Mohamed Meziane

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Mohamed Meziane
محمد أمزيان
Nickname(s) Ben Mizzian
Born (1897-02-01)1 February 1897
Beni Ensar, Spanish Morocco
Died 1 May 1975(1975-05-01) (aged 78)
Madrid, Spain
Buried at Morocco
Allegiance Spain Kingdom of Spain (1913–1931)
 Spanish Republic (1931–1936)
 Francoist Spain (1936–1957)
Flag of Morocco.svg Kingdom of Morocco (1936–1975)
Service/branch Spanish Army
Years of service 1913–1975
Rank General
Battles/wars Rif War
Spanish Civil War
Rif Rebellion (1958)
Awards Military Merit Grand Crosses and Crosses (Spain) - Template.svgGrand Cross of Military Merit
Laureate Cross of Saint Ferdinand.svgLaureate Cross of St Ferdinand
Badge and Start of the Order of Cisneros.svgOrder of Cisneros
Military Medal of Spain.svg Military Medal
Medalla de sufrimiento por la patria.jpg Suffering for the Motherland
Commander of Regulares
Spain Spanish Kingdom /  Spanish Republic
In office
July 1925 – 1937
Colonel of the First Navarra Division Spain
In office
1938–1953
Captain General of the VIII Military Region (Galicia) Spain
In office
1953–1955
Captain General of the Canary Islands Spain
In office
1955–1957
Inspector of the Royal Moroccan Armed Forces Morocco
In office
1957–1964
Minister of Defence Morocco
In office
1964–1966
Ambassador of Morocco in Spain Morocco
In office
1966–1970
Minister of State Morocco
In office
1970–1975
Personal details
Nationality Spanish (until 1957)
Moroccan (after 1957)
Spouse(s) Fadela Amor
Children 1 son and 6 daughters

Mohammed Meziane or Mohamed ben Mizzian (Arabic: محمد أمزيان‎‎ Full name: Mohamed Belkacem Zahraoui Meziane; 1 February 1897 - 1 May 1975), known by the Spaniards as Ben Mizzian, was a Moroccan general from Beni Ensar (near Nador). He was one of the sons of local Moroccan leader Mohammed Ameziane, also known in Spanish as El Mizzian, and was the only Moroccan to ever become a general in Spain.[1]

During the Spanish Civil War he commanded a section of the Regulares Indígenas troops, who formed the shock troops of the Nationalist Army. Their fierceness in combat made them highly feared among Spanish Republican Army ranks.[2] After holding many high military posts in Francoist Spain Mizzian reached the rank of Lieutenant General of the Spanish Army. Summoned by King Mohammed V, in 1957 he moved to Morocco following the independence of the country. In 1970, he was made a Field marshal (mushir) and is the only person to have ever held that title in the Moroccan Army.

In Spain[edit]

Formed at the Military Academy in Toledo, Spain, which he joined in 1913, he was patronized by King Alfonso XIII following his father's death. After graduating as a junior officer (Alférez) Mizzian served for a long period in the Spanish army of the Spanish Protectorate of Morocco. He took part in 1921 in the Rif Wars against Abdelkrim. In 1923 he became a Captain and in 1925 a commander of the Spanish Colonial Army. During this time he established a deep friendship with Francisco Franco and once he even saved his life.[3]

The Civil War[edit]

At the time of the coup of July 1936 Mizzian was posted as commander of the II Tábor of Regulares 5, based at Segangan, about 20 km from Melilla. He promptly took the side of the rebel faction and in his first battle of the Spanish Civil War, he stormed the seaplane base of Atalayón in Melilla where the commanders had refused to join the rebellion. Even though the loyalist troops defending the post surrendered, the base commanders, Commander Virgilio Leret Rui and Second Lieutenants, Armando Gonzalez Corral and Luis Calvo Calavia, were nevertheless executed the following morning along with all the men of the garrison, their place of burial remaining unknown.[4][5]

Mizzian then moved with his Regulares to the Peninsula, where he zealously implemented General Mola's policy of instilling terror in Republican ranks. After the battle for Navalcarnero American historian John T. Whitaker wrote that among the Spanish Republican prisoners were two young militia women that Mizzian personally interrogated, after which he handed them over to his men. When Whitaker expressed his concern about the fate of the girls he "attended horrified in helpless anger" when Meziane stated that the two teenage women "will not live more than four hours" once at the hands of his troops.[6][7][8] After the Army of Africa commanded by Francisco Franco took over Toledo on 27 September 1936, Mizzian went with his troops to the military hospital and killed over 200 wounded Republican militia men in their beds, allegedly as a revenge for the Siege of the Alcazar.[9] The proverbial cruelty and reckless behaviour of the Regulares troops were not random, but were part of a calculated plan of the Francoist military machine to allow these shock troops to spread fear among Republicans in order to demoralize them.[10]

In Madrid Mizzian was wounded in the combats during the Battle of Ciudad Universitaria. After recovery he was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel and participated in the Siege of Oviedo at the head of the Galician column. Later in the Civil War, in 1938, he was promoted to Colonel and was named Commander of the First Navarra Division (1ª División de Navarra) of the Francoist army, at the head of which he took part in the Battle of the Ebro, breaking the deadlock of the battle at the Serra de Cavalls in October 1938, taking 19 fortified enemy positions, killing 1,500 republican troops and taking 1,000 prisoners.[11] Shortly thereafter El Mizzian moved on with his troops to spearhead the Catalonia Offensive.[12]

After the War[edit]

After the defeat of the Spanish Republic, Franco named Mizzian Commander General of Ceuta in the North African coast. In 1953 he was promoted to Lieutenant General and was sent to Galicia in NW Spain as Captain General of the VIII Military Region. In 1955 he was named Captain General of the Canary Islands in what would be his last post in the Spanish Armed Forces.

In 1956 Morocco became an independent nation and the king of the country, Mohammed V, called on Mizzian to take charge of the reorganization of the new Royal Moroccan Army. Mizzian formally asked then General Franco to be relieved from his duties in the Spanish Army and his request was duly granted on 22 March 1957.

In 1964 Mizzian was named Morocco's Minister of Defence, a post which he held for two years until 1966 when he returned to Spain after King Hassan II named him Ambassador 'as a gesture of goodwill towards the Spanish State'. He lived quietly at the Moroccan Embassy in Madrid until 1970 when he returned to Morocco having been named Minister of State and, in November the same year being promoted to the rank of Marshall. He held the post of Minister of State of the Moroccan government until March 1975 when he fell gravely ill and was flown to Madrid to be treated. He died at the Air Force Hospital in Madrid in May the same year and his remains were later flown back to Morocco for burial in his home country.

Museum[edit]

In 2006 a museum was opened in Rabat dedicated to Mohamed Meziane. It is located in a house near the British Embassy that had been given to him as a present by Franco. The museum project was an initiative from his daughter Leila. The architect who was in charge of the project is a well-known architect from Casablanca, Mohamed Lamnaouar.[7][8]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ La historia del general Ben Mizzian - ABC
  2. ^ Jose Bueno, Los Regulares, ISBN 84-86629-23-3
  3. ^ Ignacio Cembrero, El musulmán que salvó a Franco - El País, 18 June 2006
  4. ^ El País, 2006-07-17, pp.44
  5. ^ David Íñiguez. El capitán Virgilio Leret, in Ebre 38: revista internacional de la Guerra Civil, 1936-1939, Año 2004 Núm. 2
  6. ^ John T. Whitaker, We cannot escape history. The Macmillan Company, Nueva York, 1943.
  7. ^ a b "Translation of article in Spanish from Union Anticapitalista". Retrieved 2006-06-04. 
  8. ^ a b "Translation of article in Spanish from Insurgente". Retrieved 2006-06-04. 
  9. ^ Beevor, Antony. La Guerra Civil Española. Crítica, 2011, p. 141.
  10. ^ Julián Casanova, República y Guerra Civil. in Historia de España, directed by Josep Fontana y Ramón Villares. Vol. 8, Barcelona: 2007, Crítica/Marcial Pons Publishers. ISBN 978-84-8432-878-0, p. 278
  11. ^ Rubén García Cebollero, Ebro 1938: La Batalla de la Tierra Alta, p. 311
  12. ^ Análisis cronológico de la guerra Civil Española