Mohamed Naguib

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Mohamed Naguib
محمد نجيب
Muhammad Naguib 1953.jpg
1st President of Egypt
In office
18 June 1953 – 14 November 1954
Prime MinisterHimself
Gamal Abdel Nasser
Preceded byFuad II (as King of Egypt and the Sudan)
Succeeded byGamal Abdel Nasser
30th Prime Minister of Egypt
In office
8 March 1954 – 18 April 1954
PresidentHimself
Preceded by1st President of Egypt
Succeeded byGamal Abdel Nasser
In office
17 September 1952 – 25 February 1954
MonarchFuad II (until 18 June 1953)
PresidentHimself (from 18 June 1953)
Preceded byAli Maher
Minister of War and Navy
In office
17 September 1952 – 18 June 1953
Prime MinisterHimself
Preceded byAli Maher
Succeeded byAbdel Latif Boghdadi
Personal details
Born(1901-02-19)19 February 1901
Khartoum, Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
Died28 August 1984(1984-08-28) (aged 83)
Cairo, Egypt
Cause of deathLiver cirrhosis
NationalityEgyptian
Political partyMilitary/Liberation Rally
Spouse(s)Aziza M. Labib (died in 1971)
AwardsOrder of Nile EGY Order of the Nile - Grand Cordon BAR.png
Order Egypt EGY Order of the Republic - Grand Cordon BAR.png
Signature
Military service
Allegiance Egypt
Service/branchEgyptian Army
Years of service1918–1954 [1]
RankMajor General
Battles/wars1948 Arab-Israeli War

Mohamed Naguib (Egyptian Arabic: محمد نجيب‎, Egyptian Arabic pronunciation: [mæˈħæmmæd næˈɡiːb]; 19 February 1901 – 28 August 1984) was the first President of Egypt, serving from the declaration of the Republic on 18 June 1953 to 14 November 1954. Along with Gamal Abdel Nasser, he was the primary leader of the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, which ended the rule of the Muhammad Ali Dynasty in Egypt and Sudan.

Early life[edit]

On 19 February 1901, Naguib was born as Mohamed Naguib Yousef Qotp Elkashlan in Khartoum, Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. Naguib's father was Youssef Naguib.[2] Sudan was united with Egypt under British occupation at the time. Naguib was the eldest of nine children. Naguib's father was a notable officer of the Egyptian Army. Naguib's mother was Zohra Ahmed Othman, a Sudanese Arab. His family name, "Elkashlan," was very popular in Egypt at that time. Naguib came from a long line of army officers, where his father and uncles all served in the Egyptian Army.

Free Officers Movement[edit]

Through Naguib was one of the Egyptian officers who had distinguished himself in the war with Israel and had been described by the Egyptian press as a war hero; however, Naguib was not a "conspicuous public figure" and not the best known Egyptian officer.[3] The Free Officers, led by Colonel Gamal Abdel Nasser were young members of the military – all under thirty-five and all from peasant or lower-middle-class backgrounds. Nasser's goal was to overthrow King Farouk and end the British domination of Egypt and Sudan. Knowing that officers of such youth would not be taken seriously, he asked General Naguib to assume leadership of the movement.[3] While this proved successful in strengthening the Free Officers, it would later cause great friction between the two men. Many today argue that his position on the top was merely a figurehead leader to the revolutionary Free Officers Movement to lend credibility to the group.

Revolution of 1952[edit]

President Mohamed Naguib with Chinese Muslim Kuomintang National Revolutionary Army General Ma Bufang

On 23 July 1952, the Free Officers commenced the Egyptian Revolution of 1952 with a coup d'état to depose King Farouk. Naguib was appointed, first as Commander-in-Chief of Army, in order to keep the armed forces firmly behind the junior officers' coup. Naguib was not a member of the executive committee of the Free Officers and he first learned of the coup several hours after it had began at about 1 am on the night of 23 July when he was awoken by a phone call telling him the coup had began.[4] In Egyptian culture, age is respected and as a 51 year old, Naguib commanded more respect than did Nasser, who was 34 years old.[4] Nagiub's avuncular and jovial personality was felt to make seem a reassuring figure to the Egyptian people, instead of Nasser and the other Free Officers who completely unknown to the public before the coup.[4] In the same way, the Free Officers chose to rule at first via Aly Maher Pasha, a politician well known for his anti-British views who had served as prime minister before.[4] In September, Naguib was appointed Prime Minister of Egypt and a member of the Royal Regent Council, with Nasser serving in the background as Minister of the Interior.

The succession of Fuad II was designed to deny the British a pretext for intervention, allowing the revolutionaries to maintain that they were opposed only to the corrupt regime of Farouk, not to the monarchy itself. However, after consolidating their power, they quickly moved to implement their long-held plans for abolishing the monarchy and the aristocracy. Ali Maher's government resigned on 17 September 1952 and Naguib was appointed Prime Minister. On 18 June 1953, almost 11 months after the revolution, Naguib declared the end of the Egyptian and Sudanese monarchy and the establishment of the Republic of Egypt.

Presidency[edit]

With the declaration of the Republic, Naguib was sworn in as its President.

In late 1953, however, Nasser accused Naguib of supporting the recently outlawed Muslim Brotherhood and of harbouring dictatorial ambitions.[citation needed] A brief power struggle broke out between Naguib and Nasser for control of the military and of Egypt. Nasser ultimately won the struggle and managed to force Naguib to resign from the presidency of Egypt in November 1954.[citation needed]

After the Presidency[edit]

Mohamed Naguib Metro Station in Cairo

Following his resignation, Naguib was then isolated by President Nasser in a suburban Cairo villa owned by Zienab Al-Wakil, wife of Mustafa El-Nahas, former Prime Minister of Egypt.[citation needed] Naguib was released from his isolation in 1972 by President Anwar Sadat.

Personal life[edit]

On 28 August 1984, Naguib died from liver cirrhosis in Cairo, Egypt. He was 83. Naguib had a military funeral that was attended by President Hosni Mubarak.

Legacy[edit]

In 1984, his memoirs were published under the title I was a President of Egypt. The book was reprinted several times and was also translated into English under the title The Fate of Egypt. A station of the Cairo Metro is named in his honour. A major road in the Al Amarat District of Khartoum is also named after him.

In December 2013, Interim President Adly Mansour awarded the Order of the Nile, the highest state honour; to the name of the late President Naguib. The award was received by his son, Mohamed Yusuf ibn Mohamed Naguib.

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Mohammed Naguib, Egypt's Destiny (London, 1955)

References[edit]

  1. ^ "ذاكرة مصر المعاصرة - السيرة الذاتية". Modern Egypt. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
  2. ^ "Muhammad Naguib". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
  3. ^ a b Thornhill 2004, p. 892.
  4. ^ a b c d Thornhill 2004, p. 894.

Sources[edit]

  • Thornhill, Michael "Britain, the United States and the Rise of an Egyptian Leader: The Politics and Diplomacy of Nasser's Consolidation of Power, 1952-4" pages 892-921 from The English Historical Review, Volume 119, No. 483, September 2004.

External links[edit]


Political offices
Preceded by
Fouad II
as King of Egypt and the Sudan
Head of state of Egypt
1953–1954
Succeeded by
Gamal Abdel Nasser
New title
President of Egypt
1953–1954
Succeeded by
Gamal Abdel Nasser
Preceded by
Ali Maher
Prime Minister of Egypt
1952–1954
Succeeded by
Gamal Abdel Nasser