Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar
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|Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar|
|Shah of Persia|
|Reign||3 January 1907 – 16 July 1909|
|Predecessor||Mozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar|
|Successor||Ahmad Shah Qajar|
|Born||21 June 1872|
Tabriz, Azerbaijan, Persia
|Died||5 April 1925 (aged 52)|
San Remo, Italy
|Father||Mozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar|
|Mother||Taj ol-Molouk (Umm al-Khakan)|
Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar was opposed to the Persian Constitution of 1906, which had been ratified during the reign of his father, Mozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar. In 1907, Mohammad Ali dissolved the National Consultative Assembly and declared the Constitution abolished because it was contrary to Islamic law. He bombarded the Majles (Persian parliament) with the military and political support of Russia and Britain.
In July 1909, pro-Constitution forces marched from Persia's provinces to Tehran led by Sardar As'ad, Sepehdar A'zam, Sattar Khan, Bagher Khan and Yeprem Khan, deposed the Shah, and re-established the constitution. On 16 July 1909, the parliament voted to place Mohammad Ali Shah's 11-year-old son, Ahmad Shah on the throne. Mohammad Ali Shah abdicated following the new Constitutional Revolution and he has since been remembered as a symbol of dictatorship.
Having fled to Odessa, Russia (currently Ukraine), Mohammad Ali plotted his return to power. In 1911 he landed at Astarabad, Persia, but his forces were defeated. Mohammad Ali Shah returned to Russia, then in 1920 to Constantinople (present day Istanbul) and later to San Remo, Italy, where he died on 5 April 1925 (bur. Shrine of Imam Husain, Karbala, Iraq). Every Shah of Persia since Mohammad Ali has died in exile.
- Austria-Hungary: Grand Cross of the Order of Leopold (1900)
- France: Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour (1907)
- Ottoman Empire: Exalted Order of the House of Osman (1905)
Marriages and children
Mohammad Ali Shah had two wives:
- Robabeh Khanum "Malih-os-Saltaneh"
- Princess Zahra Qajar "Malekeh Jahan", daughter of Kamran Mirza "Nayeb-os-Saltaneh"
Mohammad Ali Shah had six sons and two daughters:
- Hossein Ali Mirza "E'tezad Saltaneh"
- Gholam Hossein Mirza (died in infancy)
- Sultan Ahmad Mirza (later Ahmad Shah Qajar)
- Mohammad Hassan Mirza
- Sultan Mahmoud Mirza
- Sultan Majid Mirza
- Khadijeh Khanum "Hazrat-e Ghodsieh"
- Assieh Khanum
List of prime ministers
- Mirza Nasrollah Khan Moshir od-Dowleh (till 17 March 1907)
- Mirza Ali-Asghar Khan Amin os-Soltan (1 May 1907 – 31 August 1907)
- Mohammad-Vali Khan Tonekaboni (1st Term) (13 September 1907 – 21 December 1907)
- Hossein Khan Nezam os-Saltaneh Mafi (21 December 1907 – 21 May 1908)
- Morteza-Qoli Khan Hedayat Sani od-Dowleh (21 May 1908 – 7 June 1908)
- Prince Kamran Mirza Nayeb os-Saltaneh (7 June 1908 – 29 April 1909)
- Qajar Dynasty
- Qajar family tree
- Attempts at Constitutionalization in Iran
- Persian Constitutional Revolution
- Persian Cossack Brigade
- Anglo-Russian Entente
- 1908 bombardment of the Majlis
- History of the Iranian Constitutional Revolution
- Donzel, Emeri "van" (1994). Islamic Desk Reference. ISBN 90-04-09738-4. p. 285-286
- "گزارشی از سمینار 'سده انقلاب مشروطیت ایران' در لندن". BBC Persian. 24 July 2006. Retrieved 23 May 2020.
- Soltan Ali Mirza Kadjar, 'Mohammad Ali Shah: The Man and the King', in: Qajar Studies. Travellers and Diplomats in the Qajar Era. Journal of the International Qajar Studies Association, volume VII, 2007.
- Shablovskaia, Alisa (2019). "Treacherous friends or disenchanted masters? Russian diplomacy and Muhammad 'Ali (Shah) Qajar, 1911-1912". British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies: 1–18. doi:10.1080/13530194.2019.1683717.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar.|
- Portrait of Mohammad Ali Shah
- Portrait in Library of Congress collection
- Shah's palace in Odessa, Ukraine
- Photos of Qajar kings
Mohammad Ali Shah QajarBorn: 21 June 1872 Died: 5 April 1925
Mozaffar al-Din Shah Qajar
| Shah of Persia
Ahmad Shah Qajar