Mohawk people

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This article is about the people known as the Mohawk. For other uses, see Mohawk (disambiguation).
Joseph Brant by Gilbert Stuart, 1786.jpg
Thayendanegea or Joseph Brant, painted by Gilbert Stuart, 1786
Regions with significant populations
 Canada (Quebec, Ontario) 23,682[1]
 United States (New York) 5,632[1]
English, Kanien'kéha, French, Mohawk Dutch, Other Iroquoian Dialects
Karihwiio, Kanoh'hon'io, Kahni'kwi'io, Christianity, Longhouse, Handsome Lake, Other Indigenous Religion
Related ethnic groups
Seneca Nation, Oneida Nation, Cayuga Nation, Onondaga Nation, Tuscarora Nation, other Iroquoian peoples

The Mohawk people (who identify as Kanien'kehá:ka)[2] are the most easterly tribe of the Iroquois Confederacy, and are also known as the “People of the Flint Place.”[3] They are an Iroquoian-speaking indigenous people of North America. They were historically based in the Mohawk Valley in present-day upstate New York west of Albany; their territory ranged to the St. Lawrence River and present-day southern Quebec and eastern Ontario, greater New Jersey, and southward into present-day Pennsylvania, eastward to the Green Mountains of Vermont, and westward to the border with the Oneida Nation's traditional homeland territory. As one of the five original members of the Iroquois League, or Haudenosaunee, the Mohawk were known as the Keepers of the Eastern Door. For hundreds of years, they guarded the Iroquois Confederation against invasion from that direction by tribes from the New England and lower New York areas. Their current major settlements include areas around Lake Ontario and the St Lawrence River in Canada and New York.

The Dutch derived the name "Mohawk" from the term used for the Kanien'kehá:ka by the competing Muh-heck Heek Ing, an Algonguian-speaking tribe (whom the Dutch called "Mohican" or "Mahican"). The Mohican/Mahican referred to the Kanien'kehá:ka as Maw Unk Lin (Bear Place People). The Dutch transliterated this as "Mohawk".[citation needed]

Origins of name[edit]

map of Mohawk River

In the Mohawk language, the people say that they are from Kanien'kehá:ka or "Flint Stone Place". The Mohawk became wealthy traders as other nations in their confederacy needed their flint for tool making. Their Algonquian-speaking neighbors (and competitors), the people of Muh-heck Heek Ing (Food Area Place), a name transliterated by the Dutch as Mohican or Mahican, called the People of Ka-nee-en Ka "Maw Unk Lin" (meaning Bear People). The Dutch heard and wrote this as "Mohawk". The Dutch also referred to the Mohawk as "Egil" or "Maqua". The French adapted these terms as Aignier, and Maqui, respectively, or called them by the generic Iroquois, a French derivation of the Algonquian term for the Five Nations, meaning Snake People.

History since colonization[edit]

First contact with European settlers[edit]

In the upper Hudson and Mohawk Valley regions, the Mohawk had long had contact with the Algonquian-speaking Mahican people, who occupied territory along the Hudson River, as well as other Algonquian and Iroquoian tribes to the north around the Great Lakes. The Mohawk had extended their own influence into the St. Lawrence River Valley, which they maintained for hunting grounds. They are believed to have defeated the St. Lawrence Iroquoians in the 16th century, and kept control of their territory. In addition to hunting and fishing, for centuries the Mohawk cultivated productive maize fields on the fertile floodplains along the Mohawk River, west of the Pine Bush.

In the seventeenth century the Mohawk encountered both the Dutch, who went up the Hudson River and established a trading post in 1614 at the confluence of the Mohawk and Hudson rivers, and the French, who came south into their territory from New France (present-day Quebec). The Dutch were primarily merchants and the French also conducted fur trading. Their Jesuit missionaries were active among First Nations and Native Americans, seeking converts to Catholicism.

In 1614, the Dutch opened a trading post at Fort Nassau, New Netherland. The Dutch initially traded for furs with the local Mahican, who occupied the territory along the Hudson River. Following a raid in 1626 when the Mohawk resettled along the south side of the Mohawk River,[4] in 1628, they mounted an attack against the Mahican, pushing them back to the area of present-day Connecticut. The People of Ka-nee-en Ka (Mohawks) gained a near-monopoly in the fur trade with the Dutch by prohibiting the nearby Algonquian-speaking tribes to the north or east to trade with them but did not entirely control this.

European contact resulted in a devastating smallpox epidemic among the Mohawk in 1635; this reduced their population by 63%, from 7740 to 2830, as they had no immunity to the new disease. By 1642 they had regrouped from four into three villages, recorded by Catholic missionary priest Isaac Jogues in 1642 as Ossernenon, Andagaron, and Tionontoguen, all along the south side of the Mohawk River from east to west. These were recorded by speakers of other languages with different spellings, and historians have struggled to reconcile various accounts, as well as to align them with archeological studies of the areas. For instance, Johannes Megapolensis, a Dutch minister, recorded the spelling of the same three villages as Asserué, Banagiro, and Thenondiogo.[4]

While the Dutch later established settlements in present-day Schenectady and Schoharie, further west in the Mohawk Valley, merchants in Fort Nassau continued to control the fur trading. Schenectady was established essentially as a farming settlement, where Dutch took over some of the former Mohawk maize fields. Through trading, the Mohawk and Dutch became allies of a kind.

During their alliance, the Mohawks allowed a Dutch Protestant missionary, John Megapolensis, to come into their tribe and teach the Christian message. He operated from the Fort Nassau area about six years, writing a record in 1644 of his observations of the Mohawk, their language (which he learned) and their culture. While he noted their ritual of torture of captives, he recognized that their society had few killings, especially compared to the Netherlands of that period.[5][6]

The trading relations between the Mohawk and Dutch helped them maintain peace even during the periods of Kieft's War and the Esopus Wars, when the Dutch fought localized battles with other tribes. In addition, Dutch trade partners equipped the Mohawk with guns to fight against other First Nations who were allied with the French, including the Ojibwe, Huron-Wendat, and Algonquin. In 1645 the Mohawk made peace for a time with the French, who were trying to keep a piece of the fur trade.

During the Pequot War (1634–1638), the Pequot and other Algonquian Indians of coastal New England sought an alliance with the Mohawk against English colonists of that region. Disrupted by their losses to smallpox, the Mohawk refused the alliance. They killed the Pequot sachem Sassacus who had come to them for refuge.

In the winter of 1651, the Mohawk attacked to the southeast and overwhelmed Algonquians in the coastal areas. They took between 500-600 captives. In 1664, the Pequot of New England killed a Mohawk ambassador, starting a war that resulted in the destruction of the Pequot, as the English and their allies in New England entered the conflict, trying to suppress the Native Americans. The Mohawk also attacked other members of the Pequot confederacy, in a war that lasted until 1671.[citation needed]

In 1666, the French attacked the Mohawk in the central New York area, burning the three Mohawk villages south of the river and their stored food supply. One of the conditions of the peace was that the Mohawk accept Jesuit missionaries. Beginning in 1669, missionaries attempted to convert Mohawk to Christianity, operating a mission near Auriesville, New York until 1684, when the Mohawk destroyed it, killing several priests.

Over time, some converted Mohawk relocated to Jesuit mission villages established south of Montreal in the early 1700s: Kahnawake (also spelled Caughnawaga, named for the village of that name in the Mohawk Valley) and Kanesatake. These Mohawk were joined by members of other tribes but dominated the settlements by number. Many converted to Roman Catholicism. In the 1740s, Mohawk and French set up another village upriver, which is known as Akwesasne. It spans the St. Lawrence River and present-day international boundaries to New York, United States, where it is known as the St. Regis Reservation.

One of the most famous converts to Catholicism during the French colonial period was Kateri Tekakwitha, born at Ossernenon in the late 1650s. She was known for her faith and a shrine was built to her in New York. In the late 20th century, she was beatified and was canonized in October 2012 as the first Native American Catholic saint. She is also recognized by the Episcopal and Lutheran churches.

After the fall of New Netherland to England in 1649, the Mohawk in New York traded with the English and sometimes acted as their allies. During King Philip's War, Metacom, sachem of the warring Wampanoag Pokanoket, decided to winter with his warriors near Albany in 1675. Encouraged by the English, the Mohawk attacked and killed all but 40 of the 400 Pokanoket.

From the 1690s, Protestant missionaries sought to convert the Mohawk in the New York colony. Many were baptized with English surnames, while others were given both first and surnames in English.

During the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, the Mohawk and Algonquian and Abenaki tribes in New England were involved in raids conducted by the French and English against each other's settlements during Queen Anne's War and other conflicts. They conducted a growing trade in captives, holding them for ransom. Neither of the colonial governments generally negotiated for common captives, and it was up to local European communities to raise funds to ransom their residents. In some cases, French and Abenaki raiders transported captives from New England to Montreal and the Mohawk mission villages. The Mohawk at Kahnawake adopted numerous young women and children to add to their own members, having suffered losses to disease and warfare. For instance, among them were numerous survivors of the more than 100 captives taken in the Deerfield raid in western Massachusetts. The minister of Deerfield was ransomed and returned to Massachusetts, but his daughter was adopted by a Mohawk family and ultimately assimilated and married a Mohawk man.[7]

During the era of the French and Indian War (also known as the Seven Years' War), Anglo-Mohawk partnership relations were maintained by men such as Sir William Johnson in New York (for the British Crown), Conrad Weiser (on behalf of the colony of Pennsylvania), and Hendrick Theyanoguin (for the Mohawk). The Albany Congress of 1754 was called on in June, to discuss with the Iroquois chiefs in part to repair the damaged diplomatic relationship between the British and the Mohawk, along with securing their cooperation and support in fighting the French.[8]

American Revolutionary War[edit]

During the second and third quarters of the 18th century, most of the Mohawk in the Province of New York lived along the Mohawk River at Canajoharie. A few lived at Schoharie, and the rest lived about 30 miles downstream at the Tionondorage Castle, also called Fort Hunter. These two major settlements were traditionally called the Upper Castle and the Lower Castle. The Lower Castle was almost contiguous with Sir Peter Warren's Warrensbush. Sir William Johnson, the British Superintendent of Indian Affairs, built his first house on the north bank of the Mohawk River almost opposite Warrensbush and established the settlement of Johnstown.

The Mohawk were among the four Iroquois tribes that allied with the British during the American Revolutionary War. They had a long trading relationship with the British and hoped to gain support to prohibit colonists encroaching into their territory in the Mohawk Valley. Joseph Brant acted as a war chief and successfully led raids against British and ethnic German colonists in the Mohawk Valley, who had been given land by the British administration near the rapids at present-day Little Falls, New York.

A few prominent Mohawk, such as the sachem Little Abraham at Fort Hunter, remained neutral throughout the war. Joseph Louis Cook, a veteran of the French and Indian War and ally of the rebels, offered his services to the Americans, receiving an officer's commission from the Continental Congress. He led Oneida warriors against the British. During this war, Johannes Tekarihoga was the civil leader of the Mohawk. He died around 1780. Catherine Crogan, a clan mother and wife of Mohawk war chief Joseph Brant, named her brother Henry Crogan as the new Tekarihoga.

In retaliation for Brant's raids in the valley, the rebel colonists organized Sullivan's Expedition. It conducted extensive raids against other Iroquois settlements in central and western New York, destroying 40 villages, crops and winter stores. Many Mohawk and other Iroquois migrated to Canada for refuge near Fort Niagara, struggling to survive the winter.

After the Revolution[edit]

Teyoninhokovrawen (John Norton) played a prominent role in the War of 1812, leading Iroquois warriors from Grand River into battle against Americans. Norton was part Cherokee and part Scottish.

After the American victory, the British ceded their claim to land in the colonies, and the Americans forced their allies, the Mohawk and others, to give up their territories in New York. Most of the Mohawk migrated to Canada, where the Crown gave them some land in compensation. The Mohawk at the Upper Castle fled to Fort Niagara, while most of those at the Lower Castle went to villages near Montreal.

Joseph Brant led a large group of Iroquois out of New York to what became the reserve of the Six Nations of the Grand River, Ontario. Brant continued as a political leader of the Mohawk for the rest of his life. This land extended 100 miles from the head of the Grand River to the head of Lake Erie where it discharges.[9] Another Mohawk war chief, John Deseronto, led a group of Mohawk to the Bay of Quinte. Other Mohawk settled in the vicinity of Montreal and upriver, joining the established communities (now reserves) at Kahnawake, Kanesatake, and Akwesasne.

On November 11, 1794, representatives of the Mohawks (along with the other Iroquois nations) signed the Treaty of Canandaigua with the United States, which allowed them to own land there.

The Mohawk fought as allies of the British against the United States in the War of 1812.

20th century to present[edit]

The Mohawk have organized for more sovereignty at their reserves in Canada, pressing for authority over their people and lands. Tensions with the Quebec Provincial and national governments have been strained during certain protests.

In 1993 a group of Akwesasne Mohawk purchased 322 acres of land in the Town of Palatine in Montgomery County, New York which they named Kanatsiohareke. It marked a return to their ancestral land.

Mohawk communities today[edit]

Mohawk dancer at a pow wow in 2015

Members of the Mohawk tribe now live in settlements in northern New York State and southeastern Canada. Many Mohawk communities have two sets of chiefs, who are in some sense competing governmental rivals. One group are the hereditary chiefs nominated by Clan Mother matriarchs in the traditional Mohawk fashion. Mohawk of most of the reserves have established constitutions with elected chief and councilors, with whom the Canadian and U.S. governments usually prefer to deal exclusively. The self-governing communities are listed below, grouped by broad geographical cluster, with notes on the character of community governance found in each.

  • Northern New York:
    • Kanièn:ke (Ganienkeh) "Place of the flint". Traditional governance.
    • Kana'tsioharè:ke "Place of the washed pail". Traditional governance.
  • Along the St Lawrence in Quebec:
    • Ahkwesásne (St. Regis, New York and Quebec/Ontario, Canada) "Where the partridge drums". Traditional governance, band/tribal elections.
    • Kahnawà:ke "On the rapids". Canada, traditional governance, band/tribal elections.
    • Ka'nehsatà:ke (Oka) "Where the snow crust is". Canada, traditional governance, band/tribal elections.
  • Southern Ontario:
    • Kenhtè:ke (Tyendinaga) "On the bay". Traditional governance, band/tribal elections.
    • Wáhta (Gibson) "Maple tree". Traditional governance, band/tribal elections.
    • Ohswé:ken (Six Nations of the Grand River) "???". Traditional governance, band/tribal elections. The Mohawk form the majority of the population of this Iroquois Six Nations reserve. There are also Mohawk Orange Lodges in Canada.

Given increased activism for land claims, a rise in tribal revenues due to establishment of gaming on certain reserves or reservations, competing leadership, traditional government jurisdiction, issues of taxation, and the Indian Act, Mohawk communities have been dealing with considerable internal conflict since the late 20th century.

Mohawk iron and steelworkers in New York[edit]

Mohawk came from Kahnawake and other reserves to work in the construction industry in New York City in the early through the mid-20th century. They had also worked in construction in Quebec. The men were iron and steelworkers who helped build bridges and skyscrapers. They worked from the 1930s to the 1970s on special labor contracts as specialists and participated in building the Empire State Building. The construction companies found that the Mohawk ironworkers did not fear heights or dangerous conditions. Their contracts offered lower than average wages to the First Nations people and limited labor union membership.[10]

The work and home life of Mohawk steelworkers was documented in Don Owen's 1965 National Film Board of Canada documentary High Steel.[11] The Mohawk community that formed in a compact area of Brooklyn, which they called "Little Caughnawaga," after their homeland, is documented in Reaghan Tarbell's Little Caughnawaga: To Brooklyn and Back, shown on PBS in 2008. This community was most active from the 1920s to the 1960s. The families accompanied the men, who were mostly from Kahnawake; together they would return to Kahnawake during the summers. Tarbell is from Kahnawake and was working as a film curator at the National Museum of the American Indian, located in the former US Customs House in Lower Manhattan.[12]

Since the mid-20th century, Mohawk have also formed their own construction companies. Others returned to New York projects. Approximately 200 Mohawk iron workers (out of 2000 total iron workers at the site) participated in rebuilding the One World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan. They typically drive the 360 miles from the Kahnawake reserve on the St. Lawrence River in Quebec to work the week in lower Manhattan, and then return on the weekend to be with their families. A selection of portraits of these Mohawk iron workers were featured in an online photo essay for Time Magazine in September 2012.[13]


Both the elected chiefs and the controversial Warrior Society have encouraged gambling as a means of ensuring tribal self-sufficiency on the various reserves or Indian reservations. Traditional chiefs have tended to oppose gaming on moral grounds and out of fear of corruption and organized crime. Such disputes have also been associated with religious divisions: the traditional chiefs are often associated with the Longhouse tradition, practicing consensus-democratic values, while the Warrior Society has attacked that religion and asserted independence. Meanwhile, the elected chiefs have tended to be associated (though in a much looser and general way) with democratic, legislative and Canadian governmental values.

On October 15, 1993, Governor Mario Cuomo entered into the "Tribal-State Compact Between the St. Regis Mohawk Tribe and the State of New York". The compact allowed the Tribe to conduct gambling, including games such as baccarat, blackjack, craps and roulette, on the Akwesasne Reservation in Franklin County under the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act (IGRA). According to the terms of the 1993 compact, the New York State Racing and Wagering Board, the New York State Police and the St. Regis Mohawk Tribal Gaming Commission were vested with gaming oversight. Law enforcement responsibilities fell under the state police, with some law enforcement matters left to the tribe. As required by IGRA, the compact was approved by the United States Department of the Interior before it took effect. There were several extensions and amendments to this compact, but not all of them were approved by the U.S. Department of the Interior.

On June 12, 2003, the New York Court of Appeals affirmed the lower courts' rulings that Governor Cuomo exceeded his authority by entering into the compact absent legislative authorization and declared the compact void [2]. On October 19, 2004, Governor George Pataki signed a bill passed by the State Legislature that ratified the compact as being Nunc Pro Tunc, with some additional minor changes.[14]

In 2008 the Mohawk Nation was working to obtain approval to own and operate a casino in Sullivan County, New York, at Monticello Raceway. The U.S. Department of the Interior disapproved this action although the Mohawk gained Governor Eliot Spitzer's concurrence, subject to the negotiation and approval of either an amendment to the current compact or a new compact. Interior rejected the Mohawk application to take this land into trust.[15]

In the early 21st century, two legal cases were pending that related to Native American gambling and land claims in New York. The State of New York has expressed similar objections to the Dept. of Interior taking other land into trust for federally recognized tribes, which would establish the land as sovereign Native American territory, on which they might establish new gaming facilities.[16] The other suit contends that the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act violates the Tenth Amendment to the United States Constitution as it is applied in the State of New York. In 2010 it was pending in the United States District Court for the Western District of New York.[17]



Traditional Mohawk religion is predominantly Animist. "Much of the religion is based on a primordial conflict between good and evil."[18] Many Mohawk continue to follow the Longhouse Religion.

In 1632 a band of Jesuit missionaries led by Isaac Jogues was captured by a party of Mohawks and brought to Ossernenon (now Auriesville, New York). Jogues attempted to convert the Mohawks to Catholicism, but was murdered. Ten years after Jogues' death Kateri Tekakwitha, the daughter of a Mohawk chief, and Tagaskouita, a Roman Catholic Algonquin woman, was born in Ossernenon and later was canonized as the first Native American saint. Religion became a tool of conflict between the French and British in Mohawk country. The Reformed clergyman Godfridius Dellius preached to the Mohawks and served as a counterweight to French Jesuit influence.

Traditional Mohawk dress[edit]

The traditional hairstyle of the Mohawk, and other tribes of the Iroquois, was to remove the hair from the head by plucking (not shaving) tuft by tuft of hair until all that was left was a square of hair on the back crown of the head. The remaining hair was shortened so that three short braids of hair were created, and those braids were highly decorated. This true "Mohawk" hairstyle is not to be confused with the version in popular American culture, which is actually taken from the Pawnee.

The women wore their hair long, often dressed with traditional bear grease, or tied back into a single braid. They often wore no covering or hat on their heads, even in winter.

In traditional dress the women went topless in summer and wore a skirt of deerskin. In colder seasons, women wore a full woodland deerskin dress, and leather tied underwear. They wore puckered-seam, ankle-wrap moccasins. They wore several ear piercings adorned with shell earrings and shell necklaces.

The women used a layer of smoked and cured moss as an insulating absorbent layer during menses, as well as simple scraps of leather. Later, they used cotton-linen pieces, in areas where colonists had provided such items through trade.[citation needed]

Mohawk men wore a breech cloth of deerskin in summer. In cooler weather, they added deerskin leggings and a full-piece deerskin shirt. They also wore several shell strand earrings, shell necklaces, long fashioned hair, and puckered seamed wrap ankle moccasins. The men carried a quill and flint arrow hunting bag, and had arm and knee bands.

During the summer, the Mohawk children traditionally wore nothing up to the ages of thirteen. Then ready for their warrior or woman rites of passage, they took on the clothing of adults.[citation needed]

Later dress after European contact combined some cloth pieces such as the males' ribbon shirt in addition to the deerskin clothing, and wool trousers and skirts. For a time many Mohawk people incorporated a combination of the older styles of dress with newly introduced forms of clothing.

According to author Kanatí:ios in Rotinonhsión:ni Clothing and & Other Cultural Items, Mohawks as a part of the Rotinonhsión:ni Confederacy "traditionally used furs obtained from the woodland, which consisted of elk and deer hides, corn husks, and they also wove plant and tree fibers to produce [the] clothing". Later, sinew or animal gut was cleaned and prepared as a thread for garments and footwear and was threaded to porcupine quills or sharp leg bones to sew or pierce eyeholes for threading. Clothing dyes were obtained of various sources such as berries, tree barks, flowers, grasses, sometimes fixed with urine.[citation needed] Durable clothing that was held by older village people and adults was handed down to others in their family sometimes as gifts, honours, or because people had outgrown them.

Mohawk clothing was sometimes reminiscent of designs from trade with neighboring First Nation tribes, and more closely resembled that of other Six Nations confederacy nations; however, much of the originality of the Mohawk nation peoples' style of dress was preserved as the foundation of the style they wore.


The Mohawk Nation people have a matrilineal kinship system, with descent and inheritance passed through the female line. Much respect is given to the woman because she is the head of the household and controls its property.[citation needed] They hold marriage as a great commitment that should be nurtured and respected. Mohawk Nation wedding ceremonies are conducted by a high-ranking man or by couple's choice. The marrying couple unite in a lifelong relationship.

The traditional marriage ceremony included a day of celebration for the newlyweds, a formal oration by a nobleman of the woman's clan, community dancing and feasting, and gifts of respect and honour by community members. Traditionally these gifts were practical items that the couple would use in daily life.

For wedding clothing, they wore white rabbit leathers and furs with personal adornments, usually made by their families. The "Rabbit Dance Song" and other social dance songs were sung by the men, where they used gourd rattles and later cow-horn rattles. In the "Water Drum", other well-wishing couples participated in the dance with the couple. The meal commenced after the ceremony and everyone who participated ate.

Today, the marriage ceremony may follow that of the old tradition or incorporate newer elements, but is still used by many Mohawk Nation marrying couples. Some couples choose to marry in the European manner and the Longhouse manner, with the Longhouse ceremony usually held first.[19]


Replicas of seventeenth-century longhouses have been built at landmarks and tourist villages, such as Kanata Village, Brantford, Ontario, and Awkwasasne's "Tsiionhiakwatha" interpretation village. Other Mohawk Nation Longhouses are found on the Mohawk territory reserves that hold the Mohawk law recitations, ceremonial rites, and the Mohawk and Longhouse religion (or "Code of Handsome Lake"). These include:

  • Ohswé:ken(Six Nations) First Nation Territory, Ontario holds six Ceremonial Mohawk Community Longhouse.
  • Wáhta First Nation Territory, Ontario holds one Ceremonial Mohawk Community Longhouse.
  • Kenhtè:ke(Tyendinaga) First Nation Territory, Ontario holds one Ceremonial Mohawk Community Longhouse.
  • Ahkwesásne First Nation Territory, Quebec holds two Mohawk Ceremonial Community Longhouses.
  • Ka'nehsatà:ke First Nation Territory, Quebec holds one Ceremonial Mohawk Community Longhouses.
  • Kahnawà:ke First Nation Territory, Quebec holds three Ceremonial Mohawk Community Longhouse.
  • Kanièn:ke(Ganienkeh) First Nation Territory, New York State holds one Ceremonial Mohawk Community Longhouse.
  • Kana'tsioharà:ke First Nation Territory, New York State holds one Ceremonial Mohawk Community Longhouse.

Notable Mohawk[edit]

Pauline Johnson, Mohawk writer

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b
  2. ^ "About the Mohawk Nation Council of Chiefs". Mohawk Nation Council of Chiefs of the Haudenosaunee Six Nations Confederacy. Mohawk Nation Council of Chiefs. Retrieved 4 August 2014. 
  3. ^ Jocks, Chris (2001). "A Native North America Perspective". What Men Owe to Women: Men's Voices from World Religions. State University of New York. p. 259. ISBN 978-0791447864. 
  4. ^ a b "Introduction", In Mohawk Country: Early Narratives about a Native People, ed. Dean R. Snow, Charles T. Gehring, William A. Starna; Syracuse University Press, 1996, pp. xix-xx
  5. ^ [1]
  6. ^ "A Short History of the Mohawk", in In Mohawk Country: Early Narratives about a Native People], ed. Dean R. Snow, Charles T. Gehring, William A. Starna; Syracuse University Press, 1996, pp. 38-46
  7. ^ John Demos, The Unredeemed Captive: A Family Story from Early America, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1994
  8. ^ "The Albany Congress". Retrieved 2 April 2014. 
  9. ^ Stone, William (September 1838). "Life of Joseph Brant--Thayendanegea; including the Border Wars of the American Revolution". American Monthly Magazine 12: 12. 
  10. ^ Joseph Mitchell, "The Mohawks in High Steel," in Edmund Wilson, Apologies to the Iroquois (New York: Vintage, 1960), pp. 3-36."
  11. ^ Owen, Don. "High Steel" (Requires Adobe Flash). Online documentary. National Film Board of Canada. Retrieved 14 March 2011. 
  12. ^ Tarbell, Reaghan (2008). 2 "Little Caughnawaga: To Brooklyn and Back" Check |url= scheme (help). National Film Board of Canada. Retrieved 2009-08-31. 
  13. ^ Wallace, Vaughn (2012-09-11). "The Mohawk Ironworkers: Rebuilding the Iconic Skyline of New York". Time. 
  14. ^ see C. 590 of the Laws of 2004
  15. ^ "The Associate Deputy Secretary of the Interior" (PDF). Washington. 4 January 2008. Retrieved 29 October 2010. 
  16. ^ "Former Website of the NYS Department of Environmental Conservation" (PDF). Retrieved 29 October 2010. 
  17. ^ "Warren v. United States of America, et al". Retrieved 29 October 2010. 
  18. ^ "mohawk". Cultural Survival. Retrieved May 26, 2015. 
  19. ^ Anne Marie Shimony, "Conservatism among the Iroquois at Six Nations Reserve", 1961
  20. ^ "Kahnawake Weekly Wins Top Honors for Community Journalism", Indian Country TMN, 19 May 2011


External links[edit]