitutes Islam or can be regarded as part of Islam.[30]
  • Just like the Quran, Sunnah (the way of the prophet) is only what the Muslim nation has received through ijma (consensus of companions of the prophet) and tawatur (perpetual adherence of Muslim nation).[30]
  • Unlike Quran and Sunnah, ahadith only explains and elucidates what is contained in these two sources and also describes the exemplary way in which Muhammad followed Islam.[30]
  • The Sharia is distinguished from fiqh, the latter being collections of interpretations and applications of the Sharia by Muslim jurists. Fiqh is characterized as a human exercise, and therefore subject to human weakness and differences of opinion. A Muslim is not obliged to adhere to a school of fiqh.

Death[edit]

Hazarvi died on October 9, 1970, in a road accident at Wazirabad, Punjab, Pakistan.[31]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Zebiri, Kate. Review of Maududi and the making of Islamic fundamentalism. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 61, No. 1.(1998), pp. 167–168.
  2. ^ "Alliance with PML-Q triggers rift in Sunni Ittehad - Newspaper - DAWN.COM". dawn.com. Retrieved 28 July 2015. 
  3. ^ "JamiaTulMadina.com". jamiatulmadina.com. Retrieved 28 July 2015. [dead link]
  4. ^ Sayyid Abul A'la Maududi. Official website of the Jamaat-e-Islami.[dead link]
  5. ^ Adams, p.100-101
  6. ^ Tazkira-e-Qari Muslehuddin – Page 4 – Professor Jalaluddin Ahmad Noori (Karachi University)
  7. ^ Mahmood, Sohail (1995). Islamic Fundamentalism in Pakistan, Egypt and Iran. Vanguard. 
  8. ^ a b Irfan-e-Manzil – Darul Kutub Hanfia Kharadar Karachi – 1984
  9. ^ "Preachers of hate on British TV: what they said that broke the broadcasting rules". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 12 February 2013. 
  10. ^ "7th National Assembly" (PDF). National Assembly of Pakistan. Retrieved 7 October 2012. 
  11. ^ a b c Pakistan perspectives, Volume 7. Pakistan Study Centre, University of Karachi, 2002
  12. ^ a b c Akbar S. Ahmed (1999) Islam today: a short introduction to the Muslim world. I.B. Tauris Publishers, ISBN 978-1-86064-257-9
  13. ^ "Pakistan". books.google.co.in. 
  14. ^ "Muslim Organisations in the Twentieth Century". books.google.co.in. 
  15. ^ http://www.pjlss.edu.pk/pdf_files/2005_1%20&%202/PJLSS_2005_33-36.pdf
  16. ^ Al Mujahid, Sharif (1986). Eur, ed. Far East and Australasia 2003 (34th ed.). Routledge. p. 1163. ISBN 1-85743-133-2. Retrieved 19 September 2009. 
  17. ^ Zahid Aziz, Ahmadiyya Anjuman Ishaat Islam (2008) A survey of the Lahore Ahmadiyya movement: history, beliefs, aims and work. A.a.i.i.l. (u.k.), ISBN 978-1-906109-03-5. p. 43
  18. ^ Muhammad Taqi Usmani; Sami ul Haq (January 2005) [1974]. Qadianism on Trial. trnns. Muhammad Wali Raazi. London: Khatme Nubuwwat Academy. p. 209. 
  19. ^ "Sunni Ittehad Council to launch Difa-e-Pakistan drive". 
  20. ^ A‘lahazrat as a Translator of Holy Qur‘an. wimnet.org[verification needed][dead link]
  21. ^ Mizan, The Islamic Law of Jihad[dead link]
  22. ^ Islamic Punishments: Some Misconceptions, Renaissance – Monthly Islamic Journal, 12(9), 2002.[dead link]
  23. ^ Quran 24:27
  24. ^ Quran 33:32
  25. ^ Quran 33:58
  26. ^ Mizan, Norms of Gender Interaction[dead link]
  27. ^ Mizan, The Social Law of Islam
  28. ^ a b c Mizan, The Penal Law of Islam[dead link]
  29. ^ The Law of Evidence, Renaissance – Monthly Islamic Journal, 12(9), 2002.[dead link]
  30. ^ a b c Mizan, Sources of Islam[dead link]
  31. ^ "Ofcom Broadcast Bulletin Issue number 205, 8 May 2012" (PDF). Ofcom. Retrieved 12 February 2013.