Mohammad Beheshti

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"Shahid Beheshti" redirects here. For the village in Iran, see Shahid Beheshti, Iran.
Mohammad Beheshti
محمد بهشتی
Mohammad Beheshti portrait.jpg
Chief Justice of Iran
In office
3 June 1979 – 28 June 1981
Appointed by Ruhollah Khomeini
Preceded by Nasser Yeganeh
Succeeded by Abdul-Karim Mousavi Ardebili
Chairman of the Assembly of Experts
In office
1 November 1979 – 15 November 1979
Preceded by Hussein-Ali Montazeri
Succeeded by Ali Meshkini
Personal details
Born (1929-09-24)24 September 1929
Isfahan, Iran
Died 28 June 1981(1981-06-28) (aged 51)
Tehran, Iran
Nationality Iranian
Political party Islamic Republican Party
Spouse(s) Ezatolsharie Motlagh
Children Ali-Reza
Mohammad-Reza
Molok Soltan
Mahbobe Soltan
Alma mater Tehran University
Religion Shia Islam
Signature

Seyyed Mohammad Hosseini Beheshti (Persian: سیّد محمد حسینی بهشتی‎‎; 24 September 1929 – 28 June 1981) was an Iranian jurist, philosopher, cleric and politician who was known as the second person in the political hierarchy of Iran after the revolution.[1] He was the main architect of the constitution and the administrative structure of the Islamic Republic of Iran who is also known as the selector and trainer of the several prominent politicians of the Islamic Republic such as Hassan Rouhani, Mohammad Khatami, Ali Akbar Velayati, Mohammad Javad Larijani, Ali Fallahian, and Mostafa Pourmohammadi.[2] Dr. Beheshti was the secretary-general of the Islamic Republic Party, the head of Iran's judicial system and the chairman of the council of Islamic revolution and the Assembly of Experts. He held a Ph.D. in Philosophy and was fluent in English, German and Arabic. Beheshti was assassinated together with more than seventy members of the Islamic Republic party on 28 June 1981. After his death, Ayatollah Khomeini called him a person who was "as a nation for us."[3]

Early years and education[edit]

Beheshti was born in Isfahan in 1929.[4] He studied both at the University of Tehran and under Allameh Tabatabaei in Qom. Between 1965 and 1970, he led the Islamic Center in Hamburg where he was responsible for the spiritual leadership of religious Iranian students in Germany and Western Europe. In Hamburg, he also worked with Mohammad Khatami and was among his influences. Since the early 1960s, he was involved in activities against the monarchy and was arrested several times by the Shah's secret police, the SAVAK.

Beheshti joined Ayatollah Khomeini in Najaf, Iraq, where the latter was in exile. There he became part of Khomeini's underground movement.[5]

Career[edit]

Following the Islamic Revolution, he became one of the original members of the Council of Revolution of Iran and soon its chairman. As vice-president, he played a particularly important role in promoting the principle of velayat-e faqih as the basis for the new constitution. In the first post-revolutionary Iranian parliament, he led the Islamic Republic party together with Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani. (He never campaigned for the parliament though, as he was already the head of Iran's Supreme Judicial System). Behesti was the founding member, first general secretary and a central committee member of the party.[6] He was also planning to run for the presidency in the first presidential elections, but withdrew after Ayatollah Khomeini told a delegation of Rafsanjani and Khamenei that he preferred non-clerics as presidents, which led to the Islamic Republic party's endorsement of first Jalaleddin Farsi and then, Hasan Habibi as candidate.[7]

Assassination[edit]

Beheshti died in an attack on 28 June 1981, when a bomb exploded during a party conference (Hafte tir bombing). The Islamic Republic at first claimed the bomb was planted by the Tudeh Party, then by the People's Mujahedin of Iran organization. The assassin was identified, per the official version, as Mohammad Reza Kolahi, an operative of the People's Mujahedin of Iran.[8] Along with Beheshti also has died many clerics and ministers and officials.[9]

Ayatollah Khomeini was very moved by his death. During the excavations of the bodies of the bombing victims, Khomeini was walking calmly in the garden of his house. Regularly his trustees would update the Ayatollah with new information on the death toll; Khomeini would not show any reaction to this. But when they told Khomeini about the possible death of Ayatollah Beheshti, Khomeini turned around, put his hands on his back and showed some signs of affection.[10]

Ruhollah Khomein stated about "7th Tir" event[edit]

The part of Ruhollah Khomeinis message on the occasion of Assassination of Beheshti and 72 Fellowships is: "…Iranian nation lost 72 innocent people in this event and the number is the same as it was in Karbala. Iranian nation is proud of presenting such persons who devoted themselves in the way of Islam and Muslims.

"Although we have lost faithful and dear friends, that each of them was like a strong and precious shield for the oppressed people, and although we have lost responsible brothers who were like a steady dike for oppressed people and revolutionary organizations, but our people will make up every shortage by unity and trust in the Almighty Allah…"[11]

Legacy[edit]

Each year a commemoration ceremony is organized on the day of assassination of Behesti.[12]

Works[edit]

Some of his works were translated into Arabic. Some of them are as follow:

  • Dos and Don'ts
  • Al Ghavaed Va Al Feghhiyat
  • Islamic economy
  • right and fault
  • pilgrimage in Quran
  • Unity in Quran
  • the problem of property
  • God from the view point of Quran
  • Banking and finiccial laws in Islam.

Opinions[edit]

Behesti had an important role in writing the constitution of Iran particularly the econmic section. He believed in corporation companies(Ta'avoni) in the field of economy and in substituting the partnership and corporartion in lieu of competition in economy. according to him in the Taavoni corporation there is no mediation between producer and consumer. he also asserts that in such as companies, the rights belong to humans not stocks.[13] He knows the foundation of constitution of Iran as something completely Islamic. He believes that the system of Islamic revolution of Iran is at the same time an oriented-people system and according to volition of Iranian people. Also this system is Islamic philanthropist and also Ideological. This system also out to pave the way for completeness of human being and his evolution.[14] According to Beheshti, one of the most important pillars of political thought is that human could walk in right path along with faith to truth.[15]

philosophy of jurisprudence[edit]

According to Beheshti, the origin of property and possession in Islam is working.

epistemology[edit]

Beheshti Also concerned with some epistemological subjects in his book "knowledge from Quran's view point". He believes that knowledge has not any definition and also it is impossible to define it. Also among the sources of knowledge, Beheshti believes that we can accept only four of them namely perception, introspection, reason and revelation or Vahy. Also he confirmed the foundationalism in structure of knowledge and along with an empristic attitude.[16]

anthropology[edit]

Beheshti, in opposition to modernism, believes that there is a strict relation between individual and collective aspects of human being. He acquired his attitude from Quran. According to him, although the history of humans shows that they are always tend to false or Batil but in spite of this historical reality, Quran tell us that the human’s destiny not only has not challenge with truth and reality but also there is a strong link between human and truth. Beheshti also emphasizes on the theory of Fitarat (innateness or primary nature) in anthropology. Beheshti also refers to the fact that it is necessary to consider human soul wholly not partially. According to the theory of primary nature, one of the characters of human soul is volition and choosing. At the same Time human undertakes the responsibility of his action. Therefore, humans have two important qualities such as freedom of choice and responsibility. In other hands, Beheshti refers to the point that Islam has a realism ideology in respect to human being such a way that considers human as something intermixture of freedom of choice and responsibility. While human given to choice, Faith has an important role in this way and could help humans in making decision.[17]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Beheshti was seen as the No. 2 figure in Iran after the Islamic revolution
  2. ^ Shahid Beheshti
  3. ^ Beheshti Was Himself a Nation for Us
  4. ^ Jessup, John E. (1998). An Encyclopedic Dictionary of Conflict and Conflict Resolution, 1945-1996. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. p. 62.   – via Questia (subscription required)
  5. ^ Samii, Abbas William (1997). "The Shah's Lebanon policy: the role of SAVAK". Middle Eastern Studies 33 (1): 66–91. doi:10.1080/00263209708701142. Retrieved 21 August 2013. 
  6. ^ Asayesh, Hossein; Adlina Ab. Halim, Jayum A. Jawan and Seyedeh Nosrat Shojaei (March 2011). "Political Party in Islamic Republic of Iran: A Review". Journal of Politics and Law 4 (1). Retrieved 29 July 2013.  Cite uses deprecated parameter |coauthors= (help)
  7. ^ Rouleau, Eric (1980). "Khomenei's Iran". Foreign Affairs 59 (1). Retrieved 5 August 2013. 
  8. ^ صفحهٔ اول > Pictures > محمدرضا كلاهي، عامل انفجار هفتم تيرماه 60، دفتر حزب جمهوري Shahsawandi
  9. ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=NboVl-CeYs0C&pg=PA109&dq=Mohammad+Beheshti&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjOssDV2NbNAhVJYJoKHS8VDQEQ6AEIKDAC#v=onepage&q&f=false
  10. ^ Video Iran Negah
  11. ^ "Shahid Beheshti". http://shakhsiatnegar.com/.  External link in |website= (help)
  12. ^ Mahtafar, Tara (28 June 2009). "Beheshti's Ghost". PBS (Tehran). Retrieved 1 August 2013. 
  13. ^ Beheshti, A unpublicited lecture by shahid Beheshti & in persian number 58, pp. 4–6
  14. ^ theoretical founations of Iran's constitution, a fragment of Beheshti's book "theoretical foundations of Iran's constitution, special monthly magazine of Voice in islamic republic of Iran, 9th year, number 54
  15. ^ The dignity of human in political system,Sayyed Alireza Hoseini Beheshti,the recognizing the one thought(Baz Shenasi Yek Andisheh,1380 solar,foundation of publication of Beheshti's thought,p.119
  16. ^ http://www.ensani.ir/fa/content/90960/default.aspx
  17. ^ The dignity of human in political system, Sayyed Alireza Hoseini Beheshti, the recognizing the one thought (Baz Shenasi Yek Andisheh, 1380 solar, foundation of publication of Beheshti's thought, p.109-112

External links[edit]

Party political offices
Preceded by
Office established
Leader of the Islamic Republican Party
1979–1981
Succeeded by
Mohammad-Javad Bahonar
Legal offices
Preceded by
Nasser Yeganeh
Head of Judiciary System of Iran
1979–1981
Succeeded by
Abdul-Karim Mousavi Ardebili
Political offices
Preceded by
Hussein-Ali Montazeri
Speaker of Assembly of Experts
1979
Succeeded by
Ali Meshkini