In Moldova Veche village, evidence of human habitation dating to the transition between the Neolithic and the Bronze Age has been found. Additionally, there exist traces of an unfortified Dacian settlement, similar to several others in the area. In Roman Dacia, a castrum located in the village supervised mining and navigation on the Danube. Vestiges from the Dark Ages and the Early Middle Ages have been found; during the 10th and 11th centuries, the area was controlled by Glad and later Ahtum.
In 1552, when the Banat fell under Ottoman rule, Moldova Veche became the capital of a sanjak within the Temeşvar Eyalet. In 1566, at the end of Suleiman the Magnificent's reign, coins of gold (altâni) and silver (aspri) were minted there. A document of 1588 records the place under the name Mudava; this is the earliest written mention. The Dacian-origin toponym is still used by locals. In 1718, the area came under the Habsburg Monarchy's control.
The village was absorbed into Moldova Nouă in 1956. It is the site of a Danube port.