|This article needs additional citations for verification. (January 2012)|
Molecular genetics is the field of biology and genetics that studies the structure and function of genes at a molecular level. Molecular genetics employs the methods of genetics and molecular biology to elucidate molecular function and interactions among genes. It is so called to differentiate it from other sub fields of genetics such as ecological genetics and population genetics.
Along with determining the pattern of descendants, molecular genetics helps in understanding developmental biology, genetic mutations that can cause certain types of diseases. Through utilizing the methods of genetics and molecular biology, molecular genetics discovers the reasons why traits are carried on and how and why some may mutate.
- 1 Forward genetics
- 2 Reverse genetics
- 3 Gene therapy
- 4 Techniques in molecular genetics
- 5 The Human Genome Project
- 6 See also
- 7 Sources and notes
- 8 External links
- 9 Further reading
One of the first tools available to molecular geneticists is the forward genetic screen. The aim of this technique is to identify mutations that produce a certain phenotype. A mutagen is very often used to accelerate this process. Once mutants have been isolated, the mutated genes can be molecularly identified.
Forward saturation genetics is a method for treating organisms with a mutagen, then screens the organism's offspring for particular phenotypes. This type of genetic screening is used to find and identify all the genes involved in a trait.
While forward genetic screens are productive, a more straightforward approach is to simply determine the phenotype that results from mutating a given gene. This is called reverse genetics. In some organisms, such as yeast and mice, it is possible to induce the deletion of a particular gene, creating what's known as a gene "knockout" - the laboratory origin of so-called "knockout mice" for further study. In other words this process involves the creation of transgenic organisms that do not express a gene of interest. Alternative methods of reverse genetic research include the random induction of DNA deletions and subsequent selection for deletions in a gene of interest, as well as the application of RNA interference.
A mutation in a gene can result in a severe medical condition. A protein encoded by a mutated gene may malfunction and cells that rely on the protein might therefore fail to function properly. This can cause problems for specific tissues or organs, or for the entire body. This might manifest through the course of development (like a cleft palate) or as an abnormal response to stimuli (like a peanut allergy). Conditions related to gene mutations are called genetic disorders. One way to fix such a physiological problem is gene therapy. By adding a corrected copy of the gene, a functional form of the protein can be produced, and affected cells, tissues, and organs may work properly. As opposed to drug-based approaches, gene therapy repairs the underlying genetic defect.
One form of gene therapy is the process of treating or alleviating diseases by genetically modifying the cells of the affected person with a new gene that's functioning properly. When a human disease gene has been recognized molecular genetics tools can be used to explore the process of the gene in both its normal and mutant states. From there, geneticists engineer a new gene that is working correctly. Then the new gene is transferred either in vivo or ex vivo and the body begins to make proteins according to the instructions in that gene. Gene therapy has to be repeated several times for the infected patient to continually be relieved, however, as repeated cell division and cell death slowly randomizes the body's ratio of functional-to-mutant genes.
Currently, gene therapy is still being experimented with and products are not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. There have been several setbacks in the last 15 years that have restricted further developments in gene therapy. As there are unsuccessful attempts, there continue to be a growing number of successful gene therapy transfers which have furthered the research.
Major diseases that can be treated with gene therapy include viral infections, cancers, and inherited disorders, including immune system disorders.
Classical gene therapy
Classical gene therapy is the approach which delivers genes, via a modified virus or "vector" to the appropriate target cells with a goal of attaining optimal expression of the new, introduced gene. Once inside the patient, the expressed genes are intended to produce a product that the patient lacks, kill diseased cells directly by producing a toxin, or activate the immune system to help the killing of diseased cells.
Nonclassical gene therapy
Nonclassical gene therapy inhibits the expression of genes related to pathogenesis, or corrects a genetic defect and restores normal gene expression.
In vivo gene transfer
During In vivo gene transfer, the genes are transferred directly into the tissue of the patient and this can be the only possible option in patients with tissues where individual cells cannot be cultured in vitro in sufficient numbers (e.g. brain cells). Also, in vivo gene transfer is necessary when cultured cells cannot be re-implanted in patients effectively.
Ex vivo gene transfer
During ex vivo gene transfer the cells are cultured outside the body and then the genes are transferred into the cells grown in culture. The cells that have been transformed successfully are expanded by cell culture and then introduced into the patient.
Principles for gene transfer
Classical gene therapies usually require efficient transfer of cloned genes into the disease cells so that the introduced genes are expressed at sufficiently high levels to change the patient's physiology. There are several different physicochemical and biological methods that can be used to transfer genes into human cells. The size of the DNA fragments that can be transferred is very limited, and often the transferred gene is not a conventional gene. Horizontal gene transfer is the transfer of genetic material from one cell to another that is not its offspring. Artificial horizontal gene transfer is a form of genetic engineering.
Techniques in molecular genetics
There are three general techniques used for molecular genetics: amplification, separation and detection, and expression. Specifically used for amplification is polymerase chain reaction, which is an "indispensable tool in a great variety of applications". In the separation and detection technique DNA and mRNA are isolated from their cells. Gene expression in cells or organisms is done in a place or time that is not normal for that specific gene.
Gene amplification is a procedure in which a certain gene set or single gene is duplicated multiple times in specific cells in response to defined signals. There are other methods for amplification besides the polymerase chain reaction. Cloning DNA in bacteria is also a way to amplify DNA in genes.
Polymerase chain reaction
The main materials used in the polymerase chain reaction are DNA nucleotides, template DNA, primers and Taq polymerase. DNA nucleotides are the base for the new DNA, the template DNA is the specific sequence being amplified, primers are complementary nucleotides that can go on either side of the template DNA, and Taq polymerase is a heat stable enzyme that jump-starts the production of new DNA at the high temperatures needed for reaction. This technique does not need to use living bacteria or cells; all that is needed is the base sequence of the DNA and materials listed above.
Cloning DNA in bacteria
The word cloning for this type of amplification entails making multiple identical copies of a sequence of DNA. The target DNA sequence is then inserted into a cloning vector. Because this vector originates from a self-replicating virus, plasmid, or higher organism cell when the appropriate size DNA is inserted the "target and vector DNA fragments are then ligated" and create a recombinant DNA molecule. The recombinant DNA molecules are then put into a bacteria strain (usually E. coli) which produces several identical copies by transformation. Transformation is the DNA uptake mechanism possessed by bacteria. However, only one recombinant DNA molecule can be cloned within a single bacteria cell, so each clone is of just one DNA insert.
Separation and detection
In separation and detection DNA and mRNA are isolated from cells (the separation) and then detected simply by the isolation. Cell cultures are also grown to provide a constant supply of cells ready for isolation.
A cell culture for molecular genetics is a culture that is grown in artificial conditions. Some cell types grow well in cultures such as skin cells, but other cells are not as productive in cultures. There are different techniques for each type of cell, some only recently being found to foster growth in stem and nerve cells. Cultures for molecular genetics are frozen in order to preserve all copies of the gene specimen and thawed only when needed. This allows for a steady supply of cells.
DNA isolation extracts DNA from a cell in a pure form. First, the DNA is separated from cellular components such as proteins, RNA, and lipids. This is done by placing the chosen cells in a tube with a solution that mechanically, chemically, breaks the cells open. This solution contains enzymes, chemicals, and salts that breaks down the cells except for the DNA. It contains enzymes to dissolve proteins, chemicals to destroy all RNA present, and salts to help pull DNA out of the solution.
Next, the DNA is separated from the solution by being spun in a centrifuge, which allows the DNA to collect in the bottom of the tube. After this cycle in the centrifuge the solution is poured off and the DNA is resuspended in a second solution that makes the DNA easy to work with in the future.
Expressed DNA that codes for the synthesis of a protein is the final goal for scientists and this expressed DNA is obtained by isolating mRNA (Messenger RNA). First, laboratories use a normal cellular modification of mRNA that adds up to 200 adenine nucleotides to the end of the molecule (poly(A) tail). Once this has been added, the cell is ruptured and its cell contents are exposed to synthetic beads that are coated with thymine string nucleotides. Because Adenine and Thymine pair together in DNA, the poly(A) tail and synthetic beads are attracted to one another, and once they bind in this process the cell components can be washed away without removing the mRNA. Once the mRNA has been isolated, reverse transcriptase is employed to convert it to single-stranded DNA, from which a stable double-stranded DNA is produced using DNA polymerase. Complementary DNA (cDNA) is much more stable than mRNA and so, once the double-stranded DNA has been produced it represents the expressed DNA sequence scientists look for.
The Human Genome Project
The Human Genome Project is a molecular genetics project that began in the 1990s and was projected to take fifteen years to complete. However, because of technological advances the progress of the project was advanced and the project finished in 2003, taking only thirteen years. The project was started by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health in an effort to reach six set goals. These goals included:
- identifying 20,000 to 25,000 genes in human DNA (although initial estimates were approximately 100,000 genes),
- determining sequences of chemical base pairs in human DNA,
- storing all found information into databases,
- improving the tools used for data analysis,
- transferring technologies to private sectors, and
- addressing the ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) that may arise from the projects.
The project was worked on by eighteen different countries including the United States, Japan, France, Germany, and the United Kingdom. The collaborative effort resulted in the discovery of the many benefits of molecular genetics. Discoveries such as molecular medicine, new energy sources and environmental applications, DNA forensics, and livestock breeding, are only a few of the benefits that molecular genetics can provide.
- Complementation (genetics)
- Differential Susceptibility
- DNA damage (naturally occurring)
- DNA damage theory of aging
- DNA repair
- DNA repair-deficiency disorder
- DNA replication
- Gene mapping
- Genetic code
- Genetic recombination
- Genomic imprinting
- History of genetics
- Homologous recombination
- Nucleic acid sequence
- Phage group
- Regulation of gene expression
- Semiconservative replication
- Timeline of the history of genetics
- Transformation (genetics)
Sources and notes
- (PDF) http://bio.lmu.de/~parsch/evogen/ForRevGen.pdf. Missing or empty
- http://www.ufrgs.br/imunovet/molecular_immunology/genetherapy.html#non conventional gene therapy
- http://www.ufrgs.br/imunovet/molecular_immunology/genetherapy.html#In vivo gene
- http://www.ufrgs.br/imunovet/molecular_immunology/genetherapy.html#Ex vivo gene therapy
- *Human Molecular Genetics
- Mosby's Medical Dictionary (8th ed.). Elsevier. 2009.
- Ramsden, Jeremy J (2009). Bioinformatics: An Introduction. New York: Springer. p. 191. ISBN 978-1-84800-256-2.
- Human Genome
- Sites and databases related to genetics, cytogenetics and oncology, at Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
- Jeremy W. Dale and Simon F. Park. 2010. Molecular Genetics of Bacteria, 5th Edition ISBN 978-0470741849