Mohammad Ali Taheri
Taheri founded two schools of Complementary and Alternative Medicine: Faradarmani and Psymentology. His mystical school of thought is called Erfan Keyhani (Halgheh) also known as the school of Interuniversal (Cosmic) Mysticism. Taheri advocates that mental illness is developed through a complex mechanism initiated by a person's world-view and thoughts. All human mental activity gives off a radiation which aligns with either a positive or negative network, and attracts a consciousness-based positive or negative reaction. Taheri claims that when a person uses their mental energy to direct enthusiasm toward gaining power or non-unity oriented feats, this can manifest negatively as mental or physical illness. However, when mental activity directs enthusiasm toward unity-oriented endeavors, the result is revelations. He further states that this mechanism is administered by 'Inorganic Beings.' :169
Prior to 2011 arrest
In line with Iran's ambition to remain competitive internationally and the desire to investigate all that could be done in regards to improving the quality of life of fellow Iranians, respected Iranian academics showed optimism regarding the potential for the investigation of Faradarmani.
Nejat Az Halghe (The Ring Rescue Organisation) was established to help "survivors" of Taheri's teachings with funding from the Iranian government. Abbas Ali Allahyari, head of Psychology and Counselling Organisation of the Islamic Republic of Iran (PCOIRI) and associate professor of Tarbiat Modares University has described the teachings as dangerous, predatory and exploitative, especially towards mentally ill people. Taheri's practice involves the exorcism of jinn. Dr. Nader Mahluji, a prominent psychiatrist in Tehran stated that he believed in jinn, which is stated in the Qu'ran, but that he does not believe they interact with humans as this is not mentioned in the Qu'ran, going on to state, "People who claimed to have been possessed by jinn were either charlatans, delusional, or had undergone some form of dissociation. Some may be schizophrenics and require medical treatment."
A United Nations News article identified Taheri as a medical doctor in 2015. Taheri is not known to have completed any tertiary education. He identifies himself as a doctor on the basis of his honorary degrees and his practice of spiritual healing. Taheri claims to have won many conference awards and honorary degrees for his medical research. Many of his works were published in Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. His Google Scholar page describes him as a university founder and professor and attributes many research papers in which he is not a credited author. He has claimed to have obtained a degree in engineering while studying in Turkey. He refuted this during what has been described as a televised forced confession however there is still no evidence that he obtained a degree in engineering that is recognised within or outside of Iran. Deutche Welle argued that he had developed new machinery for processing food products at an engineering company he founded. Taheri did file a patent for such an invention. The patent involves the application of a "consciousness field." The patent asserts that through communion with Inorganic Beings, chemical changes may be applied to industrial products.:1
Imprisonment and death penalty
Taheri was arrested in 2010 on charges of "acting against national security". He was released after being held in solitary confinement for 67 days. On May 4, 2011, he was arrested again. Taheri has been held in detainment in Evin Prison since May 2011.
On October 30, 2011, after three court sessions, Branch 26 of Tehran Islamic Revolutionary Court sentenced him to five years in prison for blasphemy, 74 lashes for touching the wrists of female patients, and 900 million Toman in fines (approximately $300,000) for "interfering in medical science, earning illegitimate funds, and distribution of audio-visual products and use of academic titles".
In August 2015 Taheri was sentenced to death by the Revolutionary Court on charges of Fesad fel Arz (corruption on earth) and establishing a “diversionary cult”. His supporters claimed he had been tortured to death in 2015 and the death sentence was a form of elaborate conspiracy to cover this up. His lawyer denied these claims and maintains that he is alive in Evin Prison. UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Zeid Ra’ad Al Hussein expressed alarm at the imposition of the death penalty on Mohammad Ali Taheri. A google translation of His lawyer's statement on 21 January 2018 was, “My client was brought to court but because the court refused to recognise me as his lawyer, he announced that he would not participate in the trial. In the end, the trial was not held,” however the meaning is very different, the court did not convene because they had not finalised a determination on how to proceed in his case. 
- "Mohammad Ali Taheri". United States Commission on International Religious Freedom. Retrieved February 27, 2019.
- "Iran spiritual leader on death row gets jail on retrial". The Times of Israel. March 10, 2018. Retrieved February 27, 2019.
- Erdbrink, Thomas (August 28, 2017). "Iran Sentences Faith Healing Shiite to Death". The New York Times. Retrieved February 27, 2019.
- Vahdat, Ahmad; Freeman, Colin (August 9, 2015). "Iran accused of sentencing dead man to death to cover up torture". The Telegraph. Retrieved February 27, 2019.
- "URGENT ACTION: PRISONER OF CONSCIENCE SENTENCED TO DEATH" (PDF). Amnesty International. August 31, 2017. Retrieved February 27, 2019.
- "مستند شوک حلقه شیطان(shocking demonic ring)". FardaNews.com. Retrieved February 27, 2019.
- Taheri, Mohammad Ali (February 1, 2014). "The theory of "Emission-Based Contamination" and "Consciousness Disorder Diseases" as approached by Faradarmani". Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences.
- "ویژگی بهدامافتادگان شبهعرفان حلقه(Details of the Peoples of the Ring)". Shia-News.com. March 22, 2017.
- "رشد عرفانهای کاذب در سایه کمکاری نهادهای مسئول (Growth of False Mysticism Under the Umbrella of Responsible Institutions)". Mehr News. November 6, 2018.
- Mohammadi Doostdar, Alireza (June 23, 2012). "Fantasies of Reason: Science, Superstition, and the Supernatural in Iran: Doctoral dissertation, Harvard University" (PDF). p. 187.
- "موضوع کيفيت زندگي و ارتقاي سلامت انسان بررسي شد (investigations into the promotion of human health and quality of life)". February 2011. Archived from the original on September 20, 2011.
- "Death sentence of Iranian doctor "absolute outrage"". UN News. August 5, 2015. Retrieved February 27, 2019.
- "از فرادرمانگری تا ارتداد(From Faradarmani to Apostasy)". Deutsche Welle. May 18, 2011. Retrieved February 28, 2019.
- "Interuniversal Mysticism:Awards". Interuniversal Mysticism Center. 2019.
- Taheri, Mohammad Ali (February 21, 2014). "The Purpose of Practicing Faradarmani Treatment; An Iranian Complementary and Alternative Medicine". Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. Elsiever.
- Taheri, Mohammad Ali; Bayyazi, Amin (July 9, 2013). "Definition of Psymentology, an Iranian Complementary and Alternative Medicine". Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. Elsiever.
- "Google Scholar: Citations: Mohammad Ali Taheri". Retrieved February 28, 2019.
- "از طراحی مسلسل تا "عرفان کیهانی"؛ پرونده یک حکم اعدام(From machine gun design to "cosmic mysticism"; a death sentence)". August 28, 2017.
- U.S.A. US20140156034A1, Mohammad Ali Taheri, "METHOD FOR APPLYING A CONSCIOUSNESS FIELD TO INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES", published June 5, 2014
- "After Years in Solitary Confinement, Mohammad Ali Taheri Faces New Trial on Corruption on Earth Charges". International Campaign for Human Rights in Iran. 20 February 2015. Retrieved 26 June 2015.
- "Human rights in Iran are still atrocious: While Iran reopens to the West, repression still prevails at home". The Economist. 24 March 2016. Retrieved 26 March 2016.
- "Death sentence on alternative health practitioner highlights alarming use of capital punishment in Iran". Ahmed Shaheed. August 5, 2015. Retrieved August 15, 2015.
- "وکیل محمدعلی طاهری: هنوز منتظر تعیین وقت رسیدگی به پروندهایم(Attorney of Mohammad Ali Taheri: We are still waiting for the case to be processed)". Donya-e-Eqtesad. January 21, 2018.