Muhammad Khan Junejo

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Muhammad Khan Junejo
محمد خان جونیجو
Prime Minister of Pakistan
In office
24 March 1985 – 29 May 1988
President Zia-ul-Haq
Preceded by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Succeeded by Benazir Bhutto
Minister of Defence
In office
24 March 1985 – 29 May 1988
Deputy Ijlal Haider Zaidi
(Defence Secretary)
Preceded by Zia-ul-Haq
Succeeded by Mahmoud Haroon
(caretaker)
Minister of Interior
In office
15 April 1985 – 21 May 1985
Preceded by Lt.Gen F.S. Khan Lodhi
Succeeded by Aslam Khan
Minister of Railways
In office
5 July 1978 – 23 April 1979
Preceded by N. A. Qureshi
Succeeded by Major-General Jamal Said Khan
In office
1965–1969
President Ayub Khan
Preceded by F.M. Khan
Succeeded by Admiral S.M. Ahsan
Minister of Health, Communications and Labour
In office
1963–1965
President of Pakistan Muslim League
In office
23 March 1985 – 29 May 1988
Preceded by Zahoor Illahi
Succeeded by Pir Pagara
Personal details
Born Muhammad Khan Junejo
(1932-08-18)August 18, 1932
Sindhri Tharparkar in Mirpur Khas, Sind, British India
(Present-day Pakistan)
Died March 18, 1993(1993-03-18) (aged 60)
Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
Cause of death Leukemia
Resting place Sindhri in Mirpur Khas District, Sindh, Pakistan
Citizenship  Pakistan
Political party Pakistan Muslim League
(1962–1988)
Other political
affiliations
Pakistan Muslim League (J)
(1988–93)
Alma mater St. Patrick's College
Plumpton College, United Kingdom

Mohammad Khan Junejo (Urdu: محمد خان جونیجوSindhi :محمد خان جوڻيجو), August 18, 1932 – March 18, 1993), was a Pakistani politician and an agriculturist who served as Prime Minister of Pakistan, having elected in this capacity in 1985 until being dismissed in 1988.

Junejo, a powerful landowner, was educated in Karachi, having attend the St. Patrick's College, and was trained as an agriculturist at the Agricultural Institute near Hastings in the United Kingdom. He gained public notice when he joined the Ayub administration and subsequently held cabinet portfolio of railways, health, communications and labour from 1963–69.

After participating in the elections held in 1985, he was chosen to form the government on a Pakistan Muslim League's platform, of which, he took over the party's presidency. His government was noted for the support of conservatism, austerity measures that ultimately reduces the government budget deficits and repealed the emergency laws to allow the freedom of press and media in the country.[1] Despite strong resistance and fierce opposition from President Zia-ul-Haq, Junejo authorized his Foreign Minister Yakob Khan to sign and ratified the Geneva Accords in 1988. His relations with President Zia-ul-Haq also soured when he opened the parliamentary inquiry on Ojhri Camp disaster, also in 1988.

On 29 May 1988, Prime Minister Junejo was dismissed by President Zia who leveled charges on incompetency and economic stagflation and immediately called for new general elections. After the general elections held in 1988, he led his own faction while being ceremonial party's presidency.

In 1993, Junejo reportedly suffered from Leukemia (a form of Cancer), and died while undergoing treatment at the Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland, United States.

Biography[edit]

Family background and early life[edit]

Mohammad Khan Junejo was born in Sindhri Tharparker in Mirpur Khas District, Sind, British India on 18 August 1932.:241[2][3] He was hailed from an influential agricultural landowner and feudalist family in Sind that had a traditional conservative mindset.:11–48[4]:98[5]

He was educated at the St. Patrick's High School in Karachi and later graduated from the St. Patrick's College.[1][6] He went to Hastings in England where he was trained as an agriculturist and earned a diploma to be certified in 1954.[7]

Junejo was an agriculturist and a farmer who cultivated the famed mangoes (the Sindhri) in his local village in the Mirpur Khas.:42[8] June was a conservative Muslim and a dominant figure in his village, who had his wife living in the village for her entire life, and kept her out of public sight even when he was elected as Prime Minister and eventually moved to Prime Minister's Secretariat.[1] Nothing or very little was known about his wife as he often traveled and visited other states with his elder daughter; he was married with five children.[1]

His public image was popular in politics for his driving of blue coloured Suzuki Mehran and, he popularly driven the Mehran in Islamabad despite the annoyance of President Zia who had strong preference for Mercedes-Benz W126.[1]

Political career[edit]

Upon returning from the United Kingdom in 1954, he joined the Pakistan Muslim League (PML) and was elected as Mayor for Sanghar District and worked as a party worker for the Muslim League until 1963.[6] He participated in elections and was elected for West-Pakistan legislative assembly and soon he joined the Ayub administration and subsequently held cabinet department of Health, Communications and Labour until 1965.[6]

He again successfully participated in the presidential elections in 1965, and was elevated as the Minister of Railways under the Ayub administration which he served until 1969.[7] From 1970–77, he was unable to defend his constituency from Sanghar but became closer to religious leader Pir Pagara, of which he later became his political missionary.[1]

In 1977, he was named as a caretaker cabinet minister when General Zia-ul-Haq, the chief of army staff, took over the civilian government led by Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. From 1977–79, he served as the Railway minister but later resigned in 1979.[1]

Prime Minister of Pakistan[edit]

In January 1985, President Zia-ul-Haq announced to hold nationwide general elections that would be based on non-partisanism– there have been political rumors that the U.S. President Ronald Reagan had a subsequent political role in such regards.:503[9]

Juneje was successful in defending his constituency from the Sanghar District and was known to be a religio-political missionary of Pir Pagara who had been leading his own political faction in Sindh. President Zia considered three names for the appointment of the Prime Minister that included: Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi, Liaquat Ali Jatoi and Junejo– all were from Sindh.[1] After consulting with Pir Pagara, President Zia hand-picked and appointed Junejo as Prime Minister through an invitation to form the civilian government in accordance to the revival of constitution.[10]

His mindset reflected a conservatism and was a powerful feudalist whom President Zia considered him to be ineffective in leading towards the decision-making processes.:97–98[11]:268[12]

After securing votes in the Parliament through the Vote of Confidence (VoC), he met with President Zia and reportedly asking him about the ending of the martial law.[1]

The martial law was eventually lifted on his repeated instances and announced his cabinet which saw the ouster of many of President Zia's military members in the civilian cabinet.[1] He kept to ministerial departments of defence and interior.

Prime Minister Junejo's social policies led to the political independence when he was appointed as the President of Pakistan Muslim League.[1][13] His policy also included the freedom of press despite opposition he faced with President Zia in this issue.[1] He gained popularity and significance for his daring stance and disagreement with President Zia over many issues that President Zia had been managing since his control over the government since 1977.[3]

On economic front, he took the austerity measures and ultimately halted the Islamization of Economy ran under the President Zia, which eventually put him at odds with President Zia.[1]

Junejo Event[edit]

In 1986–87, his political relations with President Zia began to deteriorated over the control over the foreign policy and daringly authorised his Foreign Minister Yakob Ali Khan to ratify the Geneva Accords that allowed the Russian retreat from Afghanistan.[1] In this regard, he had held a party conference that he invited the Communist Party and Pakistan Peoples Party to discuss to end the bloodshed in Afghanistan.:504[9] In 1987, he provided his political support and eventually used his pejorative to appointed Lieutenant-General Mirza Aslam Beg as vice-army chief, despite President Zia wanting Lieutenant-General Zahid Ali Akbar who was sent to DESTO.:73[14]

Prime Minister Junejo also stalled the fundamentalist legislation in an attempt to keep a leverage on President Zia.:504[9] Following the massive explosion near hidden facility in Rawalpindi Cantonment that resulted in more than 100 lives lost, Prime Minister Junejo announced to call for a parliamentary inquiry to overlook the incident.[1]

On 28 May 1988, DG ISPR Brigadier Siddique Salik informed Prime Minister Junejo of President Zia holding the press conference the next day in this regards, terming it "very important." On 29 May 1988, President Zia appeared on PTV News and surprisingly announced to have dissolved the Parliament, using the Eighth Amendment.[15] Many investigative newspapers and political gossips pointed that it was the inquiry report on the "Ojhri Camp disaster" that implicated the military members in Zia's administration despite President Zia claiming of Junejo’s Government had been dismissed because the law and order situation had broken down to an alarming extent and the government could not be run in accordance with the Constitution.[16]:contents[17]

During the general elections held in 1988, he was unsuccessful for defending his constituency but was elected for the National Assembly general elections held in 1990 and remained head of the PML.[3]

In 1993, he was diagnosed of Luekaemia and went to the United States for the treatment where he was treated at the Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland, United States, where he passed away the same year.[7] He was brought and buried in his locality.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Khalid, Hanif. "muhammad-khan-junejo". Gallery. Retrieved 24 July 2017. 
  2. ^ Collins, Louise Mooney; Turner, Roland (1993). The Annual Obituary. St. James Press. Retrieved 27 July 2017. 
  3. ^ a b c Staff writers, Editorial contributors (1 June 2003). "Muhammad Khan Junejo | Former Prime Minister of Pakistan and President of Pakistan Muslim League" (html). Story Of Pakistan. Story Of Pakistan (biography). Retrieved 27 July 2017. 
  4. ^ Iqbal, Syed Jawaid (1988). Third World International. S. J. Iqbal. Retrieved 27 July 2017. 
  5. ^ Malik, Anas (2010). "Leadership and Extraction". Political Survival in Pakistan: Beyond Ideology (googlebooks) (1st ed.). London, U.K: Routledge. ISBN 9781136904196. Retrieved 27 July 2017. 
  6. ^ a b c Khan, Mohammad. "Muhammad Khan Junejo| Biography | Muhammad Khan Junejo biography". www.urdubiography.com. Urdu Biography. Retrieved 27 July 2017. 
  7. ^ a b c Ahmed Rashid (19 March 1993). "Obituary: Muhammad Khan Junejo". Retrieved 4 May 2013. 
  8. ^ Lamb, Christina (1991). Waiting for Allah: Pakistan's struggle for democracy (1st ed.). U.S.: Viking Publshing Co. p. 315. Retrieved 1 August 2017. 
  9. ^ a b c Garfinkle, Adam; Pipes, Daniel (1991). "Pakistan and the United States". Friendly Tyrants: An American Dilemma (google books). U.S.: Springer. ISBN 9781349216765. Retrieved 31 July 2017. 
  10. ^ Lyon 2008, pp. 93.
  11. ^ May, Ronald James; Selochan, Viberto (2004). "Pakistan: The Civil-military relations in Praetorian state". The Military and Democracy in Asia and the Pacific (googlebooks). ANU E Press. ISBN 9781920942007. Retrieved 31 July 2017. 
  12. ^ Haqqani, Husain (2015). Magnificent Delusions: Pakistan, the United States, and an Epic History of Misunderstanding. PublicAffairs. ISBN 9781610394734. Retrieved 31 July 2017. 
  13. ^ Lyon 2008, pp. 120.
  14. ^ Kiessling, Hein (2016). "Domestic Politics". Faith, Unity, Discipline: The Inter-Service-Intelligence (ISI) of Pakistan (google books). London U.K.: Oxford University Press. p. 320. ISBN 9781849045179. Retrieved 1 August 2017. 
  15. ^ Kamal Siddiqi (14 April 1998). "Ojhri disaster saw end of Junejo govt: Report". Indian Express. Retrieved 4 May 2013. 
  16. ^ "Muhammad Khan Junejo Becomes Prime Minister". Story Of Pakistan. Muhammad Khan Junejo Becomes Prime Minister. 1 June 2003. Retrieved 1 August 2017. 
  17. ^ Sehri, Inam (2012). Judges and Generals of Pakistan Volume – I. Grosvenor House Publishing. ISBN 9781781480434. Retrieved 1 August 2017. 

External Links[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

Lyons, Peter (2008), Conflict between India and Pakistan: an encyclopedia, ABC-CLIO, ISBN 9781576077122 

Political offices
Preceded by
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Prime Minister of Pakistan
1985–1988
Succeeded by
Benazir Bhutto
Minister of Defence
1985–1988
Succeeded by
Mahmoud Haroon
Acting
Preceded by
Sardar Khan Lodi
Minister of the Interior
1985
Succeeded by
Muhammad Aslam Khan Khattak