Mohammed Adil Shah

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Mohammed Adil Shah
Adil Shahi Emperor
Muhammad Adil Shah II with courtiers and attendants.jpg
Muhammad Adil Shah II with courtiers and attendants.
Reign12 September 1627 – 4 November 1656
PredecessorIbrahim Adil Shah II
SuccessorAli Adil Shah II
Died4 November 1656
SpouseTaj Jahan Begum
(daughter of Abdur Rahman Quadri)
Khadija Sultana (daughter of Sultan Muhammad Qutb Shah)
Uroos Begum
IssueAli Adil Shah II
Full name
Muhammad Adil Shah Gazi
DynastyAdil Shahi Empire
FatherIbrahim Adil Shah II
MotherTaaj Sultana or Badi Sahiba
ReligionShia Islam

Mohammed Adil Shah was the seventh ruler of Bijapur, ascending the throne in 1627.


Sultan Muhammad Adil Shah of Bijapur and African courtiers, ca, 1640

Bijapur partnered with the Mughals in the extinction of Ahmednagar. Mohammed maintained friendly relations with Shah Jahan and made a peace treaty of 1636, after the extinction of Ahmednagar. By a farman of Shah Jahan, he got assurances for the end of Mughal aggression against Bijapur and due to his good relations with the Mughals, Shah Jahan formally recognized Muhammad’s sovereignty and bestowed upon him the title of Shah in 1648, the only ruler of Bijapur to receive such recognition from the Mughals.

The Treaty of 1636 with the Mughals sealed the expansion of Bijapur in the north. So, Mohammed Adil Shah extended his dominations westwards into Konkan, Pune, Dhabul (present Mumbai), southwards into Mysore, and eastwards into Karnataka, present south Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. During his reign, the kingdom attained its greatest extent, power and magnificence, and his dominions stretched from the Arabian Sea to the Bay of Bengal.

Besides territorial expansions, Bijapur also attained peace and prosperity during Mohammed’s reign. His kingdom yielded an annual revenue of seven crore eighty four lakh rupees, besides the five and half crores of tributes that were from vassal rulers and zamindars. Cultural activities like poetry, painting and architecture also received a great impetus. Mohammed Adil Shah did his best to emulate the glorious traditions left to him by his versatile father. Diffusion of general education and religious teachings were one of his chief concerns, and he did his utmost to improve the socio-economic and educational standards of the people.

Mohammed was the first ruler of Adil Shahi dynasty to make a departure from the injunctions against figure and portrait painting that was scrupulously adhered to till his father’s reign. He introduced fresco paintings and portraits, the examples of which are the walls of Asar Mahal, pavilion at Kumatgi and Sat Manzil.

Rise of Marathas[edit]

Mohammad’s reign witnessed revolt of Shahaji and then, the rise of Shivaji to eminence and his founding of an independent Maratha State, which was initially carved out of the Bijapur Kingdom. Mohammed failed to check the rise of Marathas to independence.


After an extended illness, Mohammad died and was succeeded by his son Ali Adil Shah II.[1]


Gol Gumbaz, the tomb of Adil Shah. The dome of Gol Gumbaz is the second largest in the world

He was buried in the Gol Gumbaz, near the tomb of his spiritual teacher Hashimpeer Dastageer. Hashimpeer arrived in Bijapur at the rule of Ibrahim Adil Shah II. Hashimpeer influenced the rulers of Bijapur to give up their un-Islamic and heretic practices. Gol Gumbaz, located near the shrine of Hashimpeer, owes its completion to the 10 years of life that Hashimpeer granted to his disciple Adil Shah.

The dome of the Gol Gumbaz is the second largest in the world, 44 m (124 ft) in diameter.[2] The Gol Gumbaz complex includes a mosque, a Naqqar Khana (a hall for the trumpeters, now it is used as museum) and the ruins of guest houses.


  1. ^ John F. Richards, The Mughal Empire, (Cambridge University Press, 1995), 157.
  2. ^ Utilizing Ready Mix Concrete and Mortar: Proceedings of the International Conference, ed.Ravindra K. Dhir and Mukesh C. Limbachiya, (Thomas Telford Publishing, 1999), 212.
Preceded by
Ibrahim Adil Shah II
Adil Shahi Rulers of Bijapur
Succeeded by
Ali Adil Shah II