Mohammad Hayya Al-Sindhi

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Muhammad Ḥayāt al-Sindhī
Born Thatta, Sind
Died 1750
Hijaz
Era 18th century
Region present day Saudi Arabia
Denomination Sunni
Jurisprudence Hanbali or Zahiri[1]
Creed Athari
Main interest(s) Aqeedah

Muhammad Hayyat ibn Ibrahim al-Sindhi (Arabic: امام الشيخ محمد حياة بن ابراهيم السندي‎) (died 3 February 1750) was a Islamic scholar during the period of Ottoman Empire.[2] He is most noted as the teacher and shaikh of the proponent of the so called Wahhabi movement, Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab.[1][3]

Early life[edit]

He was Muhammad Hayat as-Sindhi was born in Adilpur, Sind, in present day Pakistan.[3] His lineage can be traced back to the tribe of Jaajur, a people from the inhabitants of Sind that used to live in the outskirts of Adilpur.

The biographical accounts do not mention the date or year in which he was born. Rather, all that is stated is that he was born and raised in the outskirts of Adilpur. When he grew up, he moved to the city of Thatta, the capital of Sind.[citation needed] After this, he migrated to present day Saudi Arabia, and took residence in Madinah.[citation needed]

Education and scholarship[edit]

After leaving Sind, Muhammad Hayat bin Ibrahim As-Sindhi learned under Shah Waliullah Dehlawi and studied closely under Muhammad Main bin Muhammad Amin At-Tattawi As-Sindi.[citation needed]

Then he migrated to Madinah and studied closely with Ibrahim al-Kurani and his son Muhammaad Tahir al-Kurani.[4]

Amongst his other notable teachers were:

Notable students[edit]

The most notable among his students is Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, whom he met in 1136 Hijri.[2][3] It was Abdullah ibn Ibrahim ibn Sayf who introduced him to Hayyat al-Sindhi.[5]

Ibn Bishr records that one time Muhammad ibn Abdul Wahhaab was at the tomb of Muhammad and he saw people prostratin in front of his grave. When he saw al-Sindi coming and he said to him, “What do you say about these people?” Al-Sindhi responded with a verse from the Quran:[6]

“[Moses said,] ‘Verily, these people will be destroyed for that which they are engaged in (idol-worship). And all that they are doing is in vain” (al-Araaf 139).[6]

Among his other students include:


Views[edit]

Although trained in Hanafi fiqh, he was also a scholar of the Hanbali school,[5] he was opposed to the canonization of the schools of law, that was historically a feature of the Ẓāhirī school (of Ibn Ḥazm, d. 456H). This lead him to influence al-Ṣanʿani (d. 1182), Muhammad ash-Shawkani, Siddiq Hasan Khan and Nasiruddin Albani.[1]

Al-Fullaani said in Iqaadh Himam Ulil-Absaar (pg. 70): The teacher of our teachers, Muhammad Hayaat As-Sindi said: The requirement upon every Muslim is that he strive hard to understand the meanings of the Quraan and to sik after the Ahaadith, understanding their meanings and extracting rulings from them. If he is not able to do this, then it is upon him to blind-follow the scholars without restricting himself to one particular madh-hab because this may resemble taking him (i.e. the Imaam of the madh-hab) as a prophet. He is also required to take the most cautious and safest view from each madh-hab (school of thought). And he is permitted to abide by the allowances (rukhas) in cases of emergency. But as for times in which there is no emergency, then it is better to leave it off.

As for what the people of our time have introduced from making it required to stick to one particular madh-hab, and that it is not permissible to change from one madh-hab to another madh-hab, this is ignorance, innovation and deviation. And we have indid sin them abandoning authentic ahaadith that are not even abrogated and instead clinging on to their madh-habs without any support. Verily, to Allaah we belong and to Him we will return.

He also took stances against the Hanafi shaikhs from the people of his homeland..[dubious ][citation needed] An example of this was his authoring of a treatise called Ad-Durrah fi Idhhaar Ghish Naqd-is-Surrah (The Pearl in Exposing the Fraud: A Criticism of The Prize) in which he refutes Shaikh Muhammad Haashim bin Abdil-Ghafoor As-Sindi Al-Hanafi in his treatise Dirham-u-Surrah fi Wad-il-Aydi tahta as-Surrah [The Prize in Putting the Hands below the Navel]. In this treatise, he professes the view that it is from the Sunnah to place the hands upon the chest during prayer, acting upon the ahaadith that were mentioned in this regard, even though this view contradicts what the Hanafis are upon. This is why when he authored his treatise Ad-Durrah, Shaikh Muhammad Haashim replied to him in two treatises. This lead Shaikh Muhammad Hayaat As-Sindi to once again reply to him, so he wrote his famous treatise: Fath-ul-Ghafoor fi Wad-il-Aydi alaas-Sudoor [The Victory of the Most Forgiving on Placing the Hands on the Chest in Prayer] [13]

Death and legacy[edit]

He died on 26 Safar, 1163H (3 February 1750) in Medina, and was buried in the Jannat al Baqi.[7][dead link][additional citation needed]

Reception[edit]

Al-Muraadi said in Silk-ud-Durar (4/34): The Muhaddith, the one with dip understanding, carrier of the flag of the Sunnah in Madinah, chief of mankind and jinn.

Al-Qinnawji said in Abjad-ul-Uloom (3/169): He was from the well-versed scholars and the great Muhaddithin.

In another place (3/188), he said: The Haafidh, the Authority.

Ibn Bishr Al-Hanbali said in Unwaan-ul-Majd (1/41): He had an extensive expertise in knowledge of the Hadith and its narrators.

Abdul-Hayy Al-Kitaani said in Fahras-ul-Fahaaris (1/356): He was the Muhaddith of Al-Hijaaz.

Muhammad bin Jafar Al-Kitaani said: He was the bearer of the flag of the Sunnah in Madinah.

The great historian of India, the noble scholar, Abdul-Hayy Ibn Fakhr-ud-Din Al-Hasani, said in Al-Ilaam biman fi Taarikh-il-Hind min al-Alaam (815): "The Shaikh, the great Imaam, the Muhaddith, Muhammad Hayaat bin Ibrahim As-Sindi Al-Madani, one of the well-known scholars."

Notable Works[edit]

  • Tuhfat-ul-Muhibbin fi Sharh al-Arbain [A Gift to the Beloved in Explaining An-Nawawis 40 Hadith]
  • An Explanation of At-Targhib wat-Tarhib of Al-Mundhiri in 2 volumes
  • Tuhfat-ul-Anaam fil-Amal bi-Hadith an-Nabi alayhis-Salaatu was-Salaam (A Gift to Mankind: Acting on the Prophets Hadith) A book in which he discusses the obligation of following the Sunnah and not blindly-following one of the four madh-habs, whilst bringing many narrations from the four Imaams about this.
  • Fath-ul-Ghafoor fi Wad-il-Aydi alaas-Sudoor A treatise on placing the hands on the chest in prayer
  • An Abridgement (Mukhtasar) of Imaam Ibn Hajr Al-Haytamis famous book of sins, Az-Zawaajir
  • Al-iqaaf alaa Sabab-il-Ikthilaaf A treatise on the reasons for differing
  • Muqaddimah fil-Aqaaid [An Introduction to the Beliefs of Crid]
  • Al-Junnah fi Aqaaidi Ahlis-Sunnah [The Beliefs of Ahlus-Sunnah]
  • Hukm Ifaa-ul-Liha (The Ruling on Leaving the Beard to Grow]
  • Sharh al-Arbain Li-Ali Al-Qaari [Explanation of 40 Hadith compiled by the great scholar Ali Al-Qaari]

It must be noted that some historians, such as Umar Ridaa Kahaalah, author of the book "Mujam-ul-Mualifin" (9/275), counted the book Irshaad-un-Nuqaad ilaa Taysir-il-Itiqaad as being from among As-Sindis writings. However, in reality, it is one of the writings of one of his students, Imaam Muhammad bin Ismaail As-Sanaani (d. 1182H). Perhaps, this notion came about due to the fact that As-Sanaani included large amounts of quotes from As-Sindis book Tuhfat-ul-Anaam in his book Irshaad-un-Nuqaad.[citation needed]

Unsourced content[edit]

[1] It is called An Index of As-Sindis Teachers. A copy of it can be found in the Jumuah Al-Maajid Center in Dubai.

[2] He is one of the well known scholars, from the students of Ash-Shaah Wali-ullaah Ahmad bin Abdir-Rahim Ad-Dihlawi, the Muhaddith of Delhi, India (d. 1176H). He authored several books, the most important of which was: Diraasaat-ul-Labib fil-Uswat-il-Hasanah bil-Habib.

[3] He was the famous Abul-Hasan, author of commentaries on the Six Collections of Hadith, the Muhaddith, the Haafidh, the Mufassir, the Faqih, teacher in the Prophets Mosque.

[4] Shaikh Muhammad Hayaat As-Sindi received ijaazah (approval) from him. He was a teacher in the Haram of Makkah. Many students from Saudi Arabia learned from him. From among the books he wrote was: Diyaa-us-Saari alaa Sahih al-Bukhaari and Al-Imdaad bi-Marifat-il-Isnaad. From his great feats was his editing and amending of all of the Six Collections of Hadith, such that his edited versions of them came to be relied on as sources of reference (i.e. for later publications of the Books of Hadith). The greatest of these was his editing of the book Sahih Al-Bukhaari, since he wrote it with his own hand and it took him almost twenty years to complete.

[5] Shaikh Al-Ujaymi was a follower of the Sunnah. He did not used to believe that blind-following was obligatory. He would also combine betwin the Dhuhr and Asr Prayers and betwin the Maghrib and Ishaa Prayers when traveling, contrary to the Hanafi Madh-hab. His writings include: Al-Farj baada ash-Shiddah fi anna-Nasaaraa Laa Yaskunoona bi-Jiddah.

[6] He was the famous Imaam and Mujaddid that nids no introduction, author of the valuable treatises on Tawhid. In his biography of Shaikh As-Sindi as is found in Unwaan-ul-Majd fi Taarikh-in-Najd, the famous historian, Shaikh Uthmaan bin Shibr An-Najdi said (1/14): A large group of people learned from him, the most prestigious of whom was Shaikh-ul-Islaam Muhammad bin Abdil-Wahhaab, Shaikh Alaa-ud-Din As-Soorati and others.

[7] He was the author of the famous book Subul-us-Salaam, the explanation of Buloogh-ul-Maraam of Al-Haafidh Ibn Hajr, apart from numerous other books.

[8] He was the Muhaddith and Usooli, author of the book Bahjat-un-Nadhar alaa Sharh Nukhbat-il-Fikar of Ibn Hajr on the Science of Hadith Terminology.

[9] He was a scholar of Hadith, Fiqh and Didactic Poetry. Amongst his writings is: Mandhoomah al-Hudaa fi Ittibaa an-Nabi Al-Muqtadaa.

[10] He is the author of the book Al-Fawaaid-ul-Afdaliyyah. He died around the year 1168H.

[11] He was the poet and historian, author of the books Subhat-ul-Marjaan fi Athaar Hindistaan and Shamaamat-ul-Anbar fimaa warada fil-Hind min Sayyid-il-Bashar.

Further reading[edit]

  • Muḥammad Ḥayyā al-Sindī and Muḥammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab: An Analysis of an Intellectual Group in Eightinth-Century Madīna, John Voll. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 38, No. 1 (1975), pp. 32–39. Cambridge University Press on behalf of School of Oriental and African Studies. Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/614196
  • ' The non-Wahhabi Hanbalis', 277-91.
  • Aziz Ahmad, ' Political and religious ideas of Shah Wali-ullah of Delhi ', Muslim World, LII, 1, 1962, 22.
  • G. W. J. Drewes, 'Indonesia: mysticism and activism', in G. E. von Grunebaum (ed.), Unity and variety in Muslim civilization, Chicago, 1955, 290-1.fdaafg
  • Saint-Prot, Charles. Islam. L'avenir de la tradition entre révolution et occidentalisation (Islam. The Future of Tradition betwin Revolution and Westernization). Paris: Le Rocher, 2008.
  • Salaah-ud-Dins verification of Tuhfat-ul-Anaam [Ghiraas Publishing 2003]
  • TaHa Busrihs verification of Tuhfat-ul-Anaam [Dar Ibn Hazm 1993]
  • Abdul-Majid Jumahs verification of Hukm Ifaa-ul-Lihaa, Maktabah Al-Haafidh Adh-Dhahabi, 2004.
  • Muhammad Shaayib Sharifs verification of Tuhfat-ul-Muhibbin fi Sharh al-Arbain, Dar Ibn Hazm, 2005.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Qadhi, Dr. Yasir (22 April 2014). "On Salafi Islam". Muslim Matters. Retrieved 30 April 2015. 
  2. ^ a b al Uthaymeen, Muhammad ibn. Al Shaikh Muhammad ibn Abdul Wahhab. 
  3. ^ a b c Zarabozo, Jamal. The Life, Teachings and Influence of Muhammad ibn Abdul-Wahhaab. pp. 17, 18. 
  4. ^ Robinson, Francis (2001). The 'Ulama of Farangi Mahall and Islamic Culture in South Asia (Illustrated ed.). C. Hurst & Co. Publishers,. ISBN 1850654751. Retrieved 30 April 2015. 
  5. ^ a b Voll, John (1975). "Muḥammad Ḥayyā al-Sindī and Muḥammad ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab: An Analysis of an IntellectualGroup in Eighteenth-Century Madīna". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Published by the Cambridge University Press on behalf of School of Oriental and African Studies 38 (1): 32–39. Retrieved 26 April 2015. 
  6. ^ a b Ibn Bishr. History of Najd 1. p. 29. 
  7. ^ http://aa.trinimuslims.com/showthread.php?t=275