|3D model (Jmol)||Interactive image|
|Molar mass||160.07 g/mol|
|Melting point||1,185 °C (2,165 °F; 1,458 K) decomposes|
|Solubility||decomposed by aqua regia, hot sulfuric acid, nitric acid
insoluble in dilute acids
|Band gap||1.23 eV (3R), 1.23 eV (2H)|
|hP6, space group P6
3/mmc, No 194 (2H)
a = 0.3161 nm (2H), 0.3163 nm (3R), c = 1.2295 nm (2H), 1.837 (3R)
|Trigonal prismatic (MoIV)
|Safety data sheet||External MSDS|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
The compound is classified as a metal dichalcogenide. It is a silvery black solid that occurs as the mineral molybdenite, the principal ore for molybdenum. MoS
2 is relatively unreactive. It is unaffected by dilute acids and oxygen. In appearance and feel, molybdenum disulfide is similar to graphite. It is widely used as a solid lubricant because of its low friction properties and robustness. Bulk MoS
2 is a diamagnetic, indirect bandgap semiconductor similar to silicon, with a bandgap of 1.23 eV.
- 1 Production
- 2 Structure and physical properties
- 3 Chemical reactions
- 4 Applications
- 5 Research
- 6 See also
- 7 References
Molybdenite ore is processed by flotation to give relatively pure MoS
2, the main contaminant being carbon. MoS
2 also arises by the thermal treatment of virtually all molybdenum compounds with hydrogen sulfide or elemental sulfur and can be produced by metathesis reactions from molybdenum pentachloride.
Structure and physical properties
2 usually consists of a mixture of two major polytypes of similar structure, 2H and 3R, with the former being more abundant. In 2H-MoS
2, each Mo(IV) center occupies a trigonal prismatic coordination sphere that is bound to six sulfide ligands. Each sulfur centre is pyramidal and is connected to three Mo centres. In this way, the trigonal prisms are interconnected to give a layered structure, wherein molybdenum atoms are sandwiched between layers of sulfur atoms. Because of the weak van der Waals interactions between the sheets of sulfide atoms, MoS
2 has a low coefficient of friction, producing its lubricating properties. Other layered inorganic materials exhibit lubricating properties (collectively known as solid lubricants (or dry lubricants)) include graphite, which requires volatile additives, and hexagonal boron nitride.
Much research is focused on unusual morphologies of MoS2. Multilayer sheets are produced by liquid phase exfoliation. Nanotube-like and buckyball-like molecules composed of MoS
2 are known.
The natural amorphous form is known as the rarer mineral jordisite.
- 2 MoS
2 + 7 O
2 → 2 MoO
3 + 4 SO
- 2 MoS
2 + 7 Cl
2 → 2 MoCl
5 + 2 S
Molybdenum disulfide is a host for formation of intercalation compounds. This behavior is relevant to its use as a cathode material in batteries. One example is lithiated material, Li
2. With butyl lithium, the product is LiMoS
2 with particle sizes in the range of 1–100 µm is a common dry lubricant. Few alternatives exist that confer high lubricity and stability at up to 350 °C in oxidizing environments. Sliding friction tests of MoS
2 using a pin on disc tester at low loads (0.1–2 N) give friction coefficient values of <0.1.
2 is often a component of blends and composites that require low friction. A variety of oils and greases are used, because they retain their lubricity even in cases of almost complete oil loss, thus finding a use in critical applications such as aircraft engines. When added to plastics, MoS
2 forms a composite with improved strength as well as reduced friction. Polymers filled with MoS
2 include nylon (with the trade name Nylatron), Teflon and Vespel. Self-lubricating composite coatings for high-temperature applications consist of molybdenum disulfide and titanium nitride, using chemical vapor deposition.
Examples of applications of MoS
2-based lubricants include two-stroke engines (such as motorcycle engines), bicycle coaster brakes, automotive CV and universal joints, ski waxes, and even bullets.
2 is employed as a cocatalyst for desulfurization in petrochemistry, for example, hydrodesulfurization.The effectiveness of the MoS
2 catalysts is enhanced by doping with small amounts of cobalt or nickel The intimate mixture of these sulfides is supported on alumina. Such catalysts are generated in situ by treating molybdate/cobalt or nickel-impregnated alumina with H
2S or an equivalent reagent. Catalysis does not occur at the regular sheet-like regions of the crystallites, but instead at the edge of these planes.
MoS2 also finds some use as a hydrogenation catalyst for organic synthesis. Being derived from a common transition metal, rather than group 10 metal like many alternatives, MoS2 is chosen when catalyst price or resistance to sulfur poisoning are of primary concern. MoS2 is effective for the hydrogenation of nitro compounds to amines and can be used produce secondary amines via reductive alkylation. The catalyst can also can effect hydrogenolysis of organosulfur compounds, aldehydes, ketones, phenols, and carboxylic acids to their respective alkanes. The catalyst suffers from rather low activity however, often requiring hydrogen pressures above 95 atm and temperatures above 185 °C.
As in graphene, the layered structures of MoS
2 and other transition metal dichalcogenides exhibit rich electronic and optical properties that can differ from those in bulk. Whereas bulk MoS
2 has an indirect band gap of 1.2 eV, MoS
2 monolayers have a direct 1.8 eV electronic bandgap, allowing the production of switchable transistors and photodetectors.
2 nanoflakes can be used for solution-processed fabrication of layered memristive and memcapacitive devices through engineering a MoO
2 heterostructure sandwiched between silver electrodes. The MoS
2-based memristors are mechanically flexible, optically transparent and can be produced at low cost.
The sensitivity of a graphene field-effect transistor (FET) biosensor is fundamentally restricted by the zero band gap of graphene, which results in increased leakage and reduced sensitivity. In digital electronics, transistors control current flow throughout an integrated circuit and allow for amplification and switching. In biosensing, the physical gate is removed, and the binding between embedded receptor molecules and the charged target biomolecules to which they are exposed modulates the current.
Photonics and photovoltaics
2 also possesses mechanical strength, electrical conductivity, and can emit light, opening possible applications such as photodetectors. MoS
2 has been investigated as a component of photoelectrochemical (e.g. for photocatalytic hydrogen production) applications and for microelectronics applications.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Molybdenum disulfide.|
- Haynes, William M., ed. (2011). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (92nd ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. p. 4.76. ISBN 1439855110.
- Kobayashi, K.; Yamauchi, J. (1995). "Electronic structure and scanning-tunneling-microscopy image of molybdenum dichalcogenide surfaces". Physical Review B. 51 (23): 17085–17095. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.51.17085.
- Schönfeld, B.; Huang, J. J.; Moss, S. C. (1983). "Anisotropic mean-square displacements (MSD) in single-crystals of 2H- and 3R-MoS2". Acta Crystallographica Section B. 39 (4): 404–407. doi:10.1107/S0108768183002645.
- Sebenik, Roger F. et al. (2005) "Molybdenum and Molybdenum Compounds", Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi: 10.1002/14356007.a16_655
- Murphy, Donald W.; Interrante, Leonard V.; Kaner; Mansuktto (1995). "Metathetical Precursor Route to Molybdenum Disulfide". Inorganic Syntheses. Inorganic Syntheses. 30: 33–37. doi:10.1002/9780470132616.ch8. ISBN 9780470132616.
- Hong, J.; Hu, Z.; Probert, M.; Li, K.; Lv, D.; Yang, X.; Gu, L.; Mao, N.; Feng, Q.; Xie, L.; Zhang, J.; Wu, D.; Zhang, Z.; Jin, C.; Ji, W.; Zhang, X.; Yuan, J.; Zhang, Z. (2015). "Exploring atomic defects in molybdenum disulphide monolayers". Nature Communications. 6: 6293. Bibcode:2015NatCo...6E6293H. doi:10.1038/ncomms7293. PMC . PMID 25695374.
- Wells, A.F. (1984). Structural Inorganic Chemistry. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-855370-6.
- Bartels, Thorsten; et al. (2002). "Lubricants and Lubrication". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a15_423.
- "Novel exfoliation method developed by NUS chemists paves the way for two-dimensional materials to be used in printable photonics and electronics". science.nus.edu.sg. Faculty of Science, National University of Singapore. January 2, 2014. Retrieved May 24, 2016.
- Communications and Marketing (January 29, 2014). "Engineer brings new twist to sodium ion battery technology with discovery of flexible molybdenum disulfide electrodes". K-State Today. Kansas State University. Retrieved May 24, 2016.
- Tenne, R.; Redlich, M. (2010). "Recent progress in the research of inorganic fullerene-like nanoparticles and inorganic nanotubes". Chemical Society Reviews. 39 (5): 1423–34. doi:10.1039/B901466G. PMID 20419198.
- Li, H.; Wu, J.; Yin, Z.; Zhang, H. (2014). "Preparation and Applications of Mechanically Exfoliated Single-Layer and Multilayer MoS2 and WSe2 Nanosheets". Acc. Chem. Res. 47 (4): 1067–75. doi:10.1021/ar4002312. PMID 24697842.
- Amorim, B.; Cortijo, A.; De Juan, F.; Grushin, A.G.; Guinea, F.; Gutiérrez-Rubio, A.; Ochoa, H.; Parente, V.; Roldán, R.; San-Jose, P.; Schiefele, J.; Sturla, M.; Vozmediano, M.A.H. (2016). "Novel effects of strains in graphene and other two dimensional materials". Physics Reports. 1503: 747. doi:10.1016/j.physrep.2015.12.006.
- Zhang, X.; Lai, Z.; Tan, C.; Zhang, H. (2016). "Solution-Processed Two-Dimensional MoS2 Nanosheets: Preparation, Hybridization, and Applications". Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 55 (31): 8816–8838. doi:10.1002/anie.201509933.
- Stephenson, T.; Li, Z.; Olsen, B.; Mitlin, D. (2014). "Lithium Ion Battery Applications of Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2) Nanocomposites". Energy Environ. Sci. 7: 209–31. doi:10.1039/C3EE42591F.
- Benavente, E.; Santa Ana, M. A.; Mendizabal, F.; Gonzalez, G. (2002). "Intercalation chemistry of molybdenum disulfide". Coordination Chemistry Reviews. 224: 87–109. doi:10.1016/S0010-8545(01)00392-7.
- Müller-Warmuth, W. & Schöllhorn, R. (1994). Progress in intercalation research. Springer. ISBN 0-7923-2357-2.
- Claus, F. L. (1972), Solid Lubricants and Self-Lubricating Solids, New York: Academic Press
- Miessler, G. L. & Tarr, D. A. (2004). Inorganic Chemistry, 3rd Ed. Pearson/Prentice Hall publisher. ISBN 0-13-035471-6.
- Shriver, D. F.; Atkins, P. W.; Overton, T. L.; Rourke, J. P.; Weller, M. T.; Armstrong, F. A. (2006). Inorganic Chemistry. New York: W. H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-4878-9.
- "On dry lubricants in ski waxes" (PDF). Swix Sport AX. Retrieved 2011-01-06.
- "Barrels retain accuracy longer with Diamond Line". Norma. Retrieved 2009-06-06.
- Topsøe, H.; Clausen, B. S.; Massoth, F. E. (1996). Hydrotreating Catalysis, Science and Technology. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
- Nishimura, Shigeo (2001). Handbook of Heterogeneous Catalytic Hydrogenation for Organic Synthesis (1st ed.). New York: Wiley-Interscience. pp. 43–44 & 240–241. ISBN 9780471396987.
- Dovell, Frederick S.; Greenfield, Harold (1964). "Base-Metal Sulfides as Reductive Alkylation Catalysts". The Journal of Organic Chemistry. 29 (5): 1265–1267. doi:10.1021/jo01028a511.
- Kibsgaard, Jakob; Jaramillo, Thomas F.; Besenbacher, Flemming (2014). "Building an appropriate active-site motif into a hydrogen-evolution catalyst with thiomolybdate [Mo3S13]2− clusters". Nature Chemistry. 6 (3): 248–253. Bibcode:2014NatCh...6..248K. doi:10.1038/nchem.1853. PMID 24557141.
- Laursen, A. B.; Kegnaes, S.; Dahl, S.; Chorkendorff, I. (2012). "Molybdenum Sulfides – Efficient and Viable Materials for Electro- and Photoelectrocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution". Energy Environ. Sci. 5 (2): 5577–91. doi:10.1039/c2ee02618j.
- Wang, Q. H.; Kalantar-Zadeh, K.; Kis, A.; Coleman, J. N.; Strano, M. S. (2012). "Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides". Nature Nanotechnology. 7 (11): 699–712. doi:10.1038/nnano.2012.193. PMID 23132225.
- Ganatra, R.; Zhang, Q. (2014). "Few-Layer MoS2: A Promising Layered Semiconductor". ACS Nano. 8 (5): 4074–99. doi:10.1021/nn405938z. PMID 24660756.
- Zhu, Wenjuan; Low, Tony; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Wang, Han; Farmer, Damon B.; Kong, Jing; Xia, Fengnian; Avouris, Phaedon (2014). "Electronic transport and device prospects of monolayer molybdenum disulphide grown by chemical vapour deposition". Nature Communications. 5. doi:10.1038/ncomms4087.
- Hong, Jinhua; Hu, Zhixin; Probert, Matt; Li, Kun; Lv, Danhui; Yang, Xinan; Gu, Lin; Mao, Nannan; Feng, Qingliang; Xie, Liming; Zhang, Jin; Wu, Dianzhong; Zhang, Zhiyong; Jin, Chuanhong; Ji, Wei; Zhang, Xixiang; Yuan, Jun; Zhang, Ze (2015). "Exploring atomic defects in molybdenum disulphide monolayers". Nature Communications. 6: 6293. doi:10.1038/ncomms7293. PMC . PMID 25695374.
- Splendiani, A.; Sun, L.; Zhang, Y.; Li, T.; Kim, J.; Chim, J.; F.; Wang, Feng (2010). "Emerging Photoluminescence in Monolayer MoS2". Nano Letters. 10 (4): 1271–1275. Bibcode:2010NanoL..10.1271S. doi:10.1021/nl903868w. PMID 20229981.
- Radisavljevic, B.; Radenovic, A.; Brivio, J.; Giacometti, V.; Kis, A. (2011). "Single-layer MoS2 transistors". Nature Nanotechnology. 6 (3): 147–150. Bibcode:2011NatNa...6..147R. doi:10.1038/nnano.2010.279. PMID 21278752.
- Lopez-Sanchez, O.; Lembke, D.; Kayci, M.; Radenovic, A.; Kis, A. (2013). "Ultrasensitive photodetectors based on monolayer MoS2". Nature Nanotechnology. 8 (7): 497–501. Bibcode:2013NatNa...8..497L. doi:10.1038/nnano.2013.100. PMID 23748194.
- Rao, C. N. R.; Ramakrishna Matte, H. S. S.; Maitra, U. (2013). "Graphene Analogues of Inorganic Layered Materials". Angew. Chem. (International ed.). 52 (50): 13162–85. doi:10.1002/anie.201301548.
- Bessonov, A. A.; Kirikova, M. N.; Petukhov, D. I.; Allen, M.; Ryhänen, T.; Bailey, M. J. A. (2014). "Layered memristive and memcapacitive switches for printable electronics". Nature Materials. 14 (2): 199–204. Bibcode:2015NatMa..14..199B. doi:10.1038/nmat4135. PMID 25384168.
- "Ultrasensitive biosensor from molybdenite semiconductor outshines graphene". R&D Magazine. 4 September 2014.
- Akinwande, Deji; Petrone, Nicholas; Hone, James (2014-12-17). "Two-dimensional flexible nanoelectronics". Nature Communications. 5: 5678. doi:10.1038/ncomms6678. PMID 25517105.
- Chang, Hsiao-Yu; Yogeesh, Maruthi Nagavalli; Ghosh, Rudresh; Rai, Amritesh; Sanne, Atresh; Yang, Shixuan; Lu, Nanshu; Banerjee, Sanjay Kumar; Akinwande, Deji (2015-12-01). "Large-Area Monolayer MoS2 for Flexible Low-Power RF Nanoelectronics in the GHz Regime". Advanced Materials. 28 (9): 1818–1823. doi:10.1002/adma.201504309.
- Coxworth, Ben (September 25, 2014). "Metal-based graphene alternative "shines" with promise". Gizmag. Retrieved September 30, 2014.