Mohammed Kazem Yazdi

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Mohammed Kazem Yazdi (1831 – April 1919)[1] was a prominent Shia Islamic scholar centered in Najaf, most famous for his anti-constitutionalist stand during the Iranian Constitutional Revolution of 1905–1911. He is said to have at first reflected the attitude of the "piously apolitical ulama" and refused to take a stand in favor of the Constitution despite insistent pressure by pro-Constitution talebs, but then opposed the Constitution siding with Sheikh Fazlollah Noori when Noori's son came to Najaf to enlist clerical support.

In the ensuing reaction against the politicized students in Najaf and the execution of Noori, Yazdi was supported by his Arab followers, the Ottoman governor, and the group known as the "Army of God" (jond Allah). His victory over the Constitutionalists and their clerical leader Mohammad-Kazem Khorasani was "complete," with Yazdi emerging as "the undisputed master of the Holy Cities." According to secular historian Ahmad Kasravi, several thousand would pray behind Yazdi at salat but only 30 or so prayed behind his rival Khorasani.[2]

Political activity[edit]

He disagreed with Akhund Khorasani in terms of constitutionalism. He thought, in contrary to Akhund Khorasani who allowed a pragmatic approach to constitutionalism, that usulism does not allow to act freely in supporting constitutionalism. He thought that politics is beyond his expertise and therefore did not take part in politics.[1] while Akhund Khorasani was an eminent Marja' in Najaf, many imitators prayed behind the kazem Tabataei and it shows that he was an eminent figure along with Akhund Khorasani in religious authority.[3] In other words both Mohammad Kazem and Khorasani had constituted a great shia school in Najaf although they had different views in politics at the same time.[4] when khorosani died Yazdi elected as superme Marja. Yazdi supported Fazlull Allah Nuri in terms of opposition to constitution in Iran.[5]


One of his important books is Orvat Al vosqa. This book which is in Arabic is to a collection of legal ruling issued in 1919.[6]

See also[edit]



  1. ^ a b Farzaneh, M.M. (2015). The Iranian Constitutional Revolution and the Clerical Leadership of Khurasani. Syracuse University Press. p. 214. ISBN 9780815653110. Retrieved 2017-02-03.
  2. ^ *The Turban for the Crown: The Islamic Revolution in Iran By Said Amir Arjomand
  3. ^ Mottahedeh, R. (2014). The Mantle of the Prophet. Oneworld Publications. ISBN 9781780747385. Retrieved 2017-02-03.
  4. ^ Hann, G.; Dabrowska, K.; Greaves, T.T. (2015). Iraq: The ancient sites and Iraqi Kurdistan. Bradt Travel Guides. p. 292. ISBN 9781841624884. Retrieved 2017-02-03.
  5. ^ Marcinkowski, M.I. (2004). Religion and Politics in Iraq: Muslim Shia Clerics Between Quietism and Resistance. Ibex Pub. p. 20. ISBN 9789971775131. Retrieved 2017-02-03.
  6. ^ Buchan, J. (2013). Days of God: The Revolution in Iran and Its Consequences. Simon & Schuster. p. 377. ISBN 9781416597773. Retrieved 2017-02-03.