Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar ( Persian: محمدعلی شاه قاجار) (21 June 1872 – 5 April 1925, Sanremo, Italy) was the Shah of Persia (Today's Iran) from 8 January 1907 to 16 July 1909.
Biography [ edit ]
He was against the
constitution that was ratified during the reign of his father, Mozzafar-al-Din Shah. In 1907 Mohammad Ali dissolved the parliament and declared the Constitution abolished because it was contrary to Islamic law. He [1 ] bombarded the Majles (Persian parliament) with the military and political support of Russia and Britain. In July 1909, pro-Constitution forces marched from Persia's provinces to Tehran led by [2 ] Sardar As'ad, Sepehdar A'zam, Sattar Khan, Bagher Khan and Yeprem Khan, deposed the Shah, and re-established the constitution. On 16 July 1909, the parliament voted to place Mohammad Ali Shah's 13-year-old son, Ahmad Shah on the throne. Mohammad Ali Shah abdicated following the new Constitutional Revolution and he has since been remembered as a symbol of dictatorship.
Having fled to
Odessa, Russia (present day Ukraine), Mohammad Ali plotted his return to power. In 1911 he landed at Astarabad, Persia, but his forces were defeated. Mohammad Ali Shah returned to Russia, then in 1920 to [1 ] Constantinople and later to San Remo, Italy, where he died on 5 April 1925 (bur. Shrine of Imam Husain, Karbala, Iraq). Every Shah of Persia since Mohammad Ali has died in exile.
His son and successor,
Ahmad Shah Qajar was the last sovereign of the Qajar dynasty. [3 ]
Honours [ edit ]
Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar with Mirza Mohammad Ebrahim Khan, the Moavin al-Dowleh, and Company
/2 Qiran coin of Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar era
Children [ edit ]
Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar had eight children from two marriages. From his first wife he had one son. From his second marriage to Princess Malekeh Jahan daughter of
Prince Kamran Mirza Nayeb os-Saltaneh, he had seven children. The oldest child, Gholam Hossein Mirza, died in infancy.
From Robabeh Khanoum Malihe Saltaneh
Prince Hossein-Ali Mirza E'tezad os-Saltaneh
From Malakeh Jahan daughter of Kamran Mirza
Prince Gholam-Hossein Mirza, died in infancy
Soltan Ahmad Mirza later Soltan Ahmad Shah Qajar (21 January 1898, Tabriz - 27 February 1930, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France) Prince
Mohammad-Hassan Mirza (20 February 1899, Tabriz − 7 January 1943, Maidenhead, United Kingdom) Prince
Soltan Mahmoud Mirza (15 October 1905, Tehran - 2 July 1988, Évian-les-Bains, France]) Prince Soltan Majid Mirza (7 January 1907, Tehran - 24 May 1986, Paris)
Princess Khadijeh (1900, Tabriz - 1956, Tehran)
Princess Assieh (1908, Tehran - 1953,
List of Prime Ministers [ edit ]
See also [ edit ]
^ a b Donzel, Emeri “van” (1994). Islamic Desk Reference. ISBN 90-04-09738-4. p. 285-286
^ "BBC Persian". bbc.co.uk.
^ Soltan Ali Mirza Kadjar, 'Mohammad Ali Shah: The Man and the King', in: Qajar Studies. Travellers and Diplomats in the Qajar Era. Journal of the International Qajar Studies Association, volume VII, 2007.
External links [ edit ]