Mohtaram Eskandari

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Mohtaram Eskandari (1895 – July 27, 1924)[1] (Persian: محترم اسکندری‎‎) was an Iranian intellectual and a pioneer of the Iranian women's movement. She was the co-founder and first leader of Jam'iyat-e Nesvan-e Vatankhah, the first women's rights association in Persia.[2][3]

Eskandari was born into a liberal, intellectually vibrant and politically active family. Her father taught at Dar ul-Funun.[4] Eskandari received an education in Persian and French literature under the supervision of Mirza Mohammad Ali Khan Mohaqqeqi. Eskandari and Mohaqqeqi would later marry.

As an adult, Eskandari served as the director of a state school for girls. Her dissatisfaction with the state of women's rights in Persia after the Constitutional Revolution, led her to establish Jam'iyat-e Nesvan-e Vatankhah, "Patriotic Women's League of Iran," in 1922, which uniquely molded together feminism and Iranian nationalism.

Eskandari died at the age of twenty-nine, due to complications from a back surgery she had undergone as a child.[4]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ [1][dead link]
  2. ^ Sanasarian, Eliz. The Women's Rights Movements in Iran, Praeger, New York: 1982, ISBN 0-03-059632-7.
  3. ^ Afary, Janet. The Iranian Constitutional Revolution, 1906 - 1911, Columbia University Press, 1996.
  4. ^ a b "ESKANDARĪ, MOḤTARAM". Encyclopaedia Iranica. January 19, 2012. Retrieved March 1, 2016.