|5th Prime Minister of the Democratic Republic of the Congo|
10 July 1964 – 13 October 1965
|Preceded by||Cyrille Adoula|
|Succeeded by||Évariste Kimba|
|President of Katanga|
11 July 1960 – 21 January 1963
|Preceded by||Position established|
|Succeeded by||Position abolished|
|Born||10 November 1919|
Musumba, Belgian Congo
(Now Lualaba Province, Congo-Kinshasa)
|Died||29 June 1969 (aged 49)|
El Biar, Algiers, Algeria
Moïse Kapend Tshombe (sometimes written Tshombé) (10 November 1919 – 29 June 1969) was a Congolese businessman and politician. He served as the president of the secessionist State of Katanga from 1960 to 1963 and as prime minister of the Democratic Republic of the Congo from 1964 to 1965.
A member of the Lunda ethnic group, Tshombe was born near Musumba, Belgian Congo, the son of a successful businessman. He received his education from an American missionary school and later trained as an accountant. In the 1950s, he took over a chain of stores in Katanga Province and became involved in politics.
Along with Godefroid Munongo, he founded the Confédération des associations tribales du Katanga (CONAKAT) party. CONAKAT promoted a federal Congo independent of the Belgian colonial empire.
President of Katanga
CONAKAT won control of the Katanga provincial legislature in the May 1960 general elections. One month later, the Congo became an independent republic. Tshombe became President of the autonomous province of Katanga. Patrice Lumumba was tasked with forming a national government. Members of his party, the Mouvement National Congolais, were given charge of the portfolios of national defence and interior, despite Tshombe's objections. The portfolio for economic affairs was awarded to a CONAKAT member, but this was undercut by the positioning of nationalists in control of the Ministry and Secretariat for Economic Coordination. Mines and land affairs were placed under separate portfolios. Tshombe declared that this diluting of CONAKAT's influence rendered his agreement to support the government "null and void".
On the evening of 11 July, Tshombe, accusing the central government of communist leanings and dictatorial rule, announced that Katanga was seceding from the Congo. Favoring continued ties with Belgium, he asked the Belgian government to send military officers to recruit and train a Katangese army.
Tshombe demanded United Nations recognition for independent Katanga, and he announced that any intervention by UN troops would be met with force. Nonetheless, Congolese Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba and his successor, Cyrille Adoula, successfully requested intervention from UN forces. UN forces were sent under the direction of UN Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjöld.
France, wishing to take advantage of Katangese minerals, sent to Tshombe the reinforcement of the mercenary Bob Denard and his men. It was supported by the networks of Jacques Foccart, the "Mr. Africa" of the French government.
Lumumba's government was dissolved, and Lumumba taken prisoner by Mobutu and detained at Camp Hardy in Thysville. Harold Charles d'Aspremont Lynden (Belgian minister for African Affairs) sent a highly confidential telegram on 16 January 1961 to the government in Léopoldville (President Joseph Kasa-Vubu and Mobutu) to send Lumumba to Katanga. That would have stemmed from Lumumba's increasing popularity among soldiers, who might release him. Meanwhile, soldier mutinies and unrest increased by the day, at Prison Camp Hardy in Thysville. The telegram has still not been shown to exist.
Whilst being flown in a Sabena Douglas DC-4 plane to Katanga, Lumumba was beaten by the Congolese soldiers escorting him. In custody in Katanga, Lumumba was visited by Katangese notables and Belgian officers, who included Tshombe, Godefroid Munongo, Kibwe, Kitenge, Grandelet, Son, Gat, Huyghé, Tignée, Verscheure, Segers and Rougefort. Lumumba's execution, on 17 January, was carried out by a firing squad led by a Belgian mercenary, Julien Gat.
Prime Minister of the Congo
In 1963, UN forces succeeded in suppressing Katanga, driving Tshombe into exile in Northern Rhodesia, later to Spain. In July 1964, he returned to the Congo to serve as prime minister in a new coalition government. His cabinet was sworn in on 10 July. Tshombe's national support was derived from the backing of provincial political bosses, customary chiefs, and foreign financial interests. Among his first acts in office were the lifting of a curfew in Léopoldville, the release of 600 political prisoners—including Antoine Gizenga, and the ordering of Katangese gendarmes to return from their exile in Angola to the Congo and join the national army. In a New Year's message at the beginning of 1965, Tshombe rejected conciliation with the Simba rebels and called for their total defeat.
Tshombe formed the federalist Convention Nationale Congolaise (CONACO), a bloc of forty-nine parties for the 1965 general election. The party won comfortably gaining 38 seats with the alliance as a whole winning 122 seats. Despite this victory Tshombe was dismissed from his position as Prime Minister in October 1965 by President Kasa-Vubu and replaced by Évariste Kimba. In November, General Joseph Mobutu, who had just staged a successful coup against Kasa-Vubu, brought charges of treason against Tshombe, who again fled the country and settled in Francoist Spain.
In 1967, Tshombe was sentenced to death in absentia.
On 30 June 1967, he was in a Hawker Siddeley jet aircraft that was hijacked by Francis Bodenan, an agent of the French SDECE. According to the Congolese government, Tshombe was travelling to Africa. He was taken to Algeria, jailed, and placed under house arrest. At his trial, he was represented by French lawyer René Floriot. The pilots of the plane, Britons Trevor Copleston and David Taylor, were released and returned to the United Kingdom. The Congolese government demanded his extradition to Congo and his Western supporters agitated for his release. The Algerians resisted both demands. A part of his supporters gathered to form the Tshombe Emergency Committee in the U.S., including Marvin Liebman and William F. Buckley, to press for his release and move to Spain. Long-time aide Michel Struelens travelled to different European cities to lobby for Tshombe, eventually to no avail.
Death and legacy
Tshombe died in Algeria in 1969. The Algerian government called in eight Algerian physicians and three French doctors, who concluded that he died in his sleep. Later, an autopsy concluded a natural death. Tshombe's nephew Joseph Kayomb Tshombe stipulated that no medical doctor chosen by the Tshombe family was admitted at the autopsy. Further doubts have been raised regarding Tshombe's death by former governor of Katanga and political exile Daniel Monguya Mbenge, who accused French lawyer Jacques Vergès of poisoning Tshombe by order of Mobutu. Finally, in the context of a series of interviews regarding a conspiracy theory about the assassination of US President John F. Kennedy, Belgian mercenary Joseph Smal told author Stephen J. Rivele that Tshombe was killed by two injections with two different substances, prepared by the CIA.
Moïse Tshombe was buried in a Methodist service at Etterbeek Cemetery, near Brussels, Belgium. Owing to his role in the death of Lumumba and his association with Western interests, Tshombe's name became synonymous with "sellout" to black African nationalists.[a]
The plot of the 1978 war film The Wild Geese is based in part on speculation that Tshombe's plane had initially been diverted to Rhodesia before being sent to Algeria. The film's characters Col. Allen Faulkner and President Julius Limbani were largely based on Tshombe and his military ally Maj. "Mad Mike" Hoare. Tshombe's nephew, Jean Nguza Karl-i-Bond, later became an important politician and served as prime minister from 1980 to 1981.
- The Congo from Leopold to Kabila, Georges Nzongola-Ntalaja, 2002, ISBN 1-84277-053-5, accessed February 2009
- "Congo (Kinshasa) provinces". www.rulers.org. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
- Hoskyns 1965, p. 79.
- Gérard-Libois 1966, p. 85.
- Hoskyns 1965, p. 99.
- "Katanga Premier Warns U.N. Force" (PDF). The New York Times. Reuters. 21 July 1960. Retrieved 10 January 2016.
- Wauthier, Claude (2002). "Jacques Foccart et les mauvais conseils de Félix Houphouët-Boigny". Cahiers du Centre de recherches historiques (in French). 30. Retrieved 28 May 2021.
- The Assassination of Lumumba, Ludo De Witte, 2003, ISBN 1-85984-410-3
- O'Ballance 1999, p. 70.
- Semonin 1968, p. 20.
- O'Ballance 1999, p. 85.
- Gibbs, David N. (1991). The Political Economy of Third World Intervention. University of Chicago Press. pp. 152, 167–168. ISBN 0-226-29071-9.
- Floriot loses one, Time magazine, July 28, 1967.
- Burke, Kyle (2018). Revolutionaries for the Right: Anticommunist Internationalism and Paramilitary Warfare in the Cold War. The University of North Carolina Press. p. 47. ISBN 9781469640730.
- Freiherr von Müllenheim-Rechberg, Burkard (1998). Entführung und Tod des Moïse Tshombe: Das Ende einer Hoffnung für den Kongo. LIT. pp. 72–73. ISBN 3-8258-3940-0.
- "Algeria: End in Captivity". Time. 1969. Retrieved 12 October 2021.
- Kayomb Tshombe, Joseph (1997). Le rapt de Tshombe: La mise à mort du leader congolais. Brussels: Quorum. p. 102. ISBN 9782873990206.
- Monguya Mbenge, Daniel (1977). Histoire secrète du Zaïre: L'autopsie de la barbarie au service du monde. Brussels: Editions de l’espérance. p. 127.
- "Report by Steve Rivele on Second European trip, January, 1986" (PDF). p. 9.
- "Tshombe is Buried in Brussels; Sons Weep at His Grave". The New York Times. UPI. 6 July 1969. p. 6. Retrieved 18 January 2016.
- Sibanda 2005, p. 116.
- Fouéré 2015, p. 158.
- Pekeshe, Munhamu (15 January 2015). "Tshombe, Geneva and détente in the village". The Patriot. Retrieved 15 May 2018.
- "Mercenary 'Mad Mike' Hoare dies aged 100," www.bbc.com, 3 February 2020. Retrieved 26 February 2020.
- Akyeampong & Gates 2012, p. 299.
- Frankel, Benjamin (ed.), The Cold War, 1945-1991: Leaders and other important figures in the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, China, and the Third World, p. 339
- Akyeampong, Emmanuel Kwaku; Gates, Henry Louis, eds. (2012). Dictionary of African Biography. 3. New York: Oxford University Press USA. ISBN 978-0-19-538207-5.
- Fouéré, Marie-Aude, ed. (2015). Remembering Julius Nyerere in Tanzania: History, Memory, Legacy (illustrated, reprint ed.). Mkuki na Nyota Publishers. ISBN 9789987753260.
- Gérard-Libois, Jules (1966). Katanga Secession (translated ed.). Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press. OCLC 477435.
- Hoskyns, Catherine (1965). The Congo Since Independence: January 1960 – December 1961. London: Oxford University Press. OCLC 414961.
- Kanza, Thomas R. (1994). The Rise and Fall of Patrice Lumumba: Conflict in the Congo (expanded ed.). Rochester, VT: Schenkman Books, Inc. ISBN 0-87073-901-8.
- O'Ballance, Edgar (1999). The Congo-Zaire Experience, 1960–98. Basingstoke, England: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-28648-1.
- Semonin, Paul (January 1968). "Mobutu and the Congolese". The World Today. 24 (1): 20–29. JSTOR 40394031.
- Sibanda, Eliakim M. (2005). The Zimbabwe African People's Union, 1961-87: A Political History of Insurgency in Southern Rhodesia (illustrated ed.). Africa World Press. ISBN 9781592212767.
- Colvin, Ian. The rise and fall of Moise Tshombe: A biography (Frewin, 1968).
- De Witte, Ludo (2003). The Assassination of Lumumba. Verso. ISBN 1-85984-410-3.
- Gibbs, David N. "Dag Hammarskjöld, the United Nations, and the Congo Crisis of 1960–1: a reinterpretation." Journal of Modern African Studies 31.1 (1993): 163-174. online
- Kalb, Madeleine G. The Congo cables: the cold war in Africa--from Eisenhower to Kennedy (1982).
- Mazrui, Ali A. "Moise Tshombe and the Arabs: 1960 to 1968." Race 10.3 (1969): 285-304.
- O'Brien, Conor Cruise. "The UN, Congo and Tshombe." Transition 15 (1964): 29-31. online