Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte First Nation

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Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte First Nation
Band No. 164
Mohawk peace flag.svg
Mohawk peace flag
PeopleMohawk
HeadquartersTyendinaga
ProvinceOntario
Land
Main reserveTyendinaga Mohawk Territory
Other reserve(s)
Land area73.63 km2
Population
On reserve2169
Off reserve7685
Total population9875
Government
ChiefR. Donald Maracle
Council size4
Website
mbq-tmt.org

The Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte (Mohawk: Kenhtè:ke Kanyen'kehà:ka Mohawk pronunciation: [gʌ̃h'dè:ge ganjʌ̃ge'hà:ga]) are a Mohawk First Nation within Hastings County, Ontario. They control the Tyendinaga Mohawk Territory, which is a 7,362.5 ha (18,193-acre)[1] Mohawk Indian reserve on the Bay of Quinte in southeastern Ontario, Canada, east of Belleville and immediately to the west of Deseronto.[2] They also share Glebe Farm 40B and the Six Nations of the Grand River reserves with other First Nations.

Mohawk language stop sign.

The community takes its name from a variant spelling of Mohawk leader Joseph Brant's traditional Mohawk name, Thayendanegea (standardized spelling Thayentiné:ken), which means 'two pieces of fire wood beside each other'.[3] Officially in the Mohawk language, the community is called Kenhtè:ke, an old word, the meaning of which is unclear. The Cayuga name is Tayęda:ne:gęˀ or Detgayę:da:negęˀ, 'land of two logs'.[4] The nation's band number is 164.[5]

History[edit]

Following the American Revolution, the Mohawk, who were allies of the British Crown, lost their traditional homelands in the Mohawk Valley of what became New York state, when they were forced to cede their lands following the defeat of the British. As compensation for their allegiance, the Crown offered them unsettled land in Upper Canada. A group of Mohawk led by John Deseronto selected the Bay of Quinte because it was said to be the birthplace of Tekanawita, one of the founders of the Iroquois Confederacy in the 12th century.[6] The majority of the Mohawk followed Joseph Brant to the Six Nations of the Grand River First Nation in what has become the province of Ontario.

On May 22, 1784, the group of 20 Mohawk families (between 100 and 125 people) arrived at Tyendinaga. Nine years later, the Tyendinaga tract of land was officially set aside under Crown Treaty 3½, signed on April 1, 1793, by Lieutenant Governor John Graves Simcoe and thereafter known as the 'Simcoe Deed'. This tract of land, measuring 37,500 ha (92,700 acres) was legally accepted by the British Crown, and subsequently by the Upper Canada government.[6]

A wave of Loyalists also settled in the Bay of Quinte area, and the government granted many of them land in the Tyendinaga Tract.[7] During the period from 1820 to 1843, the Mohawk lost two-thirds of the treaty lands of the Simcoe Deed.[7] Additional land loss has left the Mohawk with only 7,100 ha (18,000 acres) in this area today.

The major new settlement for the Mohawk and other Iroquois in Canada was the Six Nations Reserve of the Grand River (where prominent Mohawk leader Joseph Brant struggled with the colonial government for control of the land). In addition, Mohawk and others joined the existing communities of Kahnawake, Kanesatake, Wahta and Akwesasne (the latter four were mostly Mohawk settlements established along the St. Lawrence River during the colonial era prior to the war).[6]

Government[edit]

The Tyendinaga Mohawk Council consists of one Chief and four Councillors, chosen during elections every two years, as per the Indian Act.[8][9] On December 4, 2017, Council adopted a motion 'to approve to adopt the First Nations Election Act [FNEA] regulations for the Tyendinaga Mohawk Territory in 2019', but Council has not officially adopted a custom election code or opted into the FNEA as of December 2018.[10]

Current Council[edit]

Chief

  • R. Donald Maracle

Councillors

  • Josh Hill
  • Stacia Loft
  • Carl "Ted" Maracle

In October 2018, Councillor Debra Vincent resigned citing chronic symptoms as a result of Lyme disease.

Electoral history[edit]

2017 Band Council Election[edit]

Election for Chief
Name of Candidate for Chief Total Votes Received Percentage
R. Donald Maracle 726 84.7
Brenda Green-Edwards 106 12.4
Balin "Spiderman" Hill 25 2.9
Total 857 100
Election for Councillors
Name of Candidate for Councillor Total Votes Received
Josh Hill 505
Carl "Ted" Maracle 396
Debra Vincent 379
Stacia Loft 371
Christopher M Maracle 370
Kelly "Brant" Maracle 333
Kathleen Brant 278
Curtis Maracle 248
Manson Loft 201
Melissa Rose Anne Maracle 136
Glen "Smoke" Maracle 132

2015 Band Council Election[edit]

Election for Chief
Name of Candidate for Chief Total Votes Received Percentage
R. Donald Maracle 819 81.0
Barbara Francis Brant 115 11.4
Andrew Clifford "Karoniakeshon" Miracle 58 5.7
Balin Hill 19 1.9
Total Valid Ballots Cast 1011 100
Number of Rejected Ballots Cast 76 --
Election for Councillors
Name of Candidate for Councillor Total Votes Received Percentage
Carl "Ted" Maracle 505 47.2
Debra "Deb" Vincent 440 41.1
Douglas E. Maracle 433 40.5
Stacia Loft 426 39.8
Josh Hill 392 36.6
Barry D. Brant 365 34.1
Chris Maracle 291 27.2
Blaine Loft 269 25.1
Pam "Maracle" Detlor 222 20.1
Barbara Francis Brant 150 14.0
Jim McMurter 142 13.3
Keith Sero 142 13.3
Cindy Thompson 127 11.9
Catherine Hill 97 9.0
Dewayne Maracle 84 7.9
Total Valid Ballots Cast 1070 100
Number of Rejected Ballots Cast 17 --

2013 election results[edit]

Election for Chief[11]
Name of Candidate for Chief Total Votes Received Percentage
R. Donald Maracle 852 63.7
Shawn Brant 358 26.8
Barbara Frances Brant 86 6.4
Corey T. Maracle 29 2.2
Isaac Balin Hill 12 9.0
Total 1337 100
Election for Councillors[11]
Name of Candidate for Councillor Total Votes Received
Carl Maracle 811
Douglas E. Maracle 803
Barry D. Brant 658
Sandra Lewis-Den Otter 488
Jennifer Brant Neepin 413
Manson Loft 413
Keith A. Sero 341
Christine Claus 330
Curtis E. Maracle 287
Melissa R. Maracle 263
Catherine Simmons 93

Land claims dispute[edit]

Since the late 20th century, the Mohawk of the Bay of Quinte have been embroiled in a land claim struggle with the Canadian government over a stretch of land referred to as the Culbertson Tract, for which they filed a claim in 1995. The government accepted this for negotiation in 2003.[12] The Mohawk allege the land was illegally purchased from Mohawk in the 19th century. As set out in the Royal Proclamation of 1763, the terms and conditions for purchasing land from Natives required there to be a community vote before the Mohawk could sell the common land to any outsider.[12][13] Research and documentation has shown that these terms and conditions may not have been followed at Tyendinaga.[14][15] Within the Simcoe Deed were provisions for the government of the reserve to remove 'intruders'.

After a stagnation of the land claims process following Mohawk protests in 2006–09, the Band Chief Don Maracle in January 2011 announced his intentions to file a suit that month related to the land claims, seeking return of the Culbertson Tract.[16]

Demographics[edit]

Date Total registered population Living on-reserve Living off-reserve Living on other reserve Living on no-band crown land
July 2010[17] 7,986 2,133 -- -- --
June 2011[18] 8,075 2,017 5,940 17 1
July 2011[19] 8,097 2,121 5,958 17 1
September 2011[20] 8,141 2,124 -- -- --
November 2011[21] 8,253 2,125 6,111 17 --
March 2012[22] 8,500 2,124 6,359 17 --
April 2012[23] 8,559 2,130 6,410 17 2
November 2012[24] 8,895 2,145 6,733 17 --
March 2013[25] 9,013 2,152 6,844 17 --
July 2013[26] 9,109 2,162 6,930 17 --
October 2013[27] 9,417 2,168 6,962 17 --
August 2014[28] 9,280 2,167 7,096 17 --
April 2015[29] 9,391 2,164 7,207 17 3
June 2015[30] 9,418 2,161 7,237 17 3
August 2015[31] 9,452 2,163 7,271 18 --
October 2015[32] 9,481 2,159 7,304 18 --
February 2016[33] 9,541 2,160 7,360 18 3
March 2016[34] 9,551 2,162 7,371 18 --
February 2017[35] 9,714 2,178 7,517 18 --
November 2018[36] 9,869 2,169 7,679 18 3

Education[edit]

Tyendinaga Mohawk Territory is home to First Nations Technical Institute (FNTI), an educational partner with Canadore College, First Nations University of Canada, Humber College, Loyalist College, Queen's University, Ryerson University, St. Lawrence College and Trent University. FNTI course offerings include programs in Aviation (in partnership with the Tyendinaga (Mohawk) Airport), Law, Public Relations, Indigenous Community Health and the Mohawk language.[37]

The Territory also has a primary school, Quinte Mohawk School. For secondary school, on-reserve residents have the option of attending East Side Secondary School in Belleville to the west of the Territory, or attending the Ohahase Learning Centre, a private secondary school operated by the First Nations Technical Institute.[38] Ohahase means "new road" in the Mohawk language.[38]

The language group, Tsi Tyonnheht Onkwawenna (TTO), organizes a variety of cultural educational programs, including Mohawk language classes and language documentation.[39] In 2012 TTO was attempting to raise money to found a Mohawk-language immersion primary school (similar to the one operated at Akwesasne, another Mohawk reserve) to be called Kawenna’òn:we.[40]

Media[edit]

A First Nations community-owned radio station, known as KWE, Mohawk Nation Radio operated on a frequency of 105.9 FM until early 2011. It relaunched in June 2012 on 89.5, but subsequently relocated to 92.3 and covers the area from Belleville to Deseronto. FM in Tyendinaga Mohawk Territory. The station has no known callsign and has no relation to CKWE-FM, another First Nations community radio station in Maniwaki, Quebec.

Tyendinaga also has a second First Nations community-owned radio station that transmits at 87.9 MHz on the FM dial, known as "Real People’s Radio 87.9 FM".[41]

The community currently does not publish a newspaper of its own.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Reserve/Settlement/Village Detail". Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada. 28 March 2017. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  2. ^ Bruce E. Johansen; Barbara Alice Mann (2000). Encyclopedia of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois Confederacy). Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 320. ISBN 978-0-313-30880-2. Retrieved 11 December 2011.
  3. ^ Isaac, Ruth et al. A Spelling Worldlist of Six Nations Mohawk. Brantford: The Woodland Indian Cultural-Educational Centre, 1986. Print
  4. ^ "Cayuga: Our Oral Legacy - Home. Cayuga Digital Dictionary". Archived from the original on 2016-04-21. Retrieved 2012-05-27.
  5. ^ "Geography". Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada. 28 March 2017. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  6. ^ a b c "History of Tyendinaga". Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte. Retrieved 2011-02-25.
  7. ^ a b Magocsi, Paul R. (1999). Encyclopedia of Canada's Peoples. University of Toronto Press. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-8020-2938-6.
  8. ^ "Tyendinaga Mohawk Council - Introduction". Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte - Tyendinaga Mohawk Territory. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  9. ^ "Leadership selection in First Nations". Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada. 19 October 2016. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  10. ^ "Message to the Community Regarding Indian Act Elections, Custom Election Code and First Nation Elections Act (FNEA)". Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte. 9 March 2018. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  11. ^ a b "Maracle wins Tyendinaga election". The Kingston Whig-Standard. 9 December 2013. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  12. ^ a b Vogt, Roy (1 May 1999). Whose Property?: The Deepening Conflict Between Private Property and Democracy in Canada. University of Toronto Press. pp. 104–106. ISBN 978-0-8020-8186-5. Retrieved 11 December 2011.
  13. ^ "Tyendinaga and The Struggle for the Land | Ontario Coalition Against Poverty". Ocap.ca. Retrieved 2011-12-12.
  14. ^ Cassidy, Frank; Bish, Robert L. (1989). Indian government: its meaning in practice. IRPP. pp. 36–40. ISBN 978-0-88982-095-1. Retrieved 11 December 2011.
  15. ^ "Mohawk Community Demands Return of Stolen Culbertson Tract". Mostly Water. 2007-03-21. Archived from the original on 2011-11-23. Retrieved 2011-12-12.
  16. ^ "Quinte News – Mohawks Want Culbertson Land Returned". Quintenews.com. Retrieved 2011-12-12.
  17. ^ "Administration and Services » Nation Building » Membership". Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte - Tyendinaga Mohawk Territory. Archived from the original on 27 July 2011. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  18. ^ "Registered Population". Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada. Archived from the original on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  19. ^ "Registered Population". Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada. Archived from the original on 11 August 2011. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  20. ^ "Administration and Services » Nation Building » Membership". Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte - Tyendinaga Mohawk Territory. Archived from the original on 3 December 2011. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  21. ^ "Administration and Services » Nation Building » Membership". Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte - Tyendinaga Mohawk Territory. Archived from the original on 25 February 2012. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  22. ^ "Administration and Services » Nation Building » Membership". Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte - Tyendinaga Mohawk Territory. Archived from the original on 25 October 2012. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  23. ^ "Registered Population". Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada. Archived from the original on 27 May 2012. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  24. ^ "Administration and Services » Community Services » Membership". Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte - Tyendinaga Mohawk Territory. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  25. ^ "Administration and Services » Community Services » Membership". Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte - Tyendinaga Mohawk Territory. Archived from the original on 23 July 2013. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  26. ^ "Administration and Services » Community Services » Membership". Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte - Tyendinaga Mohawk Territory. Archived from the original on 23 October 2013. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  27. ^ "Administration and Services » Community Services » Membership". Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte - Tyendinaga Mohawk Territory. Archived from the original on 23 November 2013. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  28. ^ "Administration and Services » Community Services » Membership". Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte - Tyendinaga Mohawk Territory. Archived from the original on 31 December 2014. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  29. ^ "Registered Population". Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada. Archived from the original on 9 May 2015. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  30. ^ "Registered Population". Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada. Archived from the original on 24 July 2015. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  31. ^ "Administration and Services » Community Services » Membership". Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte - Tyendinaga Mohawk Territory. Archived from the original on 16 September 2015. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  32. ^ "Administration and Services » Community Services » Membership". Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte - Tyendinaga Mohawk Territory. Archived from the original on 27 March 2016. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  33. ^ "Registered Population". Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  34. ^ "Administration and Services » Community Services » Membership". Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte - Tyendinaga Mohawk Territory. Archived from the original on 23 January 2017. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  35. ^ "Administration and Services » Community Services » Membership". Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte - Tyendinaga Mohawk Territory. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  36. ^ "Registered Population". Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  37. ^ McCarty, Teresa L. (2013). Language Planning and Policy in Native America: History, Theory, Praxis. Multilingual Matters. pp. 126–128. ISBN 978-1-84769-865-0.
  38. ^ a b "Ohahase Learning Centre". FNTI. 2010-05-27. Archived from the original on 2011-11-27. Retrieved 2011-12-12.
  39. ^ "Mohawk language circle aims to strengthen identity". CBC News : Politics. Retrieved 2014-03-28.
  40. ^ "Primary Immersion | Tsi Tyonnheht Onkwawenna". Tto-kenhteke.org. Archived from the original on 2012-04-26. Retrieved 2011-12-12.
  41. ^ www.rpr879.com

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]