Mohawk (crater)

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Mohawk Crater
Mohawk Crater.JPG
Mohawk Crater, as seen by HiRISE. Images to the right are enlargements. Far left image shows northern wall, part of crater floor, and the central uplift. Layers in the mantle layer are visible in the far right image. Scale bar is 500 meters long.
Planet Mars
Coordinates 43°12′N 5°24′W / 43.2°N 5.4°W / 43.2; -5.4Coordinates: 43°12′N 5°24′W / 43.2°N 5.4°W / 43.2; -5.4
Diameter 17.5 km
Eponym Mohawk, New York, United States

Mohawk Crater is an impact crater in the Elysium quadrangle of Mars, located at 43.2° N and 5.4° W. It is 17.5 km in diameter and was named after a town in New York.[1]

Mantle layers are present near the crater. A smooth mantle covers much of Mars.[2] Some parts are eroded, revealing rough surfaces. Some parts possess layers. It’s generally accepted that mantle is ice-rich dust that fell from the sky as snow and ice-coated dust grains during a different climate.[3]

Impact craters generally have a rim with ejecta around them, in contrast volcanic craters usually do not have a rim or ejecta deposits. As craters get larger (greater than 10 km in diameter) they usually have a central peak.[4] The peak is caused by a rebound of the crater floor following the impact.[5]

Why are Craters important?[edit]

The density of impact craters is used to determine the surface ages of Mars and other solar system bodies.[4] The older the surface, the more craters present. Crater shapes can reveal the presence of ground ice.

On Mars, heat from impact melts ice in the ground. The heat from thousands of impacts especially early in the history of Mars may have helped life to survive. Impacts may have melted ice and kept the region around the crater warm for thousands of years.[6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12]

The area around craters may be rich in minerals. Water from the melting ice dissolves minerals, and then deposits them in cracks or faults that were produced with the impact. This process, called hydrothermal alteration, is a major way in which ore deposits are produced. The area around Martian craters may be rich in useful ores for the future colonization of Mars.[13]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Planetary Names: Welcome". Planetarynames.wr.usgs.gov. Retrieved 2014-01-27. 
  2. ^ 36. Mustard, J., C. Cooper, M. Rifkin. 2001. Evidence for recent climate change on Mars from the identification of youthful near-surface ground ice. Nature 412, 411–414.
  3. ^ Pollack, J., D. Colburn, F. Flaser, R. Kahn, C. Carson, and D. Pidek. 1979. Properties and effects of dust suspended in the martian atmosphere. J. Geophys. Res. 84, 2929-2945.>
  4. ^ a b http://www.lpi.usra.edu/publications/slidesets/stones/
  5. ^ Hugh H. Kieffer (1992). Mars. University of Arizona Press. ISBN 978-0-8165-1257-7. Retrieved 7 March 2011. 
  6. ^ Abramov,O., Stephen J. Mojzsis. 2016. Thermal effects of impact bombardments on Noachian Mars. Earth and Planetary Science Letters: 442, 108-120
  7. ^ http://astrobiology.com/2016/04/early-mars-bombardment-likely-enhanced-life-supporting-habitat.html
  8. ^ Horan, A., J. Head. 2016. LATE NOACHIAN VALLEY NETWORK FORMATION ON MARS: AN ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT CRATER-RELATED FORMATION MECHANISM. 47th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (2016) 1160.pdf.
  9. ^ Segura et al. 2002. Science 298, 1977-80.
  10. ^ Segura et al. 2008. J. Geophys. Res.113, E11007.
  11. ^ Segura et al. 2012. Icarus 220, 144- 148.
  12. ^ Toon et al. 2010. Earth Planet. Sci. 38, 303-322.
  13. ^ http://www.indiana.edu/~sierra/papers/2003/Patterson.html.