Mohammad Zainuddin

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Mohammad Zainuddin
Born Sakras, Haryana
Residence Nagpur and Tijara
Occupation Faujdar
Known for Faujdar

Haji Mir Mohammad Zainuddin (d. 1850 AD) was Faujdar during Bhonsle Dynasty at Nagpur.

Biography[edit]

Haji Mohammad Zainuddin during the reign of Raghuji Bapusaheb Bhonsle III, migrated to Nagpur from Tijara in 1818 as a noble man. At that time, Nagpur was the princely state. In Nagpur, his relative had a Risala (mounted troop) of 100 horse riders with Naqqara and Nishān (Insignia).[1]

'Syed Abdul Ali Adil Nagpuri' narrated a Qat'a (a form of poetry) on his appointment as Faujdar in 1266AH/1849AD in the court of Nagpur state.[2]

Family history[edit]

He was present in Tijara and hence remained alive when his father Syed Mohammad Ashraf was assassinated (Shaheed) in 1814 by Meo Community at Sakras. It was a time when Mughals were becoming weak and there was almost anarchy and lawlessness all over the state. The government was weakened by successive wars, agrarian crises fueling local revolts, the growth of religious intolerance and British colonialism. His family lived nearly 500 years in Sakras (now a town in Ferozepur Jhirka) before the demise of his father. His other family members were of the famous nobility from the region of Mewat, many members had a long tradition of scholarship and military history. After the loss of Syed Mohammad Ashraf, the family of Haji Mohammad Zainuddin was shifted to Tijara, where other family relatives were living.

Qazi Mir Imdad Ali was his brother, who was also Military officer during the Bhonsle Dynasty. Mufti Yaqinuddin son of Mufti Imamuddin, and the brother-in-law of Mohammad Zainuddin (actually son-in-law of his uncle Syed Mohammad Shamsuddin) was a renowned scholar and Mufti of Rewari. Being Mufti of the city, he issued Fatwa against the British forces and to support the forces of Rao Tula Ram of Rewari. In consequent to his Fatwa, Muslims of Rewari and nearby villages fought against British invasion and supported with heart and soul the small force of Rao Tula Ram. Many got martyrdom in the fight so called the 'Fight at Narnaul'. After the defeat of Rao Tula Ram on 16 November 1857, Mufti Yaqinuddin and his brother-in-law Abdur Rahman (alias Nabi Baksh) were hanged after brought from Tijara to Delhi. His brother Mufti Nizamuddin was arrested from Rewari and was also hanged in Delhi.

Haji Mohammad Zainuddin was married to Zarifun Nisan (daughter of Fakhruddin ibn Moizuddin) but had no issues. Zainuddin’s father in law Fakhruddin and maternal grandfather Amiruddin were real brothers.

The son of Fakhruddin, Ghulam Mustafa was employed with a good post at Nagpur. He built a beautiful Haveli at Tijara and went for Hajj in 1264 AH / 1847 AD. After Hajj, he remained in Tijara and died on 18 Moharram 1284 AH / 1867 AD. He had two sons Abdul Majeed and Bayazuddin and one daughter Jamila Begum.
  1. Abdul Majeed's son Abdul Latif (b. 27 Rabi' al-awwal 1271 AH / 1884 AD) was Hafiz Quran and married to Zakirun Nisan (daughter of Abdul Mughni) on 9 Rabi' al-thani 1287 AH / 1870 AD. Abdul Latif had one daughter Sughra and three sons Abdur Rasheed, Mohammad Siddiq and Manzoor Ahmad.
  2. Bayazuddin had two sons Mohammad Ismail (married to cousin Sughra daughter of Hafiz Abdul Latif) and Mohammad Shafi (married to the daughter of Kamdar Abdul Matin 'Matin'). The son of Mohammad Shafi, Mohammad Shakil was married to Hasina Begum (sister of Kotwal Wasimuddin and daughter of Hafiz Naseemuddin ibn Qazi Fayyazuddin).
  3. Jamila Begum was married to Qazi Hafiz Nasimuddin ibn Qazi Mohammad Fayyazuddin.

Hajj[edit]

In 1832 AD/1248 AH from Nagpur, he went for Hajj along with Qazi Najibuddin (son of Qazi Mohammad Ata) and Arabuddin (son of Qazi-e Ferozepur Jhirka). From Bombay, they took a ship. Before, the departure of the ship, Qazi Najibuddin became ill and died on 13 Shawwal 1248 AH. He was buried at Masjid Maulvi Mohammad Anas. Mohammad Zainuddin and Arabuddin finally went together for Hajj. In the same ship, Maulvi Abu Saeed and Mirza Meena Beg (Risaldar of Tijara) was also present. With reference to Maulvi Mohammad Anas, it seems that the family was quite close to the movement of Hazrat Syed Ahmad Shaheed.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

Qazi Najibuddin son of Qazi Mohammad Ata was a man of eminence, rich in society and as a leader, he helped many relatives to get important positions at Nagpur. In his lifetime, he bequeathed his role as qazi to his elder son, Qazi Ghulam Mohiuddin and went himself to join the services in the court of Maharaja Nagpur. He joined army as Risaldar. He left the post of Risaldar for his another son, Mohammad Rahimuddin. He also helped to adjust his nephew Mohammad Aminuddin ibn Fasihuddin at various important posts. Qazi Najibuddin was entitled with ‘’Khan Sahib" by Maharaja Nagpur. A paper where details of expenditure by Khan Sahib Mohammad Najibuddin Gharra dated Sifar 1222 AH (1807 AD), is extant in the library of Ibn Sina Academy of Medieval Medicine and Sciences. In Tijara, he planted a 20 Bigha garden for his son Qazi Ghulam Mohiuddin and another garden at 12 Bigha land for Mohammad Rahimuddin. Mohammad Rahimuddin remained as Risaldar 12 more years after the death of his father. In 1262 AH / 1845 AD, he returned to Tijara after dispute within the army. Later in his life from 1262 AH / 1845 AD to 1264 AH / 1847 AD, Mohammad Rahimuddin remained as Risaldar in the 15 Regiment of India. While he was on leave for 7 months in Tijara, he died on 14 Dhu al-Hijjah 1264 AH (Sunday) after getting short illness.

Qazi Ghulam Mohiuddin was born on 2 Rajab 1224 AH / 1809 AD. He became qazi after his father left this post for him. He remained qazi for 23 years. After the death of his brother Mohammad Rahimuddin, he attracted towards Spahigiri and joined 5th regiment of Punjab where he remained as Naib Risaldar for 10 years. He was very loyal and honest person. After suffering from fever for 2 and half months, he died at the age of 51 on 21 Rabi' al-thani at Thursday 1274 AH / 1857 AD near Roadi, District Dera Ismail Khan. He was taken care of by his maternal nephew Waliuddin (son of Ziauddin ibn Qazi Hisamuddin).

Qazi Ghulam Mohiuddin was first married to Fasihun Nisan (daughter of Mian Ghulam Ahmad ibn Mohammad Ahsan of Loni and had five daughters. He then married to Habibun Nisan (daughter of Afzal Hussain ibn Nijabat Hussain of Rewari). From Habibun Nisan, Qazi Fayyazuddin was born in 1847. The descendents of these 5 daughters and one son are in hundreds now, settled in India and Pakistan. One of the daughters, Amarun Nisan was married to Ghulam Mansoor.

Qazi Fayyazuddin had five sons and 2 daughters.
  1. The elder daughter Ruqqaiya Begum was married to Mufti Mohammad Siddiq and had 2 daughters while the younger daughter Ummatul Hafeez was married to Mahmoodul Haq ibn Afzalul Haq ibn Munshi Barkat Ali ibn Khairat Ali of Palwal and had no children. With second wife, Mahmoodul Haq had two sons namely Maulana Abrarul Haq (caliph of Ashraf Ali Thanwi) and Professor Anwarul Haq. They were all scholars of their times. Earliest books, ‘Miratul Haqaiq’ and ‘Kitab Rahnuma-i Hujjaj’ in their family extant even today was written by Munshi Barkat Ali. Khairat Ali and Hayat Ali were two prominent brothers settled in Palwal and sons of Mohammad Hasan Ali bin Kamaluddin. Khairat Ali was Sarrishtedar Deputy Commissioner of Gurgaon, who later on joined the services at the court of Maharaja Tijara. He died in Tijara but his body was taken to Delhi to bury near the grave of Shaikh Abdul Haq Mohaddis. Hayat Ali was Thanedar at Shahdara (Delhi).
  2. The elder son, Qazi Hameeduddin was born on 16 Sha'aban1290 AH / 1873 AD.

Death[edit]

Haji Mohammad Zainuddin died in 1850 and is buried at Takya Ghanghru Shah, Chawani Maharajganj (Pardi), Nagpur. Near his grave, several of his relatives are also buried such as Ghulam Qadir and Mohammad Abdul Karim.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nagpur ka Muslim Muashra (Gondwana aur Bhonsle Aihad [1700-1845]); Vol 2 by Dr. M. Sharfuddin Sahil, Salman Fine Arts, Nagpur, 1996.
  2. ^ Nagpur ka Muslim Muashra (Gondwana aur Bhonsle Aihad [1700-1845]); Vol 2 by Dr. M. Sharfuddin Sahil, Salman Fine Arts, Nagpur, 1996.
  3. ^ Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman (2008). "Haji Zainuddin". Hayat Karam Husain (2nd ed.). Aligarh/India: Ibn Sina Academy of Medieval Medicine and Sciences. pp. 58–62. ISBN 978-81-906070-5-6.