Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte First Nation

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Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte First Nation
Band No. 164
Mohawk peace flag.svg
Mohawk peace flag
PeopleMohawk
HeadquartersTyendinaga
ProvinceOntario
Land
Main reserveTyendinaga Mohawk Territory
Other reserve(s)
Land area73.63 km2
Population
On reserve2169
Off reserve7685
Total population9875
Government
ChiefR. Donald Maracle
Council size4
Website
mbq-tmt.org

The Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte (MBQ) (Mohawk: Kenhtè:ke Kanyen'kehà:ka Mohawk pronunciation: [gʌ̃h'dè:ge ganjʌ̃ge'hà:ga]) are a Mohawk First Nation within Hastings County, Ontario. They control the Tyendinaga Mohawk Territory, which is a 7,362.5 ha (18,193-acre)[1] Mohawk Indian reserve on the Bay of Quinte in southeastern Ontario, Canada, east of Belleville and immediately to the west of Deseronto.[2] They also share Glebe Farm 40B and the Six Nations of the Grand River reserves with other First Nations.

The community takes its name from a variant spelling of Mohawk leader Joseph Brant's traditional Mohawk name, Thayendanegea (standardized spelling Thayentiné:ken), which means 'two pieces of fire wood beside each other'.[3] Officially in the Mohawk language, the community is called Kenhtè:ke, which means "on the bay" (from Mohawk kénhte "bay", which is also the origin of the word "Quinte"). The Cayuga name is Tayęda:ne:gęˀ or Detgayę:da:negęˀ, 'land of two logs'.[4] The nation's band number is 164.[5]

Overview[edit]

The territory of the Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte (MBQ), represent one of the largest First Nations territories in Ontario.[6]

Tyendinaga Mohawk Territory has ties to the birthplace of the Great Peacemaker—Dekanahwideh—who was instrumental in the bringing together the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca into the Haudenosaunee Confederacy, according to Kayanesenh Paul Williams, a Six Nations lawyer and author.[7]

The traditional land of the MBQ, which was much more vast that the current territory, was based on a variation of the traditional Mohawk name of Joseph BrantThayendanegea —which means "two pieces of fire wood beside each other".[3] In the Cayuga language the name is Tayęda:ne:gęˀ or Detgayę:da:negęˀ—"land of two logs".[8] The geographical feature, the bay is kénhte in the Mohawk language and the community's official Mohawk name is Kenhtè:ke —"on the bay". It was anglicized to "Quinte".

The Mohawk nation reserve covers 7,362.5 ha (18,193-acre) in Hastings County[1] on the Bay of Quinte in southeastern Ontario, Canada, east of Belleville and immediately to the west of the township of Deseronto.[2]

History[edit]

Following the American Revolution, the Mohawk, who were allies of the British Crown, lost their traditional homelands in the Mohawk Valley of what became New York state, when they were forced to cede their lands following the defeat of the British. As compensation for their allegiance, the Crown offered them unsettled land in Upper Canada. A group of Mohawk led by John Deseronto selected the Bay of Quinte because it was said to be the birthplace of Tekanawita, one of the founders of the Iroquois Confederacy in the 12th century.[9] The majority of the Mohawk followed Joseph Brant to the Six Nations of the Grand River First Nation in what has become the province of Ontario.

On May 22, 1784, the group of 20 Mohawk families (between 100 and 125 people) arrived at Tyendinaga. Nine years later, the Tyendinaga tract of land was officially set aside under Crown Treaty 3½, signed on April 1, 1793, by Lieutenant Governor John Graves Simcoe and thereafter known as the 'Simcoe Deed'. This tract of land, measuring 37,500 ha (92,700 acres) was legally accepted by the British Crown, and subsequently by the Upper Canada government.[9]

A wave of Loyalists also settled in the Bay of Quinte area, and the government granted many of them land in the Tyendinaga Tract.[10] During the period from 1820 to 1843, the Mohawk lost two-thirds of the treaty lands of the Simcoe Deed.[10] Additional land loss has left the Mohawk with only 7,100 ha (18,000 acres) in this area today.

The major new settlement for the Mohawk and other Iroquois in Canada was the Six Nations Reserve of the Grand River (where prominent Mohawk leader Joseph Brant struggled with the colonial government for control of the land). In addition, Mohawk and others joined the existing communities of Kahnawake, Kanesatake, Wahta and Akwesasne (the latter four were mostly Mohawk settlements established along the St. Lawrence River during the colonial era prior to the war).[9]

In 1869, the Gradual Enfranchisement Act was passed by the Canadian federal government, establishing elected band councils on First Nations reserves. The first election for the Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte elected council took place in October 1870, where seven chiefs were elected to sit on the council.[11]

Land claims[edit]

Land Claim—to the right of the green space—covers the south of Tyendinaga area and most of Deseronto.

In 1995 the MBQ filed a claim on an area which covers 923 acres of land surrounding the Tyendinaga Mohawk Territory area, which included most of the land upon which the township of Deseronto has been built. In 2003, the federal government entered into initial land claims negotiations on the Culbertson Tract land claim.[12][13]:104–6

The claim is based on Loyalist settlers allegedly acquiring Mohawk traditional land illegally, during the period from 1820 to 1843, resulting in the loss of the majority of the land from the Simcoe Treaty.[12] As set out in the Royal Proclamation of 1763, the terms and conditions for purchasing land from Mohawk included the requirement of a community vote prior to sales of any common land to non-Mohawk.[13][14] Research and documentation has shown that these terms and conditions may not have been followed at Tyendinaga.[15][16] The Township created a "Catalogue of Culbertson Tract Land Claim documents collection" in its archives.[17] Chief Don Maracle renewed a call for negotiations to continue in 2011, following a period of stagnation.[18] A symposium entitled "The Land that Supports our Feet", was held in Deseronto in 2013 which was well-attended.[19]

In June 2013, Justice Rennie of the Federal Court of Canada ruled in Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte v. Canada (Indian Affairs and Northern Development), that expropriation is one of several viable alternatives available to the government under the law.[20][21]

Long-term Drinking Water Advisories (DWA)[edit]

The Mohawk of the Bay of Quinte have been under a Drinking Water Advisory since 2008, "due to fecal, bacterial and algae contaminations". During a drought in the area, many of the groundwater wells—upon which they had depended—went completely dry.

During the COVID-19 pandemic in Canada, supply chains from manufacturers were disrupted, resulting in an increase in the 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) water main project from about $8.1 million to $18.2 million. In December 2020, the federal government had announced new funding of $16.7 million to "cover the cost of extending the water mains" from the township of Deseronto and the MBQ's own water-treatment plants which will then be able to serve five areas in the Tyendinaga Mohawk Territory.[22][23]

This funding supports the final phase in the "multi-phase project to improve access to safe drinking water for the MBQ community. The federal government and the First Nation invested a combined total of $18.2 million towards the project, which will "ultimately lift five long-term drinking water advisories in the community".[24] This final phase has been contracted out to Gordon Barr Limited, who began construction work in December 2020. The new water mains will link the MBQ's and Deseronto's water treatment plant, thereby connecting "86 existing homes and several of the community's semi-public buildings".[24] By 2021, there were about 2,200 people living on the Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte reserve with another 3,000 Mohawks living nearby.[22] Of these, there are about 90 families "on a waiting list for affordable housing".[22]

Government[edit]

The Tyendinaga Mohawk Council consists of one Chief and four Councillors, chosen during elections every two years, as per the Indian Act.[25][26] On December 4, 2017, Council adopted a motion 'to approve to adopt the First Nations Election Act [FNEA] regulations for the Tyendinaga Mohawk Territory in 2019', but Council has not officially adopted a custom election code or opted into the FNEA as of December 2018.[27]

Current Council[edit]

Chief

  • R. Donald Maracle

Councillors

  • Josh Hill
  • Kelly (Brant) Maracle
  • Carl "Ted" Maracle
  • Lynda Leween

Electoral history[edit]

2019 Band Council Election[edit]

Election for Chief[28]
Name of Candidate for Chief Total Votes Received Percentage
R. Donald Maracle 650 65
Stacia Loft 290 29
Balin "Spiderman" Hill 33 3
Karoniakeshon (Andrew C.) Miracle 22 2
Total 995 100
Election for Councillors
Name of Candidate for Councillor Total Votes Received
Josh Hill 714
Carl "Ted" Maracle 665
Kelly "Brant" Maracle 649
Linda Laween 593
Christopher M Maracle 537

2017 Band Council Election[edit]

Election for Chief
Name of Candidate for Chief Total Votes Received Percentage
R. Donald Maracle 726 84.7
Brenda Green-Edwards 106 12.4
Balin "Spiderman" Hill 25 2.9
Total 857 100
Election for Councillors
Name of Candidate for Councillor Total Votes Received
Josh Hill 505
Carl "Ted" Maracle 396
Debra Vincent 379
Stacia Loft 371
Christopher M Maracle 370
Kelly "Brant" Maracle 333
Kathleen Brant 278
Curtis Maracle 248
Manson Loft 201
Melissa Rose Anne Maracle 136
Glen "Smoke" Maracle 132

2015 Band Council Election[edit]

Election for Chief
Name of Candidate for Chief Total Votes Received Percentage
R. Donald Maracle 819 81.0
Barbara Francis Brant 115 11.4
Andrew Clifford "Karoniakeshon" Miracle 58 5.7
Balin Hill 19 1.9
Total Valid Ballots Cast 1011 100
Number of Rejected Ballots Cast 76 --
Election for Councillors
Name of Candidate for Councillor Total Votes Received Percentage
Carl "Ted" Maracle 505 47.2
Debra "Deb" Vincent 440 41.1
Douglas E. Maracle 433 40.5
Stacia Loft 426 39.8
Josh Hill 392 36.6
Barry D. Brant 365 34.1
Chris Maracle 291 27.2
Blaine Loft 269 25.1
Pam "Maracle" Detlor 222 20.1
Barbara Francis Brant 150 14.0
Jim McMurter 142 13.3
Keith Sero 142 13.3
Cindy Thompson 127 11.9
Catherine Hill 97 9.0
Dewayne Maracle 84 7.9
Total Valid Ballots Cast 1070 100
Number of Rejected Ballots Cast 17 --

2013 election results[edit]

Election for Chief[29]
Name of Candidate for Chief Total Votes Received Percentage
R. Donald Maracle 852 63.7
Shawn Brant 358 26.8
Barbara Frances Brant 86 6.4
Corey T. Maracle 29 2.2
Isaac Balin Hill 12 9.0
Total 1337 100
Election for Councillors[29]
Name of Candidate for Councillor Total Votes Received
Carl Maracle 811
Douglas E. Maracle 803
Barry D. Brant 658
Sandra Lewis-Den Otter 488
Jennifer Brant Neepin 413
Manson Loft 413
Keith A. Sero 341
Christine Claus 330
Curtis E. Maracle 287
Melissa R. Maracle 263
Catherine Simmons 93

List of Tyendinaga Mohawk Councils (1700s-present)[edit]

Date of selection Chief Councillors Notes Ref
Before 1784 John Deserontyon [30]
Before 1835 Jacob Green By 1835, a Mr. Green had been removed as Chief. It may be a different Mr. Green.[31] [30]
Before 1836 Brant Brant, Powles Claus, Joseph Smart, Joseph Pinn, John Hill These five men wrote a letter to Sir Francis Bond Head in June 1836 in which they are identified as the chiefs. Brant, Claus, and Pinn, are then known to have sworn an oath as chiefs in April 1837. [32][30][33]
Unknown Jacob Kense [30]
October 1870 Sampson Green "Annosothkah", Archibald Culbertson, William J. W. Hill, John Loft, Seth W. Hill, Cornelius Maricle, John Claus This was the first council elected in the Territory by status Indian men over the age of 21 under the Gradual Enfranchisement Act of 1869. The term of office under that Act was 3 years, though the legislation also allowed "life chiefs" that were in power when the legislation was enacted to remain in their role until death, resignation, or removal by the Governor-General.


Sampson Green died on January 27, 1923; Archibald Culbertson died in 1892, but was removed from council in 1887; William J. W. Hill died on December 24, 1910; John Loft died in 1878; Seth W. Hill died on August 27, 1884; Cornelius Maracle died on May 28, 1920; John Claus died on February 25, 1898.

[34]
Before 1873 Thomas Green [30]
July 14, 1874 Sampson Green
  • Archibald Culbertson
  • Solomon Loft
  • John Claus
  • William Green
  • Jacob B. Brant
  • Charles Maracle
[30]
October 1876
  • William Green
  • Solomon Loft
  • Joshua Brant
  • Cornelius Maracle
  • Jacob Brant
  • William Powless
  • Archibald Culbertson
Archibald Culbertson was deposed on July 19, 1887 for "intemperance".


This was the first council elected under the Indian Act, enacted April 1876.

[30][34]
1888 Jacob B. Brant
  • Isaac Powless
  • John P. Brant
  • Solomon Loft
  • Andrew Maracle
[30]
November 25, 1891
  • Solomon Loft
  • John P. Brant
  • Joseph I. Brant
  • Abram P. Brant
Abram P. Brant was deposed in 1893, replaced by Andrew Maracle in a by-election on June 6, 1893. Andrew Maracle resigned on January 19, 1894. [30]
December 26, 1894 Sampson Green
  • Stephen Maracle
  • Solomon Loft
  • William Powless
  • Francis Claus
Isaac Powless was added to the council in a by-election in March 1894.


Solomon Loft resigned on December 28, 1896.

[30]
December 22, 1897 Daniel H. Maracle
  • Sampson Green
  • Solomon Loft
  • Stephen Maracle
  • Andrew Maracle
[30]
December 27, 1901 Andrew Maracle
  • Sampson Green
  • Daniel H. Maracle
  • James K. Hill
  • Dow Claus
[30]
December 30, 1903 Sampson Green
  • Daniel H. Maracle
  • Josiah W. Brant
  • Joseph S. Brant
  • Andrew T. C. Maracle
[30]
December 27, 1906 Dr. Acland Oronhyatekha
  • Joseph W. Brant
  • Daniel H. Maracle
  • Andrew T. C. Maracle
  • Thomas Hill
  • Sampson Green
Dr. Acland Oronhyatekha (son of the more well-known Dr. Oronhyatekha) died on July 7, 1907, and Joseph J. Hill was elected Chief Councillor in a July 26, 1907 by-election. [30]
December 29, 1909 Thomas Hill
  • Daniel H. Maracle
  • Joseph J. Hill
  • William Green Sr.
  • David J. Brant
David J. Brant was deposed on July 30, 1912 [30]
December 24, 1912 Josiah W. Brant
  • Walter A. Brant
  • Albert Maracle
  • Isaac W. Green
  • John A. Loft
Walter A. Brant died in 1914, and was replaced by Herman Claus in an October 29, 1914 by-election. [30]
December 28, 1915 Isaac Claus
  • William Sero
  • George Hill
  • Jacob M. Barnhart
  • John M. Maracle
[30]
December 20, 1918 Josiah W. Brant
  • Stephen Maracle
  • William John
  • Harry Hill
  • John Walker
[30]
December 15, 1921 John W. Maracle
  • Peter Joe Brant
  • William J. Sero
  • Nelson S. Maracle
  • Wellington Green
[30]
December 23, 1924 Peter Joe Brant
  • John W. Maracle
  • George Hill
  • David H. Barnhart
  • Herman Claus
[30]
December 28, 1927 Stephen Maracle
  • Francis John
  • David H. Barnhart
  • Herman Claus
  • Thomas Hill
[30]
December 16, 1930 David H. Barnhart
  • Peter Joe Brant
  • Clarence Brant
  • Jerry Brant
  • Andrew T. C. Maracle
[30]
December 20, 1933 Francis John
  • Herbert Brant
  • Harry Hill
  • Andrew T. C. Maracle
  • Theodore Maracle
[30]
December 21, 1936 Clinton Maracle
  • Harry M. Hill
  • Francis John
  • James C. Brant
  • Herbert J. Brant
Herbert J. Brant and Chief Frank Claus were deposed in 1940, and replaced by John A. Brant and Harry M. Hill, respectively, in a November 28, 1940 by-election [30]
Harry M. Hill
April 1941 John A. Brant
  • Abel Green
  • Harry M. Hill
  • Francis John
  • James Brant
[30]
January 1, 1942 Clifford Maracle
  • John C. Francis
  • Harry M. Hill
  • Dan H. Mara
  • Nelson S. Maracle
[30]
January 1, 1945 Nelson Green
  • Amos Brant
  • Solomon J. Brant
  • Nelson S. Maracle
  • Norway Maracle
[30]
January 1, 1948
  • Elliot Brant
  • Clarence Brant
  • Gerald Brant
  • Amos Brant
Elliot Brant died in 1950 and was replaced by Robert Melville Hill in a May 26, 1950 by-election [30]
December 21, 1951 Robert Melville Hill
  • Francis John
  • Clifford Maracle
  • Gerald Brant
  • Nelson Green
The Indian Act saw major revisions in 1951, including allowing status women to vote in band elections, and reducing the term of office from three years to two. [30]
December 18, 1953 Nelson Green
  • Carl Edward Brant
  • Mark Hill
  • William I. Hill
  • Albert A. Maracle
[30]
December 19, 1955 William Isaac Hill
  • Albert A. Maracle
  • Reginald Scero
  • Clifford Maracle
  • Francis John
[30]
December 16, 1957
  • Bennett Brant
  • Cedrick Maracle
  • George Maracle
  • Reginald Scero
[30]
December 14, 1959 Robert Melville Hill
  • Albert A. Maracle
  • Arnold J. Brant
  • John R. Brant
  • Cedrick Maracle
[30]
December 15, 1961
  • John R. Brant
  • Albert A. Maracle
  • George H. Maracle
  • Victor Brant
[30]
December 14, 1963 John R. Brant
  • Arnold J. Brant
  • Charles Maracle
  • Franklin J. Green
  • Victor Brant
[30]
December 11, 1965
  • Carl D. Brant
  • Franklin Green
  • Earl Hill
  • Ross Brant
Ross Brant resigned October 20, 1967. [30]
December 16, 1967 Earl Hill
  • Carl D. Brant
  • Nelson Green
  • Audrey Maracle
  • Charles Maracle
[30]
December 13, 1969
  • Dr. Clare Brant
  • Carl D. Brant
  • Willard Hill
  • Garnet Maracle
[30]
December 18, 1971
  • Dr. Clare Brant
  • Carl D. Brant
  • Willard Hill
  • William J. Brant
[30]
December 8, 1973 William J. Brant
  • Charles D. Brant
  • Charles Maracle
  • Elwood Brant
  • Clell Maracle
[30]
December 6, 1975
  • Donald J. Brant
  • Charles Maracle
  • Elwood Brant
  • Roger Brant
[30]
December 3, 1977 Donald R. Brant
  • Audrey Brant
  • Peter Green
  • Richard Brant
  • Elwood J. Brant
[30]
December 8, 1979 Earl Hill
  • Audrey Brant
  • Roger Brant
  • R. Donald Maracle
  • Thomas Bruce Maracle
Thomas Bruce Maracle was set aside on July 3, 1980. He then regained his seat on the council in a December 13, 1980 by-election. [30]
December 12, 1981
  • Willard H. Brant
  • Charles A. Maracle
  • Douglas E. Maracle
  • R. Donald Maracle
[30]
December 10, 1983
  • Richard E. Brant
  • Murray D. Maracle
  • Douglas E. Maracle
  • R. Donald Maracle
[30]
December 7, 1985
  • Willard H. Brant
  • Murray D. Maracle
  • Douglas E. Maracle
  • R. Donald Maracle
[30]
December 5, 1987
  • Willard H. Brant
  • Roger M. Brant
  • Douglas E. Maracle
  • R. Donald Maracle
[30]
December 9, 1989
  • Willard H. Brant
  • Douglas E. Maracle
  • Paul Green
  • Elton Brant
[30]
November 16, 1991
  • Douglas E. Maracle
  • Charles A. Maracle
  • Murray Maracle
  • R. Donald Maracle
[30]
1993 R. Donald Maracle
1995
1997
1999
2001
2003
2005
2007
2009
2011
2013
  • Carl Maracle
  • Douglas E. Maracle
  • Barry D. Brant
  • Sandra Lewis-Den Otter
[35]
2015
  • Carl (Ted) Maracle
  • Debra (Deb) Vincent
  • Douglas E. Maracle
  • Stacia Loft
2017
  • Josh Hill
  • Carl (Ted) Maracle
  • Debra Vincent
  • Stacia Loft
December 8, 2019
  • Josh Hill
  • Carl (Ted) Maracle
  • Kelly (Brant) Maracle
  • Lynda Leween
[36]

Demographics[edit]

Date Total registered population Living on-reserve Living off-reserve Living on other reserve Living on no-band crown land
July 2010[37] 7,986 2,133 -- -- --
June 2011[38] 8,075 2,017 5,940 17 1
July 2011[39] 8,097 2,121 5,958 17 1
September 2011[40] 8,141 2,124 -- -- --
November 2011[41] 8,253 2,125 6,111 17 --
March 2012[42] 8,500 2,124 6,359 17 --
April 2012[43] 8,559 2,130 6,410 17 2
November 2012[44] 8,895 2,145 6,733 17 --
March 2013[45] 9,013 2,152 6,844 17 --
July 2013[46] 9,109 2,162 6,930 17 --
October 2013[47] 9,417 2,168 6,962 17 --
August 2014[48] 9,280 2,167 7,096 17 --
April 2015[49] 9,391 2,164 7,207 17 3
June 2015[50] 9,418 2,161 7,237 17 3
August 2015[51] 9,452 2,163 7,271 18 --
October 2015[52] 9,481 2,159 7,304 18 --
February 2016[53] 9,541 2,160 7,360 18 3
March 2016[54] 9,551 2,162 7,371 18 --
February 2017[55] 9,714 2,178 7,517 18 --
November 2018[56] 9,869 2,169 7,679 18 3

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Reserve/Settlement/Village Detail". Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada. 28 March 2017. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  2. ^ a b Bruce E. Johansen; Barbara Alice Mann (2000). Encyclopedia of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois Confederacy). Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 320. ISBN 978-0-313-30880-2. Retrieved 11 December 2011.
  3. ^ a b Isaac, Ruth et al. A Spelling Worldlist of Six Nations Mohawk. Brantford: The Woodland Indian Cultural-Educational Centre, 1986. Print
  4. ^ "Cayuga: Our Oral Legacy - Home. Cayuga Digital Dictionary". Archived from the original on 2016-04-21. Retrieved 2012-05-27.
  5. ^ "Geography". Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada. 28 March 2017. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  6. ^ "Vision Statement - Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte".
  7. ^ Williams, Kayanesenh Paul (October 2018). Kayanerenkó:wa: the Great Law of Peace. University of Manitoba Press. p. 472. ISBN 978-0-88755-821-4.
  8. ^ "Cayuga: Our Oral Legacy - Home. Cayuga Digital Dictionary". Archived from the original on 2016-04-21. Retrieved 2012-05-27.
  9. ^ a b c "History of Tyendinaga". Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte. Retrieved February 25, 2011.
  10. ^ a b Magocsi, Paul R. (1999). Encyclopedia of Canada's Peoples. University of Toronto Press. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-8020-2938-6.
  11. ^ "The Elected Councilmen of 1870". MBQ Research. November 2013. Archived from the original on December 3, 2020 – via Docplayer.
  12. ^ a b "Fact Sheet - The Culbertson Tract Specific Claim". 15 September 2010. Archived from the original on 2018-06-16. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
  13. ^ a b Vogt, Roy (May 1, 1999). Whose Property?: The Deepening Conflict Between Private Property and Democracy in Canada. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0-8020-8186-5. Retrieved December 11, 2011. This book was published posthumously by the family of Roy Vogt (1934–1997). In a review of Vogt's book by Douglas Harris at the University of British Columbia, Harris said that In a review of Vogt's book by Douglas Harris at the University of British Columbia, Harris said that Vogt was "prone to unsubstantiated generalization of Canadian public opinion", particularly in relation to Aboriginal rights. Vogt's "sources and analyses end in the late 1980s". In his chapter on First Nations rights, Vogt did not "confront how to protect minority rights in a democracy". Vogt did not discuss how "democratically elected governments of settler societies minimized and in some cases ignored First Nations property rights".
  14. ^ "Tyendinaga and The Struggle for the Land—Ontario Coalition Against Poverty". Ocap.ca. Retrieved 2011-12-12.
  15. ^ Cassidy, Frank; Bish, Robert L. (1989). Indian government: its meaning in practice. IRPP. pp. 36–40. ISBN 978-0-88982-095-1. Retrieved 11 December 2011.
  16. ^ "Mohawk Community Demands Return of Stolen Culbertson Tract". Mostly Water. 2007-03-21. Archived from the original on 2011-11-23. Retrieved 2011-12-12.
  17. ^ Catalogue of Culbertson Tract Land Claim documents collection
  18. ^ "Quinte News – Mohawks Want Culbertson Land Returned". Quintenews.com. Retrieved 2011-12-12.
  19. ^ Land Symposium report (Report).
  20. ^ "Federal court rules on Culbertson land claim", Quinte News, June 2013
  21. ^ ""Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte v. Canada (Indian Affairs and Northern Development), 2013 FC 669 (CanLII)"" (PDF).
  22. ^ a b c Alhmidi, Maan (January 7, 2021). "Ontario First Nation hopes new funding will end water advisories". National Observer. Retrieved March 3, 2021.
  23. ^ Canada, Indigenous Services (2020-12-17). "Canada and Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte announce funding to improve access to safe drinking water for the community" (news releases). gcnws. Retrieved 2021-03-03.
  24. ^ a b "Canada and Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte announce funding to improve access to safe drinking water for the community" (news releases). Indigenous Services Canada (ISC). December 17, 2020. Retrieved March 3, 2021.
  25. ^ "Tyendinaga Mohawk Council - Introduction". Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte - Tyendinaga Mohawk Territory. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  26. ^ "Leadership selection in First Nations". Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada. 19 October 2016. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  27. ^ "Message to the Community Regarding Indian Act Elections, Custom Election Code and First Nation Elections Act (FNEA)". Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte. 9 March 2018. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  28. ^ "R Don Maracle returns as chief". Quinte News. 8 Dec 2019. Retrieved 30 May 2020.
  29. ^ a b "Maracle wins Tyendinaga election". The Kingston Whig-Standard. 9 December 2013. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw "Chiefs and Councillors - Ontario Region" (PDF). Government of Canada Publications: 278–283. November 11, 1993.
  31. ^ "Address of the Mohawks to the Lieutenant-Governor, referring to the removal of Old Mr Green as a chief, requesting the removal of the white people and the installation of a Court of Requests in the Mohawk village with William Portt as a fit and proper person to be a commissioner of the peace (he had learnt their language and had been adopted into the tribe), being grateful for soon to be having a minister of the gospel resident among them. Signed by 47 men. [1835 has been written on the document. 4pp.]". Catalogue of Culbertson Tract Land Claim documents collection, ID: TD/CTLC 105. Town of Deseronto Archives Department.
  32. ^ "Petition to Sir Francis Bond Head from the Mohawk chiefs asking for votes in the forthcoming election, dated at Tyendinaga, 16 June 1836. Signed with the marks of Brant Brant, Powles Claus, Joseph Smart, Joseph Pinn, John Hill. 2pp.". Catalogue of Culbertson Tract Land Claim documents collection, ID: TD/CTLC 123. Town of Deseronto Archives Department.
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External links[edit]