Moluccans

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Moluccans
Molukkers / Molucano / Orang Maluku
Gerryreyaan tari-lenso.jpg
Lenço (Handkerchief) Dance
Total population
(approx 3,900,000)
Regions with significant populations
Indonesia
(Maluku, Jakarta, East Java, North Sulawesi, West Papua)
The Netherlands
Australia
Germany
Canada
Italy
United Kingdom
United States
Austria
Languages
Native languages of the Central–Eastern Malayo-Polynesian languages group such as the Dawera-Daweloor language and Taliabo language; also Indonesian (official purpose/as medium of communication to non-Moluccan Indonesians/home or instructional medium language especially for the younger generations), while those living in the diaspora speak; English, German and Dutch
Religion
Protestantism (Moluccan Evangelical Church, Protestant Church of Maluku), Sunni Islam, Roman Catholicism, Hinduism.
Related ethnic groups
European, Arabian, Melanesians, Papuan people

Moluccans refer to the original, indigenous inhabitants of the Maluku Islands, also called the Moluccas, which have been part of Indonesia since 1950. Moluccans are a blanket term for many ethnic and linguistic groups inhabiting the island groups.

Moluccans were originally Melanesian in origin.[1] However, a long history of trade and seafaring has resulted in a high degree of mixed blood ancestry among Moluccans.[2] Austronesian peoples added to the native Melanesian population around 2000 BCE.[3] Melanesian features are strongest in the islands of Kei and Aru and amongst the interior people of Seram and Buru islands.

Later added to this Austronesian-Melanesian mix were Dutch, Chinese, Portuguese, Spanish, Arabian and English genes due to colonization and marriage with foreign traders in the Middle Ages or with European soldiers during World War. Small number of German descendants added to Moluccan population especially in Ambon along with arrival of Protestant Missionaries since 15th[citation needed] century.

A small population of Moluccans (~45000[4]) live in the Netherlands. This group mainly consists of the descendants of KNIL soldiers who had originally planned to come the Netherlands only temporarily, but were eventually forced to stay. (See Moluccan diaspora.) The remainder consists of Moluccans serving in the Dutch navy and their descendants, as well as some who came to the Netherlands from western New Guinea after it was handed over to Indonesia.[4] However, the vast majority of Moluccans still live in the Moluccas and the other surrounding region such as Papua, West Timor, North Sulawesi, Bali and Java.

History[edit]

After the Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies during World War II, the Netherlands wanted to restore the old colonial situation. The indigenous Indonesians were against it. However, led by rebels and Soekarno, a struggle for independence broke out between 1945 and 1949. The reconstituted Royal Netherlands East Indies Army (KNIL) was commissioned by the Dutch government to maintain order and to disarm the rebels. Moluccan professional soldiers formed an important part of this army. The Moluccan community was thus regarded by the Dutch as allies and vice versa. The government of the Netherlands had promised them that they would get their own free state in return for assisting the Netherlands. After international efforts could not support the Netherlands to maintain its colony, the Dutch government could no longer keep its promise to the Moluccans for a free state. The Moluccans, who were seen by the Indonesians as collaborators, had to go to the Netherlands. Moluccans who served in the command of KNIL would reside temporarily in the Netherlands. The Moluccans were then housed in camps in the Netherlands, including the former Westerbork transit camp.

The Dutch Moluccans had repeatedly drawn the attention of the Dutch government to their claim for a free Republic of South Maluku (Republik Maluku Selatan or RMS) state of which the Dutch government had promised earlier. In the 1970s this escalated more and more. One of the methods to gain attention on the matter was through the violent hijackings of 1975 Dutch train hostage crisis in De Punt, Wijster, where hostages were taken, and the train hijackers were killed.

Language[edit]

The Moluccans speak over a hundred different languages, with a majority of them belonging to the Central Malayo-Polynesian languages, especially the Central Moluccan languages. An important exception is the island of Halmahera and its surrounding islands, where the majority of the population speak West Papuan languages. Another exception is the Ambonese Malay or Ambonese language, one of the Malay-based creole languages, spoken mainly on Ambon and the nearby Ceram.

Religion[edit]

The Moluccans in the northern Moluccas (present province of North Maluku) are mainly Muslim and the Moluccans in the central and southern Moluccas (present day Maluku (province)) are mainly Christians.

The religions that are most often espoused by Moluccans in the Netherlands are the Protestant faith and, to a lesser extent, Islam.

There are significant number of native Hindu followers in Kei Islands although the region is predominately Catholic.

Notable people[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Irian Jaya - Anthropological and Historical Perspective". IRJA.org. Archived from the original on 1999-10-09. 
  2. ^ Witton, Patrick (2003). Indonesia. Melbourne: Lonely Planet. p. 818. ISBN 1-74059-154-2. 
  3. ^ Taylor, Jean Gelman (2003). Indonesia: Peoples and Histories. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. pp. 5–7. ISBN 0-300-10518-5. 
  4. ^ a b Beets et al., Demografische ontwikkeling van de Molukse bevolkingsgroep in Nederland