Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum
|Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum|
|Sheikh Mohammed in 2008|
|Prime Minister of the United Arab Emirates|
11 February 2006
|President||Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan|
|Preceded by||Maktoum bin Rashid Al Maktoum|
22 July 1949 |
Dubai, Trucial States
(now United Arab Emirates)
|Spouse(s)||Hind bint Maktoum bin Juma Al Maktoum (1979–present)
Haya bint Al Hussein (2004–present)
Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, GBE (Arabic: محمد بن راشد آل مكتوم; Muḥammad bin Rāshid al Maktūm), also known as Sheikh Mohammed, (born 30 Feb 1949) is the Vice President and Prime Minister of the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and emir of Dubai.
Since his accession in 2006, he has undertaken major reforms in the UAE's government, starting with the UAE Federal Government Strategy in April 2007. In 2010 he launched UAE Vision 2021 with the aim of making the UAE "One of the best countries in the world" by 2021.
He is responsible for the growth of Dubai into a global city, as well as the launch of a number of major enterprises including Emirates Airline, DP World and the Jumeirah Group. Many of these are held by Dubai Holding, the holding company with multi-diversified businesses and investments. He currently owns 99.67% of the company.
Sheikh Mohammed has overseen the development of numerous economically transformational projects in Dubai including the creation of technology park and free economic zone Dubai Internet City, Dubai Media City, the Dubai International Finance Centre, the Palm Islands and the iconic Burj Al Arab hotel. He also drove the construction of the Burj Khalifa, the tallest building in the world.
A keen equestrian, he is the founder of the Maktoum family-owned Godolphin racing stable and the owner of Darley, the thoroughbred breeding operation with operations in six countries. In 2012, he rode the horse Madji Du Pont 160 km to take the FEI World Endurance Championship.
He is a recognised poet in his native Arabic.
- 1 Early life and education
- 2 Business career
- 3 Key businesses
- 4 Political reform
- 5 Sporting interests
- 6 Cultural humanitarianism
- 7 Charitable work
- 8 Marriage and family
- 9 Yacht
- 10 Net worth
- 11 Controversies
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 Further reading
- 15 External links
Early life and education
Sheikh Mohammed is the third of Rashid bin Saeed Al Maktoum's four sons (members of Dubai's ruling Al Maktoum family and descendants of the House of Al-Falasi, of which he is the tribal leader). His mother is Sheikha Latifa bint Hamdan al-Nahyan (daughter of Sheikh Hamdan bin Zaid al-Nahyan, Ruler of Abu Dhabi). From the age of four, he was privately tutored in Arabic and Islamic Studies. In 1955, he began his formal education at Al Ahmedia School. At the age of 10, he moved to Al Shaab School, and two years later, went to Dubai Secondary School. In 1966, with his cousin Sheikh Mohammed bin Khalifa Al Maktoum, he attended the Bell Educational Trust's English Language School in the United Kingdom. He subsequently studied at the Mons Officer Cadet Training School in Aldershot, (which later became part of Sandhurst), passing out with the sword of honour as the top commonwealth student. He also travelled to Italy to train as a pilot.
As a young man, in January 1968, he was present when Sheikh Rashid and Sheikh Zayed first met in the desert between Dubai and Abu Dhabi at Argoub El Sedira to agree to the formation of a union of emirates following British notification of intent to withdraw from the Trucial States. He went on, when the new nation of the United Arab Emirates was founded on 2 December 1971, to become its first Minister of Defence.
Minister for Defense
On his return to Dubai from military training, Sheikh Mohammed was appointed by his father Sheikh Rashid as head of Dubai Police and also the Dubai Defence Force, which was later to become part of the Union Defence Force.
A period of uncertainty and instability followed the Union of the United Arab Emirates, including skirmishes between tribes over property straddling new borders. On 24 January 1972, the exiled former ruler of Sharjah Sheikh Saqr bin Sultan Al Qasimi led an insurrectionist coup against the ruler, Sheikh Khalid bin Mohammed Al Qasimi. Following a spirited firefight between the Union Defence Force and Sheikh Saqr's forces - mostly Egyptian mercenaries who had entered the UAE through Ras Al Khaimah - Sheikh Mohammed accepted Sheikh Saqr's surrender. Sheikh Khalid had been killed in the action, leading to the accession of his brother Sultan bin Muhammad Al Qasimi as Ruler of Sharjah.
In 1973, he was involved in protracted negotiations with the hijackers of JAL 404, led by Japanese Red Army member Osamu Maruouka, which landed in Dubai after being hijacked as it departed Schiphol. Although unsuccessful in having the hijackers release their hostages (they were finally freed, and the 747 blown up, in Libya), he was more successful in later negotiating with the three hijackers of KML 861, who released the balance of hostages and handed over the plane in return for safe passage.
Sheikh Mohammed has been responsible for the creation and rapid growth of a number of businesses and key economic assets to Dubai, with a number held by two companies under his ownership, Dubai World and Dubai Holding.
Dubai World was launched on 2 July 2006, as a holding company consolidating a number of assets including logistics company DP World, property developer Nakheel Properties and investment company Istithmar World. With more than 50,000 employees in over 100 cities around the globe, the group has real estate, logistics and other business investments in the United States, the United Kingdom and South Africa.
Dubai Holding develops and manages hospitality, business parks, real estate and telecommunications through four operating units: Jumeirah Group, TECOM Investments, Dubai Properties Group and Emirates International Telecommunications. The company's investment group operating units include Dubai Group and Dubai International Capital.
He also holds a controlling interest in property developer, asset and event management and investment company Meraas Holding which is currently developing a number of retail, lifestyle and themed developments in Dubai, including Legoland and a Bollywood movie theme park.
Sheikh Mohammed was responsible for the launch of Emirates Airline, as well as heading both the development of both Dubai International Airport and Dubai World Central - Al Maktoum International Airport, the 'world's first purpose-built aerotropolis'. He was also behind the establishment of government-owned low cost carrier FlyDubai.
Launch of Emirates Airline
Through the 1970s, as well as his role as head of Dubai Defence Force and UAE Minister of Defence, Sheikh Mohammed oversaw Dubai's energy resources and was in charge of Dubai Civil Aviation. It was in this latter role, in March 1985, that he tasked the then head of DNATA, Maurice Flanagan, with launching a new airline to be called Emirates after a dispute with Gulf Air over Dubai's 'Open Skies' policy. The launch budget of the airline was $10 million (the amount Flanagan said he needed to launch an airline) and its inaugural flight took place on 25 October. Sheikh Mohammed made his (younger) uncle, Sheikh Ahmed bin Saeed Chairman of the new company. A further $75 million in facilities and materials was provided, but Emirates has always maintained it has received no further subsidies throughout the company's meteoric growth to become one of the world's leading airlines.
In 1989 Sheikh Mohammed inaugurated the first Dubai Airshow: in 2013 the exhibition had grown to over 1,000 companies exhibiting and was the venue for Emirates' placement of the largest aeroplane orders in history, with $99 billion in orders placed with Airbus for its A380 and Boeing for its wide-bodied 777.
Dubai Ports World
In 1991, Sheikh Mohammed merged the Jebel Ali Port and Free Zone and Port Rashid to form the Dubai Ports Authority. In 1999 he founded Dubai Ports International to explore overseas acquisitions and management contracts, which in 2005 was folded into the Dubai Ports Authority to form DP World. In 2006 the company acquired P&O for $7 billion. The acquisition led to the 'DP World Controversy' after a number of US politicians and lobbyists raised concerns regarding the safety of six ports acquired by DP World as part of the P&O Acquisition. DP World subsequently divested the ports in question.
A profitable global enterprise, DP World today is one of the largest marine terminal operators in the world. The company operates more than 60 terminals across six continents, with container handling generating some 80% of its revenue.
The Burj Al Arab and Jumeirah
The Burj Al Arab was inaugurated in December 1999. The hotel, constructed to a design by WS Atkins in response to a brief from Sheikh Mohammed to create a truly iconic building, styles itself as 'the world's most luxurious hotel'. It was constructed on an island offshore from the Jumeirah Beach Hotel, the first property managed by Jumeirah, the hotel management company launched by Sheikh Mohammed in 1997 and headed by ex-Trust House Forte executive Gerald Lawless. In fact, work began on both hotels at the same time, but the island to house the Burj Al Arab required three years to build before construction began above ground. Jumeirah's international expansion, driven after it became part of Dubai Holding in 2004, has since been significant, to encompass 22 hotels in ten countries.
Dubai Internet City and TECOM
On 29 October 1999, Sheikh Mohammed announced Dubai Internet City, a technology hub and free trade zone. Offering companies long leases, full ownership and fast access to government services, DIC grew from its first tenants in October 2000 to a current zone employing some 15,000 people. It was joined in November 2000 by Dubai Media City, a content and media production free zone which is co-located with DIC. The launch of DMC came with assurances from Sheikh Mohammed regarding media freedoms. In 2007, he issued a decree banning the imprisonment of journalists following an incident in which local journalists were accused of libel and sentenced to jail terms.
A number of other media and technology-related free zones have since been established by holding company TECOM in Dubai, including the International Media Production Zone, Dubai Silicon Oasis, Dubai Studio City, Dubai Healthcare City, Dubai Industrial City and Dubai Knowledge Village.
Developed by Nakheel Properties, itself part of Dubai World - an investment and holding company majority owned by Sheikh Mohammed (which also owns DP World, above) - the development of the three planned Palm Islands was halted by the global financial crisis of 2009. The first of the islands, the Palm Jumeirah, has been completed and developed, while the second, the Palm Jebel Ali, has completed land reclamation but not been further developed. The third and largest Palm, the Palm Deira, has been scaled back and re-launched as the Deira Islands.
On 4 January 2010, Sheikh Mohammed launched the Burj Khalifa, the world's tallest building, with a display of some 10,000 fireworks. It forms the centre of the $20 billion Downtown Dubai development of mixed use towers, buildings and retail outlets. The development is also home to the world's largest shopping mall, the Dubai Mall. Originally conceived as a development around an 80-story tower, the project team was sent away by Sheikh Mohammed to return with "the greatest neighbourhood known to man". He has said of the tower that it is "a national accomplishment, a historic milestone and a key economic turning point. It is a symbol of pride, not only to the Emirati people but to all Arabs."
After roughly a decade of de facto rulership, he became the Ruler of Dubai on 4 January 2006 upon the death of Sheikh Maktoum bin Rashid Al Maktoum. The following day, the Federal National Council selected him as the new Vice President of the UAE. On 11 February, the Council approved President Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan's nomination of Sheikh Mohammed for Prime Minister.
In April 2007 Sheikh Mohammed announced a strategic review of the Federation's governance at both the Federal and local government levels. The UAE Federal Government Strategy, a process of strategic reform intended to address a lack of co-ordination and strategic planning in government, as well as policy making issues and deficiencies in the legislative and regulatory framework, would work on improvements in social development, economic development, public sector development, justice and safety, infrastructure and rural development.
This was followed by the announcement in February 2010 of "Vision 2021", a long term strategy and national agenda.
Mohammed Bin Rashid School of Government
The Mohammed bin Rashid School of Government (Previously the Dubai School of Government) is an academic and research institution in the area of public policy and administration focused on the United Arab Emirates & the Arab world. Established in 2005, the School aims to promote and support excellence in governance through enhancing the region’s capacity for effective public policy.
Toward this goal, the Mohammed bin Rashid School of Government maintains ties - and collaborates with - regional and global institutions in its research and training programs. In addition, the School organizes policy forums and international conferences to facilitate the exchange of ideas and promote critical debate on public policy in the Arab world.
The School supports research and teaching programs including:
• Applied research in public policy and management;
• Master’s degree in public policy and public administration;
• Executive education for senior officials and executives; and,
• Knowledge forums for scholars and policy makers.
Moves against corruption
Signalling a zero tolerance policy towards corruption in government, in 2001 Sheikh Mohammed ordered the arrest of Obaid Saqr bin-Busit, the head of Dubai Customs and the Chairman of the World Customs Association. Busit and two aides, as well as three other employees, had been the subject of a two-year investigation for corruption. The high-profile arrests caused widespread shock and were followed by a slew of arrests of public officials later that month; in all, 14 officials, including 6 senior officers, were arrested and charged with offences related to corruption. Unusually, the officials were 'named and shamed' publicly. More recently, the downturn exposed issues related to corruption at government-owned Dubai real estate company Deyaar. The investigation team was granted 'unprecedented powers of scrutiny' by Sheikh Mohammed. The CEO of the company was found guilty of earning Dhs20 million by misusing his powers and sentenced to a 10-year jail term.
Sheikh Mohammed is a major figure in international Thoroughbred horse racing and breeding. He owns Darley Stud, which is the biggest horse breeding operation in the world with farms in the United States, Ireland, England, and Australia. In 1985 he bought the Irish Thoroughbred Park Appeal for an undisclosed sum at the end of her second season. She went on to produce at least nine winners from twelve foals and is the ancestor of many successful horses.
Sheikh Mohammed had raced horses as a child (He would share his breakfast with his horse on the way to school) but he attended his first formal race at Newmarket in 1967, watching Royal Palace win the 2,000 Guineas with his brother, Hamdan. Becoming an owner in his own right, ten years later he won his first race with Hatta at Brighton. And five years after that, he and Hamdan had three studs and 100 horses under training.
In late 1981, he purchased Gainsborough Stud at Woolton Hill, near Newbury, Berkshire, United Kingdom. He owns Ballysheehan Stud in County Tipperary, Ireland; as well as Gainsborough Farm Inc. in Versailles, Kentucky, United States. His racing operations includes the ownership of Darley Stables and he is the leading partner in his family's Godolphin Stables. Sheikh Mohammed hosts the Dubai World Cup at Meydan Racecourse.
By 1992 Sheikh Mohammed had started 'wintering' his horses in Dubai, frequently against the advice of trainers and pundits in the UK. The results were a string of high-profile wins, and by 1994 he founded Godolphin. His hands-on approach to racing resulted, in 1995, in a major split with leading trainer Henry Cecil after a disagreement over racing a horse Mohammed insisted was injured. Cecil took the argument public and Mohammed removed all his horses from Cecil's stable.
Godolphin's first win, Balanchine taking the Oaks at Epsom Downs, England, in 1994, was to mark the beginning of a remarkable run, with horses such as Lammtarra, Daylami, Fantastic Light, Street Cry, Sulamani, Dubawi and Ramonti among them. Dubai Millenium, said to be Sheikh Mohammed's favourite, won nine of his ten starts before succumbing to injury followed by grass sickness in 2001.
In 1996, the Dubai World Cup was inaugurated as the worlds' richest horserace, drawing the legendary American dirt track horse Cigar to race in Dubai. Today held at the Meydan Racecourse, the race meeting carries a prize of $27 million.
In the UK, his horses have won numerous important Group One races including several of the British Classic Races. His horses have also won the Irish Derby Stakes and the Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe and in the United States the 2006 Preakness Stakes with Bernardini. In 2008, he bought the Woodlands Stud empire for more than $460 million.
A keen endurance rider, at the age of 63 Sheikh Mohammed won the 2012 World Endurance Championship over a 160 km course. Both his thoroughbreds and endurance horses have failed drug tests - although his trainers have accepted the blame. His endurance racing stable has also been involved in numerous other scandals, including both fatal injuries, and ringers.
In the 15th Asian Games in 2006, his son Rashid took the individual gold in Endurance, his sons Rashid, Ahmed, Majid, and Hamdan took the team gold in Endurance, his niece Latifa took a bronze in Show Jumping, and his daughter Maitha led the UAE team in taekwondo. In 2013 when the UAE National football team won the Gulf Cup, Sheikh Mohammed gave the team 50 million dirhams ($13.7 million). His wife awarded the team a further 25 million dirhams ($6.8 million), while the pair's grandsons contributed 12 million dirhams ($3.3 million).
Sheikh Mohammed is a poet in classical Arabic as well as the Bedouin (colloquial) Nabati style. He first started writing poetry as a young man, using pseudonyms such as 'Saleet' so his poetry would not be associated with the son of the then Ruler of Dubai. He received encouragement from the poetess Fatat Al Arab, when she composed a reply to one of his earliest poems - unusual for an unknown poet.
In 1998, Sheikh Mohammed set up the Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Centre for Cultural Understanding (SMCCU), a not-for-profit organisation that aims to raise awareness and demystify the local culture, customs and religion of the United Arab Emirates. Operating under the motto "Open Doors. Open Minds", SMCCU aims to improve cross-cultural understanding and communication between UAE locals and guests visiting or residing in the UAE.
Patrons of the Arts Awards
Sheikh Mohammed established the Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum Patrons of the Arts Awards in March 2009 to honour individuals and organisations who have contributed towards arts development in Dubai. The award allows artists and projects to benefit from the private sector’s support under four categories: Distinguished Patrons of the Arts (AED 15 million), Patrons of the Arts (AED 2-5 million), Supporters of the Arts (AED 500,000), and Friends of the Arts (AED 50,000-50,0000). The award aims to grant significant support financial or in kind, to the visual and performing arts, literature and film sectors, which significantly contributes to enriching the artistic and cultural scene in Dubai.
The Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum Foundation's $1 million Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum Knowledge Award was inaugurated on 7 December 2014, the first award being made jointly to the computer scientist and inventor of the World Wide Web, Sir Tim Berners-Lee and entrepreneur and co-founder of Wikipedia, Jimmy Wales "in recognition of their efforts and contributions in the field of spreading knowledge throughout the world." The award, which was shared equally, was presented by Shaikh Ahmed bin Mohammed, chairman of the Mohammed Bin Rashid Foundation, in the presence of Shaikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Vice-President and Prime Minister of the United Arab Emirates and Ruler of Dubai.
Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum has been known for his charitable donations. On 19 May 2007, he announced plans to give US$10 billion to set up the Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum Foundation, an educational foundation in the Middle East. Sheikh Mohammed stated that the money is meant to bridge the knowledge gap between the Arab region and the developed world. The announcement was made at the 2007 World Economic Forum in Jordan.
In September 2003, he set up Dubai Humanitarian City, which has since grown to be the world's largest logistics hub for humanitarian aid. The hub is used by nine UN aid agencies and some 50 NGOs and commercial operators.
In September 2007, he launched the Dubai Cares campaign to raise money to educate 1 million children in poor countries. The campaign is Dubai's contribution to the U.N. Millennium Development Goals for providing Children's Primary Education to every child by 2015. The amount donated by the public to the inaugural 2007 campaign exceeded AED 1.65 billion (approximately US$450 million) and this sum was matched by Sheikh Mohammed to make a total of Dh3.5bn (Approximately US$1 billion). The initiative has become an ongoing charitable work with concrete goals and engagements in a number of countries.
On 3 September 2008, Sheikh Mohammad also launched a new Ramadan initiative under the name "Noor Dubai", aiming to help the World Health Organization (WHO) and International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness (IAPB) in achieving its goals outlined in VISION 2020: the Right to Sight. Noor Dubai aimed to treat and provide health services to one million people suffering from treatable blindness and visual impairment in developing countries on a local, regional, and international scale, but by 2011 had reached and treated over 5.8 million. A three-year programme in Ethiopia together with the Carter Centre aims to help a further 7,900 villages where up to 9 million children are affected by the bacterial condition Trachoma.
UAE Pakistan Assistance Program
On 12 January 2011, the UAE Pakistan Assistance Program was launched in order to help and provide assistance to Pakistan and mitigate the impact of floods by redeveloping infrastructure, according to the directives of Khalifa Bin Zayed Al Nahyan, the President of the United Arab Emirates and Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum. The UAE PAP has worked along a comprehensive redevelopment plan that takes into account the harsh geography and the rough weather conditions of the region while focusing on four main areas of social redevelopment: health, education, water and infrastructure. The Program provided for the construction and rehabilitation of two bridges, 52 schools and 7 hospitals, as well as the implementation of 64 water supply schemes.
Aid to Palestine
Sheikh Mohammed has made a number of charitable donations to Palestinian causes, including a grant of 600 houses to Gaza following the Israeli incursions of 2009, when he cancelled New Year celebrations and the official opening of the Dubai Shopping Festival to mark solidarity with the Palestinians, as well as donations for refugees displaced by Israeli actions. Reflecting widespread public reaction to the events, and part of a groundswell of donations from prominent Emirati citizens, he also dedicated his victory and prize money from winning a major endurance race in Bahrain on 10 January 2009 to the Palestinian people.
He has frequently alluded to the need to pursue a two state solution and negotiate a settlement to the Palestinian issue before any normalisation of relations with Israel.
Aid to Afghanistan
Having made calls for US restraint in Afghanistan both in public and in meetings with US officials, Sheikh Mohammed moved to donate $2mn for temporary housing for those displaced by the US bombing campaign of 2001/2002. The move sparked a wave of donations from wealthy and notable Emiratis as news of widespread dislocation and need from Afghan civilians as a result of the strikes spread and led to the establishment of a village in Kandahar to house displaced families. The following year, some 15,000 refugees were repatriated from the Afghan/Pakistan border where they had been housed in the temporary accommodation.
Marriage and family
His senior wife is Hind bint Maktoum bin Juma Al Maktoum, his first cousin and herself a member of Dubai's ruling family, whom he married in 1979. She is mother of 12 of the Sheikh's children including his heir-apparent, Hamdan bin Mohammed Al Maktoum (born 1982), the Crown Prince of Dubai.
His best-known junior wife is Princess Haya bint Al Hussein, daughter of King Hussein of Jordan and half-sister of King Abdullah II of Jordan, whom he married on 10 April 2004, and with whom he has two children, a daughter, Al-Jalila, born 2 December 2007 and a son, Zayed, born 7 January 2012. Sheikh Mohammed announced the arrival of his son Zayed on Twitter. The first woman to represent her native Jordan in international equestrian sport and a participant in the 2000 Summer Olympics in show jumping, she served two terms as President of the International Federation for Equestrian Sports.
Sheikh Mohammed has twenty-four children, Ten sons and fourteen daughters, four of whom the married into royal families in the Middle East:
- Manal bint Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum (born 1977), married to Mansour bin Zayed Al Nahyan of Abu Dhabi
- Hassa bint Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum (born 1980), married to Saeed bin Dalmouk Al Maktoum of Dubai
- Latifa bint Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum (born 1989), married to Mohammed bin Hamad bin Mohammed Al Sharqi, Crown Prince of Fujairah
- Shaikha bint Mohammed bin Rashed Al Maktoum (born 1992), married to Nasser bin Hamad Al Khalifa of Bahrain
Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum owns the yacht Dubai, built by the German company Blohm + Voss. The yacht is 162m long and is the world’s third largest yacht (2014) and can host up to 115 people including crew. On Google Earth (or maps)[clarification needed] you can see the yacht lying in front of the Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoums Logo island.
In 2005, a UNICEF-sponsored program with the UAE government resulted in the repatriation of hundreds of children formerly enslaved as camel jockeys, and provided them with social services and compensation upon return to their home countries of Pakistan, Sudan, Mauritania, and Bangladesh. The UAE government set aside US$2.7 million in initial funding in 2005 with an additional US$9 million for the second phase, and to enforce compliance, adopted a law officially banning the practice with penalties of jail time and a $US27,200 fine. UNICEF endorsed the UAE’s efforts and expressed the hopes that "the UAE’s programme will serve as a model to other countries in the region, as a means of ending all forms of exploitation of children".
In September 2006, Sheikh Mohammed was accused of encouraging the abduction and enslavement of thousands of boys for use as jockeys in camel races. A class-action suit was filed against him in the US state of Florida. However, in 2006, American lawyers representing the UAE raised a motion to dismiss the lawsuit on the grounds that none of the involved parties resided in the U.S., arguing that the UN program best served the interests of the children. In July 2007, judge Cecilia Altonaga accepted the motion and dismissed the suit.
On 9 March 2007, the London-based Metro newspaper wrongly published a picture of Sheikh Mohammed, attributing it to the terror suspect Khalid Shaikh Mohammed. It has since apologised for the error.
In July 2013, following international pressure and extensive media coverage, Sheikh Mohammed pardoned Marte Dalelv, who, after she reported being raped, was convicted of extramarital sex and alcohol consumption.
In October 2013, scandal returned to Sheikh Mohammed in the venue of horseracing, with reports of potentially toxic and dangerous steroids, anesthetics, and anti-inflammatory drugs being shipped into UAE, mislabeled as "horse tack". The Telegraph commented dubiously, that a "PR campaign is already under way, with Sheikh Mohammed again cast as a victim of employee malpractice".
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- Dubai The Maktoum Story by John M. Smith; in English; a book which criticizes the governance of Sheikh Mohammed
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum.|
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- The Official Website of the Prime Minister of the United Arab Emirates
- His Highness Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum
Mohammed bin Rashid Al MaktoumBorn: 15 July 1949
Maktoum bin Rashid Al Maktoum
|Ruler of Dubai
Maktoum bin Rashid Al Maktoum
|Prime Minister of the United Arab Emirates