Sayyid Mir Muhammad Alim Khan

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Sayyid Mir Mohammed Alim Khan
Mohammed Alim Khan cropped.png
Alim Khan, photographed by Prokudin-Gorskii in 1911
Emir of Bukhara
Reign3 January 1911 – 30 August 1920
Predecessor'Abd al-Ahad Khan
SuccessorMonarchy abolished by Red Army invasion. Territory taken over by the Soviet Union.
Born(1880-01-03)3 January 1880
Bukhara, Emirate of Bukhara (present-day Uzbekistan)
Died28 April 1944(1944-04-28) (aged 64)
Kabul, Afghanistan
HouseManghud dynasty
Father'Abd al-Ahad Khan
ReligionIslam

Emir Sayyid Mir Muhammad Alim Khan (Uzbek: Said Mir Muhammad Olimxon, 3 January 1880 – 28 April 1944) was the last emir of the Uzbek Manghit dynasty,[1] rulers of the Emirate of Bukhara in Central Asia. Although Bukhara was a protectorate of the Russian Empire from 1873, the Emir presided over the internal affairs of his emirate as absolute monarch and reigned from 3 January 1911 to 30 August 1920.

Early life[edit]

At the age of thirteen, Alim Khan was sent by his father Emir Abdulahad Khan to Saint Petersburg for three years to study government and modern military techniques. In 1896, having received formal confirmation as Crown Prince of Bukhara by the Russian government, he returned home.

After two years in Bukhara assisting in his father's administration, he was appointed governor of Nasef region for the next twelve years. He was then transferred to the northern province of Karmana, which he ruled for another two years, until receiving word in 1910 of his father's death.

Reign[edit]

Alim Khan's rule began with promise. Initially, he declared that he would no longer expect or accept any gifts, and prohibited his officials from demanding bribes from the public, or imposing taxes on their own authority. However, as time went by the Emir's attitude towards bribes, taxes, and state salaries changed. The conflict between the traditionalists and the reformists ended with the traditionalists in control, and the reformers in exile in Moscow or Kazan. It is thought that Alim Khan, who initially favored modernization and the reformists, realised that their eventual goals included no place for either him or his descendants as rulers. Like his predecessors, Alim Khan was a traditional ruler. He toyed with the idea of reform as a tool to keep the clergy in line, and only as long as he saw the possibility of using it to strengthen Manghud rule.[citation needed]

One of the most important Tajik writers, Sadriddin Ayniy, wrote vivid accounts of life under the Emir. He was whipped for speaking Tajik and later wrote about the life under the Emirs in the Bukhara Executioners ("Jallodon-i Bukhara").

Alim Khan was the only Manghud ruler to add the title of Caliph to his name,[citation needed] and was the last direct descendant[clarification needed] of the Manghit dynasty to serve as a national ruler.

In March 1918 activists of the Young Bukharan Movement (Yosh Buxoroliklar) informed the Bolsheviks that the Bukharians were ready for the revolution and that the people were awaiting liberation. The Red Army marched to the gates of Bukhara and demanded that the emir surrender the city to the Young Bukharans. As Russian sources report, the emir responded by killing the Bolshevik delegation, along with several hundred Russian supporters of the Bolsheviks in Bukhara and the surrounding territories. The majority of Bukharans did not support an invasion and the ill-equipped and ill-disciplined Bolshevik army fled back to the Soviet stronghold at Tashkent.

Deposition and death[edit]

Said Mir Mohammed Alim Khan mausoleum, Kabul, Afghanistan

However, the emir had won only a temporary respite. As the civil war in Russia wound down, Moscow sent reinforcements to Central Asia. On 2 September 1920, an army of well-disciplined and well-equipped Red Army troops under the command of Bolshevik general Mikhail Frunze attacked the city. After four days of fighting, the Ark of Bukhara was destroyed, the red flag was raised from the top of Kalyan Minaret, and the Emir Alim Khan was forced to flee to his base at Dushanbe (in present-day Tajikistan), and finally to Kabul, Afghanistan, where he died in 1944. He is buried at the Shuadoi Solehin cemetery.

He was awarded Order of Prince Danilo I and a number of decorations.[2]

Family[edit]

Alim Khan's house in Saint Petersburg

Alim Khan was a direct descendant of Genghis Khan.[3]: 974 [dubious ] Although the emir had several children, the exact number of offspring the emir had is unknown. Emir Alim Khan had three official wives in Bukhara but after settling in Afghanistan, people there sympathized with him and many gave their daughters to him as wives. Therefore, he had several more wives in Afghanistan.[4]

Seyid Alim Khan had numerous offspring, which according to some estimates is about 500 people. During the last years of the Emir's life, almost all of his descendants were with him, with the exception of a few people. Due to the fact that by the end of August 1920 the Red Army was rapidly surrounding and began to bombard and storm Bukhara, Seyid Alim Khan hastily began to evacuate himself, his family and some of his close associates. However, possibly due to the suddenness of the forced evacuation, his three young sons—about 8–10 years old (according to other sources, 4–6 years old), Sultanmurad, Shahmurad and Rakhimkhan—remained in Bukhara. After the capture of Bukhara, the Bolsheviks discovered them and at first wanted to shoot them together with the remaining several members of the family and close associates of the emir (similar to the execution of Nicholas II with his family and close associates), but left them alive in order to further propaganda in their favor, sending all three to Moscow, to be raised in an orphanage for orphans of dead Bolsheviks and soldiers of the Red Army.

Seyid Alim Khan appealed to the Bolsheviks and the world community to let his children and other family members who remained in Bukhara be released to join him in Afghanistan. But the Bolsheviks refused him and in fact kept them as a hostage for personal political and ideological purposes. The eldest of the three sons of Seyid Alim Khan remaining in the USSR, Sultanmurad, was disabled and lame from birth. He graduated from the Faculty of Workers and after his studies began working at a factory for the disabled. According to some reports, he spoke English. Some time later, Sultanmurad was arrested by the NKVD and declared an " enemy of the people ". Among other charges, he was accused of collaborating with British intelligence. After his arrest, Sultanmurad announced a hunger strike and soon died, most likely from exhaustion. Sultanmurad was married. His wife at that time worked at a soap factory and, according to some reports, upon learning of the death of her husband, she threw herself into a cauldron of boiling soap.

Before the outbreak of World War II, during the "Great Terror", the youngest of the remaining sons of Seyid Alim Khan, Rakhimkhan, who remained in the USSR, tried to flee the country, but he was detained by Soviet border guards right on the Soviet-Afghan border. According to some sources, he was detained on the territory of the Uzbek SSR, right on the Amu Darya River, which separated the USSR and Afghanistan; according to other sources, he was detained on the territory of the Turkmen SSR, where the border between the USSR and Afghanistan runs through the steppes and hills. After that, a sentence of execution was read to him, and he was shot by the NKVD.

The middle of the three, Shakhmurad, was also with his brothers in a Moscow orphanage, but in 1922, together with several Bukhara youths, he was sent by the authorities of the Bukhara People's Soviet Republic to study in Germany as part of the training of new young personnel for the young republic. Due to ideological considerations, he was given a new full name - "Alimov Shah Muratovich" (according to other sources, his full name was "Shakhmurad Alimkhanov"). After returning from studies, he was fluent in German. He also studied at the Institute of the coal industry. According to Shakhmurad's classmate, Khaidar Yusupov, Shakhmurad dreamed of becoming a military man, but he could not be admitted to study at a military school due to ideological considerations, since he was "the son of an enemy of the people." After that, on the advice of friends and acquaintances, he decided to disown his father. In 1930 (according to other sources, in 1929 ) he wrote an open letter to his father through the Izvestia newspaper, where he renounced Seyid Alim Khan, accusing him and his government of grave sins and deeds. According to some reports, this was arranged by the NKVD, which pushed him to take such a step through acquaintances and friends who were informers of this special service. After that, he was admitted in the Moscow Military Engineering Academy named after V. V. Kuibyshev. After graduation, he began teaching at the same academy. He served in the Red Army and later received the rank of major general. He participated in the Great Patriotic War (World War II) and lost his leg, was awarded the Order of the Red Banner, and after the end of the war he again began teaching at the V. V. Kuibyshev Military Engineering Academy in Moscow. He was married, his wife's name was Lidia Mikhailovna. According to the memoirs of one of Shakhmurad's contemporaries, "When Shakhmurad came to visit us with his wife Lidia Mikhailovna, then, having drunk, he remembered his parents and cried." Many of Shahmurad's acquaintances and friends did not know about his origin, and he spoke about his past only to close friends. According to some reports, he died in 1985 in Moscow, at the age of 75. [5]

Alim Khan's daughter, Shukria Alimi Raad, worked as a broadcaster for Radio Afghanistan. Shukria Raad left Afghanistan with her family three months after Soviet troops invaded the country in December 1979. With her husband, also a journalist, and two children she fled to Pakistan, and then through Germany to the United States. In 1982 she joined the Voice of America, working for many years as a broadcaster for VOA's Dari Service, editor, program host and producer.[6]

During his governance in Bukhara, Alim Khan also had a son named Qasem who was killed by the Bolshevik revolutionaries. Qasem had only one son who, when he was 13 years old, escaped from Bukhara to Mashad, Iran with his stepfather. When he arrived in Iran, he took the name Husein Bukharaei. He married Bibimeymanat Mohsenolhoseini in Mashhad. They had 6 sons and 4 daughters. Husein Bukharaei died in 1993. Their children (Hasan, Lo'ba, Ali, Narges, Qasem, Reza, Fatemeh, Mohammad, Mahmoud, Mahboubeh) all live in Mashhad.

In 2020, the BBC World Service made a documentary called Bukhara about the last ruler of Bukhara, which refers to the fate of the family of Amir Alam Khan.

Alim Khan's descendants include granddaughter Nailaj Naebzadeh from his daughter Razia Alimi, and great-granddaughter Kadeij Naebzadeh.[4] They live in United States. Nailaj Naebzadeh was born in United States. Just like her aunt, Shukria Alimi Raad, her mother Razia Alimi also escaped from Afghanistan during the invasion of the Soviet Army in 1979.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ ЭСБЕ/Манкытская династия — Викитека
  2. ^ Acović, Dragomir (2012). Slava i čast: Odlikovanja među Srbima, Srbi među odlikovanjima. Belgrade: Službeni Glasnik. p. 626.
  3. ^ Smele, Jonathan D. (19 November 2015). Historical Dictionary of the Russian Civil Wars, 1916-1926. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. ISBN 978-1-4422-5281-3.
  4. ^ a b c "Homecoming Exclusive Interview with the Descendants of the Last Emir of Bukhara". The Mag. 2 October 2019.
  5. ^ Litvak, Dmitriy; Kuznetzov, Alexander. "The Last Emir of Noble Bukhara and His Money." International Bank Note Society Journal, vol.50-3
  6. ^ "A Princess-Broadcaster". Voice of America. 31 March 2002.

Media related to Mohammed Alim Khan, Emir of Bukhara at Wikimedia Commons

Regnal titles
Preceded by Emir of Bukhara
1911–1920
Monarchy abolished