From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Sea Grape
Molgula oculata 001.png
Molgula oculata; a) branchial orifice; b) atrial orifice
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Tunicata
Class: Ascidiacea
Order: Stolidobranchia
Family: Molgulidae
Genus: Molgula
  • Anurella Lacaze-Duthiers, 1877
  • Ascopera Herdman, 1881
  • Astropera Pizon, 1898
  • Caesira Flemming, 1822
  • Ctenicella Lacaze-Duthiers, 1877
  • Cystingia Macleay, 1825
  • Eugyriopsis Roule, 1885
  • Euritteria Huntsman, 1922
  • Gymnocystis Giard, 1872
  • Lithonephria Giard, 1872 (misspelling)
  • Lithonephrya Giard, 1872
  • Meristocarpus Pizon, 1899
  • Mogula Kirkpatrick, 1905 (misspelling)
  • Molgulidium Seeliger, 1907
  • Molgulina Hartmeyer, 1914
  • Pera Stimpson, 1852
  • Syphonotethis Gervais, 1840
  • Xenomolgula Arnback, 1931

Sea Grapes or Molgula sp. are very common, globular, individual marine tunicates roughly the size of grapes.[1]

They are translucent with two protruding siphons. They are found subtidally, attached to slow-moving submerged objects or organisms.

In the western Atlantic Ocean, they range from the Arctic to North Carolina, to the center of the United States Eastern Seaboard.[2]



  1. ^ a b Sanamyan, K.; Monniot, C. (2012). Molgula Forbes, 1848. In: Noa Shenkar, Arjan Gittenberger, Gretchen Lambert, Marc Rius, Rosana Moreira Da Rocha, Billie J Swalla, Xavier Turon (2012) Ascidiacea World Database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at on 2012-02-26
  2. ^ Andrew J. Martinez (2003). Marine Life of the North Atlantic: Canada to New England. Aqua Quest Publications. ISBN 9781881652328. Retrieved 2007-02-17. 
  • Howson, C. M.; Picton, B. E. (Ed.) (1997). The species directory of the marine fauna and flora of the British Isles and surrounding seas. Ulster Museum Publication, 276. The Ulster Museum: Belfast, UK. ISBN 0-948150-06-8. vi, 508 (+ cd-rom) pp.
  • Monniot, C. (2001). Ascidiacea & Sorberacea, in: Costello, M. J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50: pp. 352-355
  • Sanamyan, K. (2007). Database of extant Ascidiacea. Version of 2 November 2007